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THE TRANSLATORS TO THE READER.
xxi brief what we proposed to ourselves, and what course we held, in this our perusal and survey of the Bible. Truly, good Christian Reader, we never thought from the beginning that we should need to make a new translation, nor yet to make of a bad one a good one; (for then the imputation of Sixtus had been true in some sort, that our people had been fed with gall of dragons instead of wine, with wheal instead of milk ;) but to make a good one better, or out of many good ones one principal good one, not justly to be excepted against; that hath been our endeavour, that our mark. To that purpose there were many chosen, that were greater in other men's eyes than in their own, and that sought the truth rather than their own praise. Again, they came, or were thought to come, to the work, not exercendi causa, (as one saith,) but exercitati, that is, learned, not to learn; for the chief overseer and epуodiwkтns under his Majesty, to whom not only we, but also our whole Church was much bound, knew by his wisdom, which thing also Nazianzen taught so long ago, that it is a preposterous order to teach first, and to learn after; that Td ev Tíow repaμlav μavbável, to learn and practise together, is neither commendable for the workman, nor safe for the work. Therefore such were thought upon, as could say modestly with St. Hierome, Et Hebræum sermonem ex parte didicimus, et in Latino pene ab ipsis incunabulis, &c. detriti sumus; Both we have learned the Hebrew tongue in part, and in the Latin we have been exercised almost from our very cradle. St. Hierome maketh no mention of the Greek tongue, wherein yet he did excel; because he translated not the Old Testament out of Greek, but out of Hebrew. And in what sort did these assemble? In the trust of their own knowledge, or of their sharpness of wit, or deepness of judgment, as it were in an arm of flesh? At no hand. They trusted in him that hath the key of David, opening, and no man shutting; they prayed to the Lord, the Father of our Lord, to the effect that St. Augustine did; O let thy Scriptures be my pure delight; let me not be deceived in them, neither let me deceive by them. In this confidence, and with this devotion, did they assemble together; not too many, lest one should trouble another; and yet many, lest many things haply might escape them. If you ask what they had before them; truly it was the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, the Greek of the New. These are the two golden pipes, or rather conduits, wherethrough the olivebranches empty themselves into the gold. St. Augustine calleth them precedent, or original, tongues; St. Hierome, fountains. The same St. Hierome affirmeth, and Gratian hath not spared to put it into his decree, That as the credit of the old books (he meaneth of the Old Testament) is to be tried by the Hebrew volumes; so of the new by the Greek tongue, he meaneth by the original Greek. If truth be to be tried by these tongues, then whence should a translation be made, but out of them? These tongues therefore (the Scriptures, we say, in those tongues) we set before us to translate, being the tongues wherein God was pleased to speak to his Church by his Prophets and Apostles. Neither did we run over the work with that posting haste that the Septuagint did, if that be true which is reported of them, that they finished it in seventy two days; neither were we barred or hindered from going over it again, having once done it, like St. Hierome, if that be true which himself reporteth, that he could no sooner write any thing, but presently it was caught from him, and published, and he could not have leave to mend it:
neither, to be short, were we the first that fell in hand with translating the Scripture into English,
But it is high time to leave them, and to shew in and consequently destitute of former helps, as it
that are less sound themselves ought not to object infirmities to others. If we should tell them, that Valla, Stapulensis, Erasmus, and Vives, found fault with their vulgar translation, and consequently wished the same to be mended, or a new one to be made; they would answer peradventure, that we produced their enemies for witnesses against them; albeit they were in no other sort enemies, than as St. Paul was to the Galatians, for telling them the truth: and it were to be wished, that they had dared to tell it them plainlier and oftener. But what will they say to this, That Pope Leo the Tenth allowed Erasmus' translation of the New Testament, so much different from the vulgar, by his apostolick letter and bull ? That the same Leo exhorted Pagnine to translate the whole Bible, and bare whatsoever charges was necessary for the work? Surely, as the apostle reasoneth to the Hebrews, that if the former Law and Testament had been sufficient, there