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at the above addresses before that date; to effect which they now offer it in its entirety at a discount for cash of

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The above Terms will be continued until March 1st, 1893, when they will be withdrawn.

The attention of the Committees and Librarians of Public and Free Libraries, Colleges, Schools, and Bookbuyers generally, is strongly called to the present CLEARANCE SALE as an opportunity rarely occurring of selecting from the whole of an UNRIVALLED STOCK OF BOOKS, Second-hand, New, and Finely Bound, at an unrestricted Discount, from prices already low, of TWENTY PER CENT. The large number of fine Sets of Standard Works, long Series of Scarce Publications and Transactions of Learned Societies, Rare Volumes in Old or Modern English Literature, and all the diverse collectanea of long years of Bookbuying, should make the present Sale an opportunity to Bookbuyers and Collectors of every class which has not hitherto occurred.





Telegraphic address, Bookmen, London,


CONTENT 8.-N° 55. NOTES:-The Tennysons and Archbishop Tenison, 21Poets in a Thunderstorm, 22-Tom Legge, 23-Garnett: Hawtrey-Double F as an Initial-" Guy Fawkes, Guy!' -Jarndyce, 24-Translators-Cobblers-"Johnnies Election of Mayor at High Wycombe-Alexander the Great-Simple Simon-Gelert in India, 25-Church Brasses-First Provincial Theatre Royal-Berkshire Villages in Kenilworth,' 26-Haydn's Dictionary of Dates,'


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QUERIES:-"Cross-purposes"-"Brouette," 27-Montgomery-Charles Lamb-Heraldic-J. Treworgie-"Shillam eidri"- Richard Smith- - Paganini Wiggin"Aldine Swift'-"Philazer De mortuis nil nisi bonum," 28-Claypoole-St. Thomas's Day Custom-St. Clement's Day-Anne Vaux-"Kodak"-John Cutts"Trissino Type," 29.

REPLIES:--Portraits of Burns, 29-Sophy Daws, 30Busby, 31-Rev. George Croly-"To bone"-Poems in the Greek Anthology-Bale, 32-Bucketing-Legend of St. Ffraid-"To Warp"-Chalks-Yates Family, 33-Jennings -Fathers of the House of Commons-Col. ChartersA.M. and P.M., 34-Ben Price-" Availed of "-Life of Lockhart-Old Lease-Mottoes- Essex,' 35-Royal Scots Greys-Printers Errors - Leather Money-Chalk-Por traits Wanted-Tycho Wing-Tristram Shandy, 36The Office of the Blessed Virgin'-' Life of Daniel Defoe' -Gemmace-Italian Idiom, 37-" Yele "-Sir G. Downing -Authors Wanted, 39.

NOTES:-Allen's Attis of Caius Valerius Catullus'-Morley's English Writers,' Vol. IX. Stoke d'Abernon'

Weale's Rock's Hierurgia'-Lewis's 'Ancient Laws of


Notices to Correspondents.


THE TENNYSONS AND ARCHBISHOP TENISON. In 'N. & Q.,' 3rd S. viii. 454, I find it stated by J. B. P. that there is in the Tennyson family "a tradition of long standing that it is descended from a collateral relative of Archbishop Tenison," in spite of the difference in spelling the name. No doubt attempts would have been made to prove or disprove this statement, but for the deterrent fact to which W. C. B. drew attention (6th S. xi. 153), "that the name of Tennyson is and has been for centuries one of the commonest in Holderness." The archbishop's descent from the Yorkshire stock has hardly been suspected, so far as I am aware, especially after the statement in Burke's 'Landed Gentry' (first edition, p. 1375) that his family "so early as the reign of Edward I. was represented in Oxfordshire in the persons of Henry, John and William Tvnesende, mentioned in the Hundred Rolls."

Could anything be less likely than that the name of Tenison should be a corruption of "atte Townsend"? On the same page we read that the Rev. John Tenison, the archbishop's father, was son of Dr. Philip Tenison, Archdeacon of Norwich, who died 1660. If we turn to Blomefield's 'History of Norfolk' we find that Philip was eleven years younger than John, who is made his son. The Rev. John Tenison, B.D., died June 25, 1671, t. seventy-two, M.I. Topcroft Church

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(x. 189). The Rev. Philip Tenison, D.D., the archdeacon, died June 15, 1660, cet. fortyeight, M.I. in Bawbergh Church, near Norwich, with - be it particularly noted - these arms, which Blomefield says were granted to him: Sable, a fess embattled and in chief three doves argent (ib. ii. 391). Philip was clearly John's younger brother.

