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So far as I am able I will explain the method of production adopted by Miers and other contemporary silhouettistes, as requested by your correspondent. I would mention en avance that David Allan, during his residence in Rome, sent home to Edinburgh his prize picture of the Corinthian Maid depicting her lover, which subject is usually styled "The Origin of Design.' Miers appears to have turned this idea to account by advertising a similar method of producing portraits in the newspapers, as well as by issuing an elaborately engraved card (vide "Watson" bequest, N. P. G., Edin.). The modus operandi was simply this: A sheet of white paper was affixed to the wall, the sitter was placed in a chair parallel, but in close proximity at a sufficient distance to reveal the shadow of the entire side of the head reflected from a light at a suitable position. The extreme outline of the shadow was then rapidly drawn in with a crayon. I do not agree with the former reference (4th S. iv. 318), stating the outlines to be "life" size. I have seen several in looking for the Burns "shade," believing it to be in London, and I find that the projection of the shadow displayed a head much larger than life, in proportion to the distance of the light from the sitter. This outline, or "shade," had now to be reduced to miniature proportions, which was performed by the use of the pantograph (an instrument of very early origin). Scissors were now applied to the reduction on black paper, producing the silhouette or profile. Accepting the point of resemblance with the Nasmyth portrait, viz., the tip-tilted nose (which, by-the-by, no other member of the family possessed), and the queue of the profile, which the poet undoubtedly adopted at this period -where, may I ask, does the head of Burns come in? Will EFFIGIES kindly take the cast of the poet's skull in his hands (there are many available) and view it laterally. The enormous length will probably astonish him. Altogether it is a large skull-larger than the average even of Scotch heads (twenty-two and a quarter inches in circumference). This length is due to the great magnitude of the anterior lobe. If EFFIGIES will make an outline of the anterior view, and lay the Miers profile upon it, he will probably not waste much further thought upon this too minute" snap-shot." EDWARD BARRINGTON NASH. Chelsea, S.W.

EFFIGIES may be interested to read the annexed entry in a catalogue of books for the library

83. Burns (Robert), Poems, chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, first Edinburgh Edition, fine portrait by Beugo, with dedication to the members of the Caledonian Hunt, and List of Subscribers. 8vo, fine copy, in contemporary tree calf, gilt, yellow edges, rare, 31. 10s. Edinburgh,


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SOPHY DAWS (7th S. vii. 248, 314, 432; 8th S. ii. 537).-The latest investigation of this interesting story, which undoubtedly played a great part in bringing about the fall of the Orleans family, is to be found in a recently published book, Marie-Amélie au Palais-Royal.' It is there stated that "Sophy Dawes" was the daughter of a poor fisherman in the Isle of Wight, was born about 1795, and obtained her influence over the Duc de Bourbon in 1817. In 1818 the duke married her to a man whose honour has never been in doubt, who believed her to be the duke's daughter, and who separated from her very shortly afterwards when he discovered the real facts. Louis Philippe, although his politics and those of the Duc de Bourbon were very different, had always been extremely civil to the duke and to Madame de Feuchères, as well as to the duke's wife, his aunt, who was separated from her husband. Oddly enough, Louis Philippe became, directly or indirectly, the heir of both duke and duchess, so curiously does wealth go to wealth. The date of the will of the last of the princes of Condé, in favour of Louis Philippe's son and of Madame de Feuchères, was 1829. Louis Philippe spent with the Duc de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, the day of the signature by Charles XI. of the famous ordinances, but Marie-Amélie went with him, which, as Madame de Feuchères was the hostess, was an act with which the future queen the Orleans family were received in July, 1830, was much reproached. The very palace at which by the Duc de Bourbon had been left, as they were aware, to Madame de Feuchères by the will mainly in favour of the young Duc d'Aumale, made in the previous year. A letter of September, 1829, from the duke to Marie-Amélie, shows that there was no possibility of concealment of the fact

that the will had been obtained through the influence of Madame de Feuchères. The division of the fortune between the Duc d'Aumale and Madame de Feuchères is computed to have given about five millions sterling to the former and about half a million sterling to the latter.

