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THE object of the notes in the present edition of the Bible is to put the reader in possession of the main facts relative to the text of the Authorised Version. They are designed not merely to correct some of the more important mistranslations, but to supply the means of estimating the authority by which the proposed corrections are supported. They appeal at once to the ordinary Bible reader, whose chief difficulties they endeavour to meet, and to the special or professional student, who will find, it is hoped, particularly in the Old Testament, a more careful selection of critical data and authorities than is elsewhere accessible. It is this two-fold character which constitutes the special feature of the present work, and distinguishes it from the larger revision now in progress at Westminster. The editors of the Old Testament particularly desire that the two undertakings may be understood to be quite independent. Although they have for some time past taken part in the larger revision, they have been careful to keep the two works distinct; indeed, they had practically finished much, if not most, of their preparation for this volume before becoming members of the Company of Revisers.

The notes range themselves under two heads, Variations of Rendering, and Variations of Reading The former are those cases where the Authorised Version has been thought not to represent the original fairly—these are indicated by figures consecutive through the chapter as reference-marks; the latter, where the text which the Authorised Version translates has been supposed to be either incorrect or ubtful-these are specified by the earlier letters of the Greek alphabet each verse. The reference-marks are placed before and (as a rule) after the words of the text that are referred to; the names of authorities immediately after the words in whose support they are quoted. No new rendering is introduced on the private authority of the editors. We must, however, except a few of the notes on passages where the Authorised Version is not strictly accurate in representing grammatical forms, or not literal in rendering the language of the original. But as a rule, if a Various Rendering has no name appended to it, it is to be understood that it has the general verdict of scholars in its favour. With regard to the English of the notes, it has been the endeavour of the editors to keep it as far as possible in harmony with that of our present Bible. An exception must, of course, be made in the case of matter introduced as paraphrase or explanation, where the language of the Authorised Version has become antiquated, or where (especially in the New Testament) it has seemed liable to be misunderstood. Completeness in the explanation of archaisms has, however, not been aimed at. It should likewise be mentioned that, where several authorities substantially agree, the editors have ventured to combine them by selecting some one English word which seemed fairly to express their meaning.

(1) With regard to the Various Renderings, it was obviously necessary to limit them to those (or some of those) which appeared sensibly to affect the meaning. A very slight change in the English has sometimes been found sufficient. Where, for instance, the thought, or the colouring of the thought, was perceptibly modified by the presence or absence of the definite article, or where the distinctions of tenses seemed of great importance to the sense or consecutiveness of a passage, such points have been noticed. But alterations in these respects have not been made in the interest of mere grammatical accuracy. A great source of obscurity in the Authorised Version is the use of different English words for one word of the original, even in the same context. In such cases, one uniform rendering has frequently been adopted, with the result, not merely of clearing up the context, but of suggesting an unexpected parallelism between different parts of the Bible.

(2) With regard to the Various Readings, it is necessary to remind the reader that the text from which the Authorised Version of the New Testament is translated is substantially identical with that of the first edition of the Greek text published by Erasmus in 1516, an edition based upon not more than five MSS., and those chosen almost at random without any regard to their intrinsic value. The discovery of some of the most ancient and valuable MSS. of the New Testament, and the systematic use of others, both ancient and valuable, which, though known in Western Europe in the 16th century, were scarcely used, and, in general, a more comprehensive study of MSS. and ancient Versions, has shewn that this "Received Text," as it is called, labours under manifold corruptions. Most students will probably allow the superior authority of Lachmann, and (especially) of his successors Tischendorf, Tregelles, and Westcott and Hort, and accept the judgment of these editors, where they agree, as decisive.

The Hebrew text of the Old Testament stands upon a somewhat different footing. The form in which it appears in the printed Bibles is that in which it has been fixed by the Jews themselves for centuries. But a close examination reveals the fact that, jealously guarded as it thus has been, there must have been an earlier period in its transmission, during which errors and alterations crept in. The existence of such errors may be easily shewn, without passing beyond the limits of the Hebrew text itself, by a comparison of the corresponding chapters in the Books of Samuel and Kings on the

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one hand, and in the Chronicles on the other. Of the MSS. which have as yet been examined, but few date back as far as the 10th century A.D., and these few contain only portions of the Bible. But the ancient Versions at once carry us back to a period from 500 to 1000 years anterior to this: they thus reflect, with more or less exactness, a text far older than that represented by the earliest Hebrew MSS. Certainly to classify and account for all the divergences which they exhibit is a problem of extreme complexity, and perhaps insoluble: but, if used with tact and sobriety, the ancient Versions afford invaluable aid in restoring order and sequence where the Hebrew, as we possess it, appears involved in much confusion.