The object of this note is to suggest a clue to the father of these two clerical brethren, and one could almost take it for granted that he too was a clergyman, bred at the same university, i. e., Cambridge. Since my reply (7th S. xii. 252) I have looked into the pedigree and been aided by some notes of wills at York, for which I am indebted to my friend Dr. Sykes, F.S.A. This will is to the point :

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Christopher Tennysone of Riell father John Tennyson son son John at son wife daughter uncle Thornton of Hull. Dated March 1, 22 Eliz. (1579/80).

I have mentioned the will of Christopher's father in my previous note, also John Thornton, the merchant of Hull, his uncle, who bought the and other places, by fine, Easter T., 1566 (Dr. manor of Ryall, with lands there and in "Pawle" Collins's' York Fines,' i. 319).

In 1597 licence was granted to John Tennyson, B.D. of Downham, diocese of York, to marry Anne Haldenby, "gent." (sic), of Gemling, in the parish of Foston (-on-the-Wolds), Yorksh. Archæol. Journal, vol. x. p. 35. I take this to be the son John at Cambridge, 1579-80, though proof is wanting. Anne was no doubt daughter of Philip Haldenby, seventh and youngest son of Robert Haldenby, Esq., of Haldenby, by Anne, daughter of Thomas Boynton, Esq., of Barmston, in Holderness. She is a legatee in the will of her uncle John Haldenby, of Patrington, gent., dated May 5, 1591.

I shall be very much surprised if John and Anne are not the parents of John and Philip. Probably John obtained a benefice in the diocese of Ely. I could find nothing about him at Downholme, near Richmond.

The arms, with unimportant variations, Gules, a bend between three leopards' heads jessant fleurs-de-lis, borne by the good archbishop and the lamented poet, are of most unsatisfactory origin, as a reference to Papworth's laborious Ordinary of Arms' (p. 930) will reveal at once. They are nothing more nor less than the arms of Dennys, an old West of England family, and illustrate the improper use of a dictionary of arms, which the heralds themselves were often guilty of in a most flagrant way. Tennyson may be Parson Evans's pronunciation of Dennison; but in ancient heraldry there was a reason for everything, here nothing but a suggestio falsi. The arms of Cantelupe were

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storm is in a bad style of inflated poetry. He begins by supposing the thunder to be prepared in the torrid zone, and to be supplied to the temperate zone as it is wanted.

Now thunders, wafting from the burning zone,
Growl from afar, a deaf and hollow groan!
Portentous meteors blaze on the masts; ethereal
doom lurks behind impenetrable shade (whatever
that may mean); but when the author personifies
the storm his bathos is complete :—

It seem'd, the wrathful angel of the wind
Had all the horrors of the skies combin'd;
And here, to our ill-fated ship oppos'd
At once the dreadful magazine disclos'd.
And lo! tremendous o'er the deep he springs,
Th' inflaming sulphur flashing from his wings!
Hark! his strong voice the dismal silence breaks !'
Mad chaos from the chains of death awakes!
Loud and more loud the rolling peals enlarge,
And blue on deck their blazing sides discharge.
And more to the same effect.

The progress of scientific discovery has the effect on the best minds, and eventually on the public generally, of correcting erroneous impressions, so as to guide men nearer and nearer until they reach the truth as it is in nature. No great discovery remains long without effecting this kind of beneficent reform, and it may be traced as a result of Franklin's bold experiment which identi- With reference to "th' inflaming sulphur" in fied lightning with electricity. For example, a the above passage, it must be remarked that a thunderstorm as described by Byron would natur- flash of lightning in the open causes the chief ally be a very different affair from a thunderstorm ingredients of the atmosphere to combine chemicdescribed by Thomson. The change does not con-ally into a compound known as nitric acid, which, sist in the difference between knowledge and ignorance, but in the mode of treatment. The one is content to describe in picturesque language what he sees and hears; the other attempts to explain what is altogether beyond the range of the knowledge of his day. Byron did not profess to be a scientific poet, but he was sufficiently discreet to confine his muse within the limits of accurate description. The poet of the future will have to do more than this. Descriptive poetry has had its day-it is exhausted; so that future numbers will have to conform to the scientific spirit of the time, otherwise they will be lacking in the most essential feature of all good writing-namely, truth

to nature.