Immediately after Louis Philippe had come to the throne by revolutionary means, the last of the Condés tried to fly the country, concealing his departure from Madame de Feuchères, and was strangled in the night. S. D. S. is not quite right in saying that the great trial had been in 1832, as Hennequin's speeches were made December 9, 1831, and January 13, 1832. Madame de Feuchères won her case, and was received at the palace by the king and queen for the remainder of her life, although the latest historian points out that Dupin (the first), the brother of her advocate, would not himself receive her. T. L. I.

shakos. In 1824 Lady Londonderry appeared in a busby, as if in protest, at a review of the 10th Light Dragoons (Hussars) by her husband. (See Liddell's Memoirs of the 10th Hussars.') But neither the 10th nor the 8th, who were equipped as Hussars on return from India in 1824, nor the other regiments of like equipment, received furcaps for some years. In 1840 the 11th Light Dragoons were not only equipped as Hussars, but received their absolute title as such, other regiments still retaining the title Light Dragoons, with the explanatory (Hussars) in parentheses. In 1841 Her Majesty was "pleased to approve of the 10th or Prince of Wales's Own Royal Regiment of Dragoons (Hussars) resuming the fur hussar cap formerly worn by that regiment." (See Liddell's 'Memoirs.')

"busby-bag blue" occur. Though the words are not given as a quotation, the 'N. E. D.' accepts this as an early use of the word busby. As it seems exceptionally early, it would be interesting to know if the words are those of a warrant or those of the author recording the fact.

In 1846, however, the head-dress is described in the Dress Regulations as a busby. In Malet's History of the 18th Hussars,' where December 25, BUSBY (8th S. ii. 468, 491).—Although it is the 1807, is given as the date of the regiment's receivthing, and not the word, about which MR. Gossing permission to be clothed as Hussars, the words asks for information, it may be presumed that he would not have written his query without previous reference to the 'N. E. D.' for information on both, and that he is dissatisfied with what he finds. This may well be, as it is only as an example of the use of the word that the 'N. E. D.' quotes the 'Imperial Dictionary' to As for the history of the word, MR. Goss is the effect that the bag appears to be a relic of a doubtless aware that DR. MURRAY, while preparing Hungarian head-dress from which a long padded his letter B, applied, like a wise lexicographer, to bag hung over, and was attached to the rightN. & Q.' for further information, dissatisfied, shoulder as a defence against sword-cuts. The apparently, with the suggestions already made in only alternative I can offer to MR. Goss is that its pages. These were two. The first (6th S. ii. many years ago, "when I first put this uniform 455) was that it originated in the Hungarian word on," I received the impression that the busby vasföveg: turning the v's and f into b's we get originated in the red cotton night-cap, the top of something very like busbybag. But what is the use which, of different material and subject to varia- of this if vasföveg does not mean the thing in tions of colour, still hangs down outside the fur- question?-and it is not pretended that it does. cap, while the fur-cap itself was in the first place The second (6th S. iii. 95) was that it came from a only a roll of fur to keep the head warm in cold firm of hatters, Busby & Walker having sold hats weather-a fact much impressed upon my head as in the Strand till 1812, and Busby & Son in Bond I rode one warm August from London to Leeds. Street in 1831. This was an ingenious suggestion, notwithstanding the want of practical acquaintance with the subject shown by the suggestor in presuming that the term was never officially used. There are now many Busbies trading in London, and some farming in Warwickshire; but I find none connected with the hatting interest. However, DR. MURRAY'S query elicited no further information, and the word appears in the 'N. E. D.' without a pedigree. KILLIGREW.

One does not obtain much guidance in the matter from the circumstances attending the first equipment with fur-caps of regiments in the British service, particularly as the term fur-cap seems not only to have been in general use from their introduction in about 1807 to their abolition in 1822, but to have been used again on their resumption by the same regiments in 1841.

British Hussar troops had existed in the last century. But it was only on April 14, 1811, that a warrant sanctioned the equipment of four regiments of our Light Dragoons as Hussars. These regiments, which received fur-caps as part of their equipment, were the 7th, 10th, 15th, and 18th Light Dragoons, the last of which was disbanded in 1821, and resuscitated in 1858. In 1822 British Light Dragoons equipped as Hussars received

A most atrocious etymology of "busby" from Magyar föveg was published many years ago in N. & Q.' The 'N. E. D.' is more cautious, of course, and states that its derivation is unknown. According to the same authority, Busby is the name (1) of a place, (2) of a family, (3) of a wig, and (4) of the well-known military head-gear.