Cases, however, occur in which a suspicion of corruption attaches to the text, which even a comparison of the Versions does not avail to remove. Here, then, nothing remains but to make a temperate use of critical emendation. However reluctant we may be to admit the principle of conjecture, an exceptional application of it is justified in the case of the Old Testament (1) by the long interval which elapsed between the composition of most of the books and the earliest date to which we can trace them, and (2) by the nature of the Hebrew characters, which, in every phase through which the alphabet has passed, are very liable to be confounded. Purely arbitrary emendations are, of course, inadmissible; but there are many passages which become at once intelligible on a slight alteration in the form of one or two of the letters. Changes of the vowel-points are also occasionally of service, but these do not in the same sense fall under the head of conjecture, for the vowel-points merely represent a valuable, but still post-Christian, exegetical tradition.

The editors of the New Testament have been permitted (and they desire to record their grateful sense of the kindness) to collate throughout the edition of the Greek Testament, as yet unpublished, by Canon Westcott and the Rev. Dr. Hort. It is the result of more than twenty years' labour, during which the whole mass of evidence has been carefully sifted and weighed upon principles determined by an independent study of the authorities, their relation to one another, and the history of the transmission of the text.

The opportunity of the present re-issue of the work as a reference Bible has been taken to make some additions and corrections: especially in the New Testament portion, in which the editors have been helped by several criticisms, public and private; their acknowledgments are especially due to Mr. S. Bloxsidge, formerly of Exeter College, Oxford. The Various Readings of the Greek text have been still more carefully examined, and it is hoped that few variations of importance will have escaped notice. Some additional MSS. have been quoted -notably E, which is of so much importance for the first part of St. Luke, and, to a greater extent than before, Z in St. Matthew. The readings of the principal Versions have been sparingly introduced, and also in some cases those of the most eminent Fathers. Among modern authorities, collations have been made of the text of McClellan for the four Gospels, and of Weiss for the first three; also of the text of Westcott and Hort for Acts to Revelation. Account has also been taken of the readings of Lightfoot and Ellicott on the Epistles upon which they have commented. As Dr. McClellan, and in a qualified sense Bishop Ellicott, represent different principles of criticism from those now generally in the ascendant, additional confidence may be felt where they are in agreement with the other editors. It should be remembered also that the text of Tregelles for the Gospels, and that of Lachmann for the whole of the New Testament, was formed before the discovery of the Codex Sinaiticus, so that the balance of evidence since their time has been somewhat altered.

For the Various Renderings, the following have also been collated: McClellan on the Gospels, Vaughan, Rückert, and Van Hengel on Romans, Lightfoot on Galatians, Van Hengel on Philippians, Moulton on Hebrews, and Jelf on 1 St. John. The editors were also fortunate enough to be able to introduce at the last moment a collation of Dr. Westcott on the Gospel of St. John. Canon Farrar's St. Luke, which they would gladly have included, appeared too late.

By the method of notation adopted, the number of passages in each chapter for which new readings or new translations are proposed, as well as their places, can be readily ascertained without reading through the text.

It only remains to invite the reader's careful attention to the pages in which the abbreviations and other points of detail are explained.

June 1880.




Editors of the
Old Testament.

Editors of the

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Jer. St. Jerome's Latin translation of the Psalms,
made directly from the Hebrew. The Vulgate
version of the Psalms is St. Jerome's revision
of the Old Latin Psalter, which was based upon
the Septuagint.
Jos.-Josephus, Jewish historian (died A.D. 95).
Onk. The Chaldee (rather, West Aramaic) Targum
or translation of the Pentateuch, ascribed to
Onkelos. Thrown into its present form about
end of third century A.D. on the basis of a
ancient Palestinian Targum, by learned men at
Babylon. Very literal, except in poetical pas-


Luz. -Luzzatto, Samuel David (died 1865).
Me.-Merx, Dr. Adalbert.

Mich. Michaelis, Dr. J. D. (died 1791).
Mo.-Movers, Dr. F. E. (died 1856).
Naeg.-Naegelsbach, Dr. C. W. E.
No.-Nöldeke, Dr. Theodor.

Pesh. The Peshito, i.e. 'simple' or faithful; a Sy-
riac (rather, East Aramaic) version, made for
Christian readers from the Hebrew, though in-
fluenced frequently by Jewish exegesis, and in
parts (e.g. in the Psalms) by the Septuagint.
Date, about middle of second century.
Saad.-Rabbi Saadyah Gaon (died 942 A.D.). Arabic
translation of Pentateuch and Isaiah.

Och-Oehler, Dr. G. F. (died 1872).
Ol.-Olshausen, Dr. Justus.

PS.-Payne Smith, Very Rev. Dr. R.
Pe. Perowne, Rev. Dr. J. J. S.
Pu.-Pusey, Rev. Dr. E. B.