The change here indicated has been making progress during the whole of the present century; Formerly it was not expected that a poet should be acquainted with science, so that much surprise was expressed when Coleridge was seen attending Davy's lectures at the Royal Institution. When asked what business he had there, he replied, "To lay in a new stock of ideas!"

The first poem, so far as I know, that appeared after Franklin's discovery, and described a thunderstorm, was one by W. Falconer, published in 1762, entitled "The Shipwreck, a Poem in Three Cantos, by a Sailor." The ship was a merchantman, the Britannia, bound from Alexandria to Venice, but, being overtaken by a storm, she was driven out of her course, and wrecked on the coast of Greece, near Cape Colonne.

The writer seems to have had some knowledge of electricity, judging from his reference to the "electric wire," but his account of the thunder

descending with the rain, combines with the potash or the soda of the soil, and forms nitre; but when lightning enters an enclosed space it generates ozone, or some of the lower oxides of nitrogen, the odour of which is well known to the chemist, but popularly it is said to resemble the fumes of burning sulphur.

In my young days I heard Braham, and more recently Sims Reeves, sing the popular ballad, 'The Bay of Biscay, O!' The words, by Andrew Cherry, were apparently suggested by Falconer's poem, as in the line

The skies asunder torn, a deluge pourand one or two other corresponding passages. In the ballad the tyranny of rhyme seems to have compelled the author to some irregularity in his tenses, the first four lines reading thus:Loud roared the dreadful thunder, The rain a deluge showers; The clouds were rent asunder

By lightning's vivid powers. It must be admitted that "showers" is rather a mild word for a "deluge." It may also be objected that the lightning seems to act as a force external to the cloud, instead of being an integral portion of it. But, apart from these objections, the ballad is effective in its movement, and the more so when rendered by a good voice.

In bringing these examples to a close, it may be remarked that a good modern poet, while indulging in the highest flights, will not offend against scientific accuracy. Thus, when Shelley was among the Euganian hills he heard how the tempest fleet Hurries on with lightning feet.

So also Wordsworth, in addressing the clouds, exclaims, in a noble apostrophe

O ye lightnings,

Ye are their perilous offspring.

And again :

Utter your devotion with thund'rous voices. 7" And in his homely poem of 'The Waggoner' he is still true to nature. Benjamin and his team are overtaken by a storm at night among the mountains. It is so dark that he and his horses are perplexed :—

Astounded in the mountain gap,
With thunder peals, clap after clap,
Close treading on the silent flashes-
And somewhere as he thinks by crashes
Among the rocks; with weight of rain
And sullen motions long and slow
That to a dreary distance go,

Till breaking in upon the dying strain

A rending o'er his head begins the fray again. Lastly, Byron, in the third canto of 'Childe Harold,' describes a thunderstorm in Switzerland, which occurred at midnight on June 13, 1816. He notices the awful stillness which precedes it:All heaven and earth are still-though not in sleep, But breathless,


From peak to peak, the rattling crags among Leaps the live thunder! Not from one lone cloud, But every mountain now hath found a tongue, And Jura answers, through her misty shroud, Back to the joyous Alps, who call to her aloud! The description is too long to quote, and, indeed, too well known; but Sir Walter Scott's criticism on it may not be so well known. He says:

"This is one of the most beautiful passages of the poem. The fierce and far delight' of a thunderstorm is here described in verse almost as vivid as its lightnings. The live thunder 'leaping among the rattling crags,' the voice of mountains, as if shouting to each other-the plashing of the big rain-the gleaming of the wide lake, lighted like a phosphoric sea-present a picture of sublime terror, yet of enjoyment, often attempted, but never so well, certainly never better, brought out in poetry."