had been no need of the latter: so we may say, that if the | old vulgar had been at all points allowable, to small purpose had labour and charges been undergone about framing of a new. If they say, it was one Pope's private opinion, and that he consulted only himself; then we are able to go further with them, and to aver, that more of their chief men of all sorts, even their own Trent champions, Paiva and Vega, and their own inquisitor Hieronymus ab Oleastro, and their own Bishop Isidorus Clarius, and their own Cardinal Thomas a vio Cajetan, do either make new translations themselves, or follow new ones of other men's making, or note the vulgar interpreter for halting, none of them fear to dissent from him, nor yet to except against him. And call they this an uniform tenor of text and judgment about the text, so many of their worthies disclaiming the now received conceit? Nay, we will yet come nearer the quick. Doth not their Paris edition differ from the Lovain, and Hentenius's from them both, and yet all of them allowed by authority? Nay, doth not Sixtus Quintus confess, that certain Catholicks (he meaneth certain of his own side) were in such an humour of translating the Scriptures into Latin, that Satan taking occasion by them, though they thought of no such matter, did strive what he could, out of so uncertain and manifold a variety of translations, so to mingle all things, that nothing might seem to be left certain and firm in them, &c.? Nay further, did not the same Sirtus ordain by an inviolable decree, and that with the counsel and consent of his Cardinals, that the Latin edition of the Old and New Testament, which the council of Trent would have to be authentick, is the same without controversy which he then set forth, being diligently corrected and printed in the printing-house of Vatican? Thus Sixtus in his preface before his Bible. And yet Clement the Eighth, his immediate successor to account of, publisheth another edition of the Bible, containing in it infinite differences from that of Sixtus, and many of them weighty and material; and yet this must be authentick by all What is to have the faith of our glorious Lord Jesus Christ with yea and nay, if this be not? Again, what is sweet harmony and consent, if this be? Therefore, as Demaratus of Corinth advised a great King, before he talked of the dissentions among the Grecians, to compose his domestick broils; (for at that time his queen and his son and heir were at deadly feud with him) so all the while that our adversaries do make so many and so various editions themselves, and do jar so much about the worth and authority of them, they can with no shew of equity challenge us for changing and correcting.
is written of Origen, that he was the first in a manner, that put his hand to write commentaries upon the Scriptures, and therefore no marvel if he overshot himself many times. None of these things: The work hath not been huddled up in seventy two days, but hath cost the workmen, as light as it seemeth, the pains of twice seven times seventy two days, and more. Matters of such weight and consequence are to be speeded with maturity for in a business of moment a man feareth not the blame of convenient slackness. Neither did we think much to consult the translators or commentators, Chaldee, Hebrew, Syrian, Greek, or Latin; no, nor the Spanish, French, Italian, or Dutch; neither did we disdain to revise that which we had done, and to bring back to the anvil that which we had hammered: but having and using as great helps as were needful, and fearing no reproach for slowness, nor coveting praise for expedition, we have at length, through the good hand of the Lord upon us, brought the work to that pass that you see.
THE TRANSLATORS TO THE READER.
where the text is not so clear, must needs do good; yea, is necessary, as we are persuaded. We know that Sixtus Quintus expressly forbiddeth that any variety of readings of their vulgar edition should be put in the margin; (which though it be not altogether the same thing to that we have in hand, yet it looketh that way;) but we think he hath not all of his own side his favourers for this conceit. They that are wise had rather have their judgments at liberty in differences of readings, than to be captivated to one, when it may be the other. If they were sure that their high had all laws shut up in his breast, as Paul the Second bragged, and that he were as free from error by special privilege, as the dictaters of Rome were made by law inviolable, it were another matter; then his word were an oracle, his opinion a decision. But the eyes of the world are now open, God be thanked, and have been a great while; they find that he is subject to the same affections and infirmities that others be, that! his body is subject to wounds; and therefore so much as he proveth, not as much as he claimeth, they grant and embrace.