Ra.-Rashi, Jewish commentator (died 1105).

Rei.-Reinke, Dr. Laur.

Rie.-Riehm, Dr. Eduard.

Rö.-Rödiger, Dr. Emil (died 1874).
Roo.-Roorda, Dr. T.

Sch.-Schultz, Dr. F. W.
Schl.-Schlottmann, Dr. Const.
Schr.-Schrader, Dr. Eberhard.
Schrö.-Schröder, Dr. N. W.

Schult.-Schultens, Dr. Albert (died 1750).

In addition to the above, a certain number of critics (principally those cited but rarely) are referred to under their full surnames, for example, Baur, Gust/ Clarke, Rev. Dr. A. (died 1832), Dathe, Dr. J. A. (died 1791), Graf, K. H. (died 1869), Hunt, Rev. Dr. T. (died 1774), Kay, Rev. Dr. W., Secker, Most Rev. Dr. T. (died 1768), Weir, Rev. Dr., Wright, W. A. The names of authorities are usually cited in chronological order. When an alteration is introduced by the word 'Or,' it implies that the rendering of Authorized Version appears defensible, though the alternative rendering has been adopted by the scholars mentioned. Alt.' signifies that the rendering in question is given as an alternative by the authority cited. In other respects the method of reference will be obvious: it need only be added that where the correction does not extend beyond a single word, it has not been thought worth while to repeat the referencemark in the text.

Si.-Simson, Dr. August.

St.-Stanley, Very Rev. Dr. A. P.
Th.-Thenius, Dr. Otto.

Thr.-Thrupp, Rev. J. F. (died 1867).
Tu.-Tuch, Dr. Friedrich (died 1867).
Vaih.-Vaihinger, Dr. J. G.

Vo.-Volck, Dr. Wilhelm.
We.-Wellhausen, Dr. Julius.
Wü.-Wünsche, Dr. August.
Zö.-Zöckler, Dr. Otto.

2. NAMES OF TRANSLATORS, ETC. 4q.-Aquila, a Jewish proselyte of Sinope in Pontus; his work, which is in Greek and painfully literal, is only extant in the fragments of Origen's Hexapla. Date, about middle of second century A.D.

Sam.-The Hebrew Pentateuch as read by the Sama-
ritans. In character, its text agrees with that
used by the Septuagint.

Sept.-The Septuagint. An aggregate of Greek trans-
lations made in Egypt by Hellenistic Jews. The
oldest and best is that of the Pentateuch (third
century B.C.); the latest, those of the Hagio-
grapha (mostly finished before 130 B.C.). More
valuable for criticism of the text than for inter-
Symm.-Symmachus, probably a Hellenistic Jew. Date,
close of second century A.D. More elegant in
style than Aquila; fragmentary,
Targ.-Various Targums, or Chaldee versions, par-
ticularly that of the books of Joshua, Judges,
Samuel, Kings, and the prophets, ascribed to
Jonathan ben Uzziel. Thrown into its present
form in Babylon-probably some time after the
Targum of the Pentateuch (see Onk.'). In style,
paraphrastic. The Targums of the other books are
of late and uncertain date, and of inferior value.
Targ. Jerus.-The Jerusalem Targum of the Penta-
teuch. Extant in two recensions; the one entire,
and sometimes called pseudo-Jonathan; the other
fragmentary. Second half of seventh century

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Theod.-Theodotion, a Jewish proselyte of Ephesus. the text. These marginal corrections are found in all MSS. and Hebrew Bibles. They are by no means always critically preferable; sometimes they merely attempt to obviate an unusual, but quite defensible, grammatical form.

His Greek version of Daniel was (according to a common opinion) substituted by the Christians for that given by the Septuagint, as being more accurate. The rest of his translation (which seems to have been based on the Septuagint) is only 3. When (7.) is appended to a Various Reading, extant in the fragments of Origen's Hexapla. it means that the proposed correction differs from Date, shortly after Aquila. the ordinary reading only in the form of one or two Vulg. The Vulgate, or Latin translation of the Bible letters, which may have been mistaken by the scribe. by St. Jerome. The Old Testament was done in On the contrary, (pt.) or (pts.) signifies that the corthe main from the Hebrew; date of its comple-rection does not differ in the letters, but only in one tion, 405 A.D. or more of the vowel-points attached to them.


NOTE 1. Notes of the form Vulg. (MSS.), Sept. (cod. Al.), mean that the reading or rendering is not found in the ordinary texts of the Vulgate or Septuagint, but is supported by particular MSS., or by the MS. cited. The abbreviation MSS. is sometimes used to indicate a small number of MSS.