In conclusion, I would express an opinion that if any other grand natural phenomenon were examined by the light of its poetical expression, the best poetry would conform to the best science. When the poet Campbell, addressing the rainbow, said,

I ask not proud Philosophy

To teach me what thou art, did he suppose that a knowledge of Sir Isaac Newton's account of that beautiful phenomenon would cool his poetic zeal? Apparently he did, for he goes on to say :

When Science from Creation's face
Enchantment's veil withdraws,
What lovely visions yield their place
To cold material laws.

Nevertheless, a little science would have saved him from the absurdity of seeing the rainbow

Mirror'd in the ocean vast

A thousand fathoms down.

The works of Tennyson and Browning bear testimony to the assiduity with which these two great poets cultivated a varied knowledge; and, to go further back, we are reminded of the answer given by Petrarch to one who asked him what he ought to know in order to become a poet. The reply was, "Everything!" and he might have cited his own example in learning all that he could, as well as that of the great author of the 'Divine Comedy,' who embodied in his works literally all the intellectual knowledge of his time. C. TOMLINSON, F.R.S.

Highgate, N.

TOM LEGGE. In the preface of Mr. G. A. Sala's gossipy 'Twice Round the Clock' the following passage honestly explains how the title of his book came to that versatile author's fancy :

"It would be a sorry piece of vanity on my part to imagine that the conception of the history of a day and night in London is original. I will tell you how I came to think of the scheme of Twice Round the Clock.' Four years ago (1855), in Paris, my then master in literature, Mr. Charles Dickens, lent me a little thin octavo volume, which, I believe, had been presented to him by another master of the craft, Mr. Thackeray, entitled-but I will transcribe the title-page in full: 'Low Life; or, one half the world knows not how the other half live. Being a critical account of what is Transacted by People of almost all Religions, Nations, Circumstances, between Saturday Night and Monday Morning. In a and Sizes of Understanding, in the Twenty-Four Hours, true Description of a Sunday, as it is usually spent within the Bills of Mortality, calculated for the twentyWith an address to the ingenious and first of June. ingenuous Mr. Hogarth, "Let Fancy guess the rest."Buckingham.' The date of publication is not given; but written during the latter part of the reign of George the internal evidence proves the opuscule to have been Second; and in the copy I now possess, and which I bought at a 'rarity' price, at a sale where it was ignorantly labelled among the facetia-it is the saddest book, perhaps, that ever was written-in my copy, which is bound up among some rascally pamphlets, there is written on the fly-leaf the date 1759. Just one hundred years ago, you see. The work is anonymous; but in a manuscript table of contents to the collection of miscellanies of which it forms part, I find written By Tom Legge.' The epigraph says that it is printed for the author, and is to be sold by T. Legg, at the Parrot, Green Arbour Court, in the Little Old Bailey.' Was the authorship mere guess-work on the part of the owner of the book, or was Tom Legge' really the writer of 'Low Life,' and, if so, who was Tom Legge'? Mr. Peter Cunningham, or a contributor to Notes and Queries, may

be able to inform us."

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What I want to know is, whether any contributor to N. & Q.' has ever answered the double query; and, if not, can any one do so now? I rather fancy that if the veteran G. A. S. was unable to solve the mystery, that must be a Thoms secundus who could succeed where he failed. However, the solution is worth attempting, and may possibly now be compassed by some such

Thoms secundus in 'N. & Q.' Mr. Sala hints at the authorship of the little volume thus :

"There are passages in it irresistibly reminding one of Goldsmith; but the offensive and gratuitous coarseness in the next page destroys that theory. Our Oliver was pure. But for the dedicatory epistle to the great painter prefixed, and which is merely a screed of fulsome flattery, I could take an affidavit that' Low Life' was written by William Hogarth. And why not, granting even the fulsome dedication? Hogarth could have more easily written this calendar of Town Life than the Analysis of Beauty'; and the sturdy grandiloquent little painter was vain enough to have employed some hack to write the prefatory epistle, if, in a work of satire, he had chosen to assume the anonymous. Perhaps, after all, the book was written by some clever, observant, deboshed man out of Grub Street, who had been wallowing in the weary London trough for years, and had eliminated at last some pearls which the other swine were too piggish to dis