Busbies of the exact shape worn in our days by English regulars and volunteers were worn by the Hungarian body-guard of Maria Theresia at her coronation in 1741, as shown on a contemporary engraving in the Pozsony town museum. The prototype of the busby-i. e., a cloth bag or cap, trimmed with fur more or less deep-was worn by Hungarian soldiers as far back as the times of the Emperor Maximilian I. at least, and is shown on Burgkmair's 'Triumphzug Kaiser Maximilian I.' It is probably much older than the fifteenth century, and is common to the whole East, where winters are cold and furred animals common.

If we are to believe your correspondent D., the only people who wear busbies in Hungary are the three "common" ministers for foreign affairs, joint finance, and war, and their subordinates, because these are the only people "who happen to be Austro-Hungarian officials." May I, therefore, inform him that the busby forms part of the national (not "local") Hungarian dress, and may be worn by anybody? L. L. K.

This head-dress has its origin as the national hat of the Hungarians. From 1806, the year in which the first English Light Dragoon Regiment was clothed as Hussars, and certainly up to 1821, the only term by which their head-dress was known was the "fur-cap." I should be glad to know how and when the name busby originated. For the last few years I have heard this name of busby given to the Fusilier cap, though bearing no resemblance to the Hussar busby.

HAROLD MALEt, Col. See the New English Dictionary,' s. v., where it is stated "derivation unknown." W. C. B.

The origin of the Hussar or Artillery cap being called a busby has often been the subject of an inquiry in 'N. & Q.,' but at present without any satisfactory reply being received. See N. &Q.,' 2nd S. iii. 508; x. 429; 5th S. viii. 49; 6th S. ii. 247, 454; iii. 94; iv. 98; 7th S. iv. 27, 334. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.

71, Brecknock Road.

REV. GEORGE CROLY, LL.D. (8th S. ii. 446). Allibone's 'Dictionary' gives the date of the birth of this divine and great writer as 1780, the Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography' as 1785. No mention is made of him in Jerdan's "Men I Have Known' (not "Jordan," as spelt on p. 447), so one cannot suppose him to have been a very intimate friend, nor should I say that Jerdan ever had sufficient influence to obtain a Crown living for Croly or for any one else. In 1835 Croly was appointed by the Lord Chancellor to the benefice of St. Benet Sherehog with St. Stephen's Walbrook, a church close to the Mansion House. Sir John Vanbrugh is buried in it.

I can remember when a boy, in 1844, going

occasionally to hear him preach, and being much struck with his fine commanding appearance and massive head, indicating intellect of the highest order. At that time Alderman Gibbs, concerning whom so much was said and at whose expense Punch was facetious, was churchwarden of St. Stephen's, and in that year (1844) he was elected Lord Mayor. A fine and life-like bust, in marble, was executed of Dr. Croly, representing him in cassock, gown, and bands, and this was engraved on a reduced scale in the Illustrated News, about 1845, accompanied by a memoir. He died in 1860. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

to speak of him as sometime curate of St. Paul, I have a strong impression that my parents used Covent Garden. The period would_agree viz., DOSSETOR. prior to 1835. Tunbridge Wells.

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POEMS IN THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY (8th S. ii. 149, 337).—The original of "Dead, my first-born," will be found in Appendix. Epigrammatum,' 278, Anthology.' vol. iii. of the Tauchnitz (1829) edition of the P. J. F. GANTILLON.

BALE (8th S. ii. 389).—Mr. Charles Sackville Bale, a distinguished and very wealthy collector of works of art and antiquity, a liberal lender of his acquisitions for public enjoyment, a man of considerable accomplishment and a fine and curious taste, died on November 28, 1880, aged eightyChristie's on May 13, 1881, and, in six portions, nine years, and his collections were sold at during eighteen days following. They comprise, besides pictures, Italian medals, drawings, engravings of all sorts, and minor items. All called together half the amateurs and dealers of these things were of first-rate quality, the sale Europe, and it realized nearly 71,000l. The Girtin Landscape,' 'The River Exe,' Hereford Cathedral,' W. C. W. refers to was probably A Mountain 'Durham,' or 'Morpeth Bridge.'


I personally knew a Mr. Charles Sackville Bale, a tall, fine, elderly gentleman, of about seventy to seventy-five years of age. He was living about the year 1880 at No. 71, Cambridge Terrace, Hyde


Park, London, and had a fine and valuable collec-course, could reach further than others, and the tion of coins, medals, Indian curiosities, &c., which I think after his death were sold and dispersed. He probably was a descendant of the Bale family for whom your correspondent is inquiring. Č. GOLDING.