2. (On notes of the form Heb. marg.) There is a certain number of places in the Old Testament in which Jewish tradition itself has introduced what may be termed an "authorised correction" of the text, noting the alteration in the margin, and directing the reader to substitute it for what he finds in




Al-Alford, Very Rev. Dr. H. (died 1870).
Baur, Dr. F. Ch. (died 1860).

Beet, Rev. J. A.

Be.-Bengel, Dr. J. A. (died 1752).

Bentley, Dr. R. (died 1742.)

Je.-Jelf, Rev. W. E. (died 1875.)
Jo-Jowett, Rev. B.
Ke.-Kern, Dr. F. H.
Lan.-Lange, Dr. J. P.
Li-Lightfoot, Right Rev. Dr. J. B.
Lü.-Lunemann, Dr. G.

Bu.-Buttmann, Dr. Alexander.

Luther, Martin (died 1546).
Mack, Dr. Martin.
Mel.-McClellan, Rev. J. B.
Me.-Meyer, Dr. H. A. W. (died 1873).

Calvin, John (died 1564).

Co.-Conybeare, Rev. W. J. (died 1875), and Howson, Mou.-Moulton, Rev. Dr. W. F.
Very Rev. Dr. J. S.
Da.-Davidson, Rev. Dr. Samuel.
Del.-Delitzsch, Dr. Franz.

Bl.-Bleek, Dr. Friedrich (died 1859).

Bou.-Bouman, Dr. H.

Brückner, Dr. B.

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cited from De Rossi's Variae Lectiones Veteris Testa4. The readings of the Hebrew MSS. are as a rule menti (Parma, 1784-1788), and his Scholia Critica (Parma, 1798); those of the St. Petersburg MSS., which are among the oldest and most valuable, from the statements of Drs. Neubauer and Chwolson.

5. The Septuagint is cited, except where stated otherwise, from Tischendorf's edition, the Peshito from that of Dr. Lee, the Targums from Walton, Lagarde, and Wilkins, the Vulgate partly from Heyse's edition of the Codex Amiatinus, partly from the Clementine text, and 4q. Symm. Theod, from Dr. Field's Oxford edition of the Hexapla.

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Ol. or Ols.-Olshausen, Dr. Hermann (died 1839).
Renan, M. Ernest.
Reuss, Dr. E.

Syriac. Cur.-The Curetonian Syriac. Probably an old form of the Syriac Version made in the 2nd century; considerable fragments exist in a MS. of the 5th century.

Rü.-Rückert, Dr. L. J. (died 1871).
St.-Stier, Dr. Rudolph (died 1862).
Sta.-Stanley, Very Rev. Dr. A. P.
Tho.-Tholuck, Dr. August (died 1877).
Trench, Most Rev. Dr. R. C.
Va.-Vaughan, Very Rev. Dr. C. J.
VH.-Van Hengel, Dr. W. A. (died 1870.)
W.-Westcott, Rev. Dr. B. F.

Wetstein, Dr. J. J. (died 1754).
Wi.-Winer, Dr. G. B. (died 1858).
Wie.-Wiesinger, Dr. A.

Wo.-Wordsworth, Right Rev. Dr. Chr.
Zü.-Züllig, Dr. F. J.

Aug.-Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, 395-430.
Bas.-Basil, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, 370–379.
Chrys. Chrysostom, Bishop of Constantinople, 397



Clem. Alex.-Clement of Alexandria, flourished 194.
Cupr.-Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, 248-258.
Eus.-Eusebius, Bishop of Cæsarea, 315-338.
Hil-Hilary, Bishop of Poictiers, 350-367.
Hipp.-Hippolytus, Bishop of Portus, 220.

Iren.-Irenæus, Bishop of Lyons, 178.
Jer.-Jerome, flourished 378-420.
Orig.-Origen (died 254).

Origint-The same as represented by an ancient
Latin translation.

Tert.-Tertullian, flourished 200-220.

Theod. Mops.-Theodore, Bishop of Mopsnestia, 399-428.
Theod. (in 1 Timothy-Titus)-Theodoret, Bishop of
Cyrus (died 457).




OL.-The Old Latin Translation, made in the 2nd | Pesh.-The Peshito Syriac. Apparently a revised form of the above; its oldest MS. is of the 6th century.

century A.D., and existing in various forms; the oldest MSS. belong to the 4th and 5th centuries. Vulg.-The Old Latin as revised by Jerome with the help of Greek MSS., A.D. 383-5; the oldest MSS. are of the 6th century.


Memph.-The Memphitic Version. In the dialect of
Lower Egypt; made not later than the 3rd
Theb.-The Thebaic Version. In the dialect of Up-
per Egypt; about the same date as the Mem-
phitic; some MSS. as early as the 4th century.

5 H.

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