G. A. S. concludes his racy preface with the

observation that

ORIGIN OF THE DOUBLE F AS AN INITIAL. (See 8th S. ii. 456.)—This subject having been mooted in N. & Q.,' I am glad to have an opportunity of saying a few words, as the genesis of the initial ƒƒ ̈ ̈ was not mentioned in my 'History of the Alphabet,' nor, so far as I am aware, has it been explained in any palæographical work. It is not correct to say, as at the above reference, that "the capital F is a combination of two small ƒ's, the curl in the middle being the remnant of the second f." Our capital F is, like our other capitals, a return to the Roman lapidary form, which was used in MSS. written in what are technically called "square capitals." At the same time, it is perfectly true that in the "set Chancery hand" of the fourteenth century a capital F takes the form ff, which appears to consist of two small

's; but if we trace this form backwards for some two hundred years, it will be found that what appears to be the second small fis in reality merely a prolongation of the vertical tick at the extremity of the upper horizontal bar of the capital F. In the twelfth century a fashion arose of prolonging this tick downwards till it became as long, or nearly as long, as the vertical stem of

"if in the year 1959, some historian of the state of manners in England during the reign of Queen Victoria, points an allusion in a foot-note by a reference to an old book called 'Twice Round the Clock,'......that reference will be quite enough of reward for your friend. Macaulay quotes broadsides and Grub Street ballads. Carlyle does not disdain to put the obscurest of North German pamphleteers into the witness-box; albeit he often dis-F, thus giving a form somewhat resembling a misses him with a cuff and a kick. At all events, we may be quoted some of these days, dear Gus, even if we are kicked into the bargain."

Should this note come under the eyes of the genial G. A. S. he will see he has been referred to and quoted before 1959, and-not "kicked."

J. B. S.

GARNETT: HAWTREY. (See 8th S. ii. 414.) The statement appearing in the Admission Register of St. Paul's School, that John Garnett (admitted June 24, 1763, aged nine) was the son of a cook in Fetter Lane, London, clearly stands in need of correction in respect of the said scholar's parentage and age (Gardiner's 'Admission Registers of St. Paul's School,' 1884, p. 128). It may be noted that the father of John Garnett, admitted sizar of Trinity College, Cambridge, January 28, 1775, t. 24, B.A. 1779, M.A. 1782, D.D. 1810, Dean of Exeter from 1810 to the date of his death in 1813, was John Garnett, D.D. (1709-1782), Bishop of Clogher, of whom a brief account is furnished in 'Dict. Nat. Biog.,' vol. xxi. p. 5.

The Rev. John Hawtrey was the son of the Rev. Charles Hawtrey (died 1770), of King's College, Cambridge, B. A. 1710, M.A. 1714, instituted to the rectory of Wootton Courtney, Somerset, February 26, 1729, Rector of Dunton, Essex, Chaplain to Dr. Weston, Bishop of Exeter, Rector of Heavitree, Devon, and sub-Dean of Exeter, by a daughter of Richard Sleech, D.D., Fellow and Assistant Master of Eton College, and Rector of Hitcham, Bucks.

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.


capital H with a cross-bar at the top. It is this elongated tick which has been mistaken for a second f. People who spell their names with f are merely using an obsolete law hand. Mr. Jones might just as reasonably spell his name Iones. From the "set Chancery" hand came the later "court hands,” in some of which, as well as in some copy-book hands, there is "a cur! in the middle of F," which may be considered as the survival of a fragment of the downward tick at the end of the upper bar of F, which got attached to the end of the middle bar; but, as our printing types have not descended from the law hands, the tick at the end of the middle bar of our capital F is, in fact, the tick of the Roman "square capital."


"GUY FAWKES, GUY!"-As we are informed by the press that the old-fashioned celebration of the 5th of November is flickering out, even in old-fashioned Lewes, which was foremost in its anti-Papal enthusiasm, it would seem desirable to place on record, for the benefit of future Brands and Hones, any ditties sung by the grimy celebrants of the doom of the miserable Guido. That there were many such versicles chanted hoarsely round the land is certain; and now seems the time, if, indeed, it be not too late, to rescue these staves from the oblivion of,—

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