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longest reach won by a long chalk," as com-
pared with the shortest chalk. Any attempt at
cheating or over-reaching brought prompt retribu-
tion, as the player lost his balance and tumbled
forward. Boys played the game for buttons or
marbles, and men for halfpence or pence, the
to say, perhaps, that the landlord's ale-score in
"long chalk" taking the pool. It may be as well
chalk behind the door of his bar against certain
customers was also very often "a long chalk," and
was known as such.

Dr. Brewer, in his 'Dictionary of Phrase and Fable,' p. 154, states, with reference to the phrase, "I beat him by long chalks': Thoroughly, in allusion to the old custom of making the merit marks with chalk, before lead pencils were so common."

LEGEND OF ST. FFRAID (8th S. ii. 465).-The account given of St. Ffraid's fishes is almost as I do not think the word long, here used, can refer marvellous as the legend of their origin. Spar- to the length of the chalk, or of the mark made by lings (eperlans) are none other than what we eat the chalk, but is used in a qualifying senseas smelts, with a smell and taste of cucumber or 66 most thoroughly." Davies has this idea also in rushes. Fancy a smelt between the size of a his 'Supp. English Glossary,' p. 112, where he salmon and herring! Smelts are called sparlings states: "By long chalks by many degrees"; and in Lancashire, and I fancy in other parts of Eng-quotes 'Ingoldsby Legends' ('St. Romwold'):They whipp'd and they spurr'd, and they after her press'd,


J. C. J.

THE VERB "TO WARP" (8th S. ii. 446, 492).—But Sir Alured's eteed was by long chalks the best. I think the intention of the word "warping" in De Quincey, 'System of the Heavens': "As rethe line quoted from 'Paradise Lost '— gards the body of water discharged......the Indus ranks foremost by a long chalk.'

Of locusts warping on the Eastern wind

is to show that locusts, like vessels steering against a head wind, flew crossly, i. e., warped (see Richardson's English Dictionary'), or tacked, as ships would, to reach their destination.

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CHALKS: LONG CHALKS (8th S. ii. 469).-It is probable that the word "chalks," or the phrase long chalks," comes from the playing of a game which thirty to forty years ago was common among boys and grown men alike in Derbyshire, and no doubt in other counties in the Midlands. The game was known as "long chalks," and was played thus: A chalk mark was made on the ground, not less than two feet long. The players -and any number could join in the game-held a piece of chalk in the right hand, and, toeing the mark, bent the body as low as they liked, and, passing the right hand with the lump of chalk round the back of the right leg, reached forward-or "wramed," as they called it-as far as possible, and made a mark on the ground with the piece of chalk held in the hand. Some, of


of admiration in playing leap-frog, marbles, or
In my schoolboy days "long chalks" were notes
jumping; they being chalk marks placed to record
the progress of the game and the distances
A. H.

YATES FAMILY (8th S. ii. 467).- Manchester Faces and Places,' vol. i., November 11, 1889, in a notice of Mr. Joseph Maghull Yates, gives the annexed details relating to his family:—

has had the honour to be appointed First Recorder "Mr. Yates, whose portrait appears in this number, of Salford, having received his appointment from the Home Secretary on the 19th September, 1889. Mr. Yates is not only a barrister of high standing, he is the most recent Judge in a family which has been and a popular member of the northern circuit, but notable for producing lawyers of eminence. His father was the late Joseph St. John Yates, County Court Judge for the Macclesfield and Congleton District of Cheshire, and whose judgments, particularly as affecting the trades and customs of the district, are regarded as valuable precedents. One ancestor of the present Recorder was Sir Joseph Yates, Knt., one af the Justices of the Court of Queen's Bench, and afterwards of the Court of Common Pleas. He died June 7th, 1770, and was buried in the chancel of Cheam Church, Surrey. His widow married Dr. John Thomas, Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster. The earlier branches of the family of Yates of Stanley House and Peel Hall, from which the Recorder is descended, were

connected by marriage with local families of note. Joseph Yates, the grandfather of Sir Joseph, obtained a decree in 1683, on behalf of the inhabitants of Manchester, against Edward Bootle (his father-in-law), Oswald Mosley, and other trustees of Clarke's Charity; he was buried in the Library (Jesus chantry) of the Collegiate Church, Manchester. A sister of this Joseph Yates was married at Blackburn (Jan. 24th, 1670/71) to Oswald Mosley, of Ancoats, and had, with other issue, Oswald Mosley, of Ancoats, created a baronet by George I. on the 18th June, 1720. Another sister married Ralph Leycester, of the family of Toft, in the .county of Chester. A brother of Sir Joseph Yates married Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Humphrey Trafford, of Trafford, by his wife Anne, daughter of Sir Ralph Assheton, Bart. The father of this gentleman was lessee, with Dr. Dawson, of the School Mills, Manchester."

Mr. Yates will be most likely to supply more particular investigations relating to it if H. V. Y. writes to him.


30, Rusholme Grove, Rusholme, Manchester.


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COL. CHARTERS (8th S. ii. 428).—In addition to the matter concerning Col. Charters (or Charteris), of Hamisfield, co. Haddington, which SEBASTIAN has noticed in Warton's Pope' and Walford's Tales of Great Families,' he will find in the Trustees' 'Catalogue of Satirical Prints in the British Museum,' vol. iii. part i. 2031, an account For some account of Lady Peel, and of her of the colonel, who is conspicuous in Hogarth's father and grandfather, see Dr. Smiles's 'Self-A Harlot's Progress,' Plate 1, where he appears Help,' chap. ii. as an old man leering at the maid fresh from the Liverpool. country, who was destined to an evil fate, and, See, in JENNINGS OF COURTEENHALL AND HARTWELL as the painter indicated, by his means. (8th S. ii. 468).—Col. Chester refers to this family the same Catalogue, Nos. 1840 and 1841. It apin his 'Westminster Abbey Registers,' p. 428, and pears from the Grub Street Journal, No. 3 and impugns the accuracy of the pedigree in Burke's No. 9, that he lived in George Street, Hanover * History of the Commoners,' quoted by MR. MAYO. Square, and died Feb. 24, 1732, not long before Mary Pearce, granddaughter of the Robert Jen- the publication of the prints of A Harlot's Pronens who died in 1779, married, July 13, 1786, gress," and was reputed to be worth 200,000l. John Farr Abbot, elder brother of Lord Col- in 1720 to the fourth Earl of Wemyss, who died Janet, his only daughter and heiress, was married in 1756. The colonel was, justly or unjustly, the subject of many satires and amplitude of blame. See Don Francisco's Descent to the Infernal Regions: an Interlude,' London, 1732. (B. M. Library, 840, h. 9/4.) F. G. S.



Mr. James Coleman, the well-known genealogical bookseller, advertises some special sources for the Jennings family. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 187, Piccadilly, W.

FATHERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS (8th S. ii. 327).—Here are two to add to the list: (1) Lord George Cavendish, who was M.P. for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis from 1751 to 1754, and for Derbyshire from 1754 to 1780, and from 1781 until his death on May 2, 1794. (2) The Right Hon. Charles Watkin Williams Wynn, M.P. for Old Sarum from 1797 to 1799, and for Montgomeryshire from 1799 until his death on Sept. 2, 1850. I rather think that the Hon. George Cecil Weld Forester, who represented Wenlock from 1828 until October, 1874, when he succeeded as third Baron Forester, was another father.

G. F. R. B. Sir Charles Merrik Burrell was elected member, in the Tory interest, for New Shoreham, Sussex, in 1806, and continued to represent that constituency in conjunction with Bramber through fourteen consecutive parliaments (fifty-six years), and died in 1862, the father of the House of Commons.

SEBASTIAN can find what he requires by reference to (1) Anderson's 'Scottish Nation,' p. 635, and (2) Biog. Britt.' (Kippis ed.), vol. i. p. 240. The surname has been spelt Charters, Charteris, LEO CULLETON. and Charterhous.

A.M. AND P.M. (8th S. ii. 483).-Is it too much to hope that DR. CHANCE's timely note may lead to some reform of our clumsy way of indicating the hours, particularly those between midnight and midday? A little obscurity is caused by the fact of DR. CHANCE's friend having lunched, and, without having lunched too well, he might not immediately realize the meaning of a notice about "12.30 A.M." confronting him in the middle of the day. But supposing that he realized that it referred to the middle of the night, was he wrong? The time intended to be signified was 12 hr. 30 min. after midday, and only thirty minutes after midnight. The porter's ingenious explanation is not workable till "1 A.M.," which

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