Some peradventure would have no variety of senses to be set in the margin, lest the authority of the Scriptures for deciding of controversies by Another thing we think good to admonish thee that shew of uncertainty should somewhat be of, gentle Reader, that we have not tied ourselves shaken. But we hold their judgment not to be so to an uniformity of phrasing, or to an identity of sound in this point. For though whatsoever words, as some peradventure would wish that we things are necessary are manifest, as St. Chrysos- had done, because they observe, that some learned tome saith; and, as St. Augustine, in those things men somewhere have been as exact as they could that are plainly set down in the Scriptures all that way. Truly, that we might not vary from the such matters are found, that concern faith, hope, sense of that which we had translated before, if and charity: Yet for all that it cannot be dis- the word signified the same thing in both places, sembled, that partly to exercise and whet our (for there be some words that be not of the same wits, partly to wean the curious from lothing of sense every where,) we were especially careful, them for their every where plainness, partly also and made a conscience, according to our duty. to stir up our devotion to crave the assistance of But that we should express the same notion in God's Spirit by prayer, and lastly, that we might the same particular word; as for example, if we be forward to seek aid of our brethren by con- translate the Hebrew or Greek word once by purference, and never scorn those that be not in all pose, never to call it intent; if one where journeyrespects so complete as they should be, being to ing, never travelling; if one where think, never seek in many things ourselves, it hath pleased suppose; if one where pain, never ache; if one God in his Divine Providence, here and there to where joy, never gladness, &c. thus to mince the scatter words and sentences of that difficulty and matter, we thought to savour more of curiosity doubtfulness, not in doctrinal points that concern than wisdom, and that rather it would breed scorn salvation, (for in such it hath been vouched that in the atheist, than bring profit to the godly reader. the Scriptures are plain,) but in matters of less For is the kingdom of God become words or moment, that fearfulness would better beseem syllables? Why should we be in bondage to them, us than confidence, and if we will resolve, to re- if we may be free? use one precisely, when we solve upon modesty with St. Augustine, (though may use another no less fit as commodiously? A not in this same case altogether, yet upon the godly Father in the primitive time shewed himself same ground,) Melius est dubitare de occultis, quam greatly moved, that one of newfangledness called litigare de incertis: It is better to make doubt of кpaßßáтov, σkíμrous, though the difference be those things which are secret, than to strive about little or none; and another reporteth, that he was those things that are uncertain. There be many much abused for turning cucurbita (to which readwords in the Scriptures, which be never founding the people had been used) into hedera. Now there but once, (having neither brother nor neigh- if this happen in better times, and upon so small bour, as the Hebrews speak,) so that we cannot be occasions, we might justly fear hard censure, if holpen by conference of places. Again, there be generally we should make verbal and unnecessary many rare names of certain birds, beasts, and changings. We might also be charged (by scoffers) precious stones, &c. concerning which the He with some unequal dealing towards a great number brews themselves are so divided among themselves of good English words. For as it is written of a for judgment, that they may seem to have defined certain great Philosopher, that he should say, that this or that, rather because they would say some- those logs were happy that were made images to thing, than because they were sure of that which be worshipped; for their fellows, as good as they, they said, as St. Hierome somewhere saith of the lay for blocks behind the fire: so if we should say, Septuagint. Now in such a case doth not a mar- as it were, unto certain words, Stand up higher, giu do well to admonish the Reader to seek have a place in the Bible always; and to others of further, and not to conclude or dogmatize upon like quality, Get you hence, be banished for ever; this or that peremptorily? For as it is a fault of we might be taxed peradventure with St. James's incredulity, to doubt of those things that are words, namely, To be partial in ourselves, and evident; so to determine of such things as the judges of evil thoughts. Add hereunto, that niceSpirit of God hath left (even in the judgment of ness in words was always counted the next step the judicious) questionable, can be no less than to trifling; and so was to be curious about names presumption. Therefore as St. Augustine saith, too: also that we cannot follow a better pattern that variety of translations is profitable for the for elocution than God himself; therefore he using finding out of the sense of the Scriptures: so di- divers words in his holy writ, and indifferently for versity of signification and sense in the margin, one thing in nature: we, if we will not be super
THE TRANSLATORS TO THE READER.
stitious, may use the same liberty in our English versions out of Hebrew and Greek, for that copy or store that he hath given us. Lastly, we have on the one side avoided the scrupulosity of the Puritanes, who leave the old Ecclesiastical words, and betake them to other, as when they put washing for baptism, and congregation instead of Church: as also on the other side we have shunned the obscurity of the Papists, in their azymes, tunike, rational, holocausts, prepuce, pasche, and a number of such like, whereof their late translation is full, and that of purpose to darken the sense, that since they must needs translate the Bible, yet by the language thereof it may be kept from being understood. But we desire that the Scripture may speak like itself, as in the language of Canaan, that it may be understood even of the very vulgar.
Many other things we might give thee warning of, gentle Reader, if we had not exceeded the measure of a preface already. It remaineth that we commend thee to God, and to the Spirit of his grace, which is able to build further than we can ask or think. He removeth the scales from our eyes, the vail from our hearts, opening our wits that we may understand his word, enlarging our hearts, yea, correcting our affections, that we may love it above gold and silver, yea, that we may love it to the end. Ye are brought unto fountains of living water which ye digged not; do not cast earth into them, with the Philistines, neither
prefer broken pits before them, with the wicked Jews. Others have laboured, and you may enter into their labours. O receive not so great things in vain: O despise not so great salvation. Be not like swine to tread under foot so precious things, neither yet like dogs to tear and abuse holy things. Say not to our Saviour with the Gergesites, Depart out of our coasts; neither yet with Esau sell your birthright for a mess of pottage. If light be come into the world, love not darkness more than light: if food, if clothing, be offered, go not naked, starve not yourselves. Remember the advice of Nazianzene, It is a grievous thing (or dangerous) to neglect a great fair, and to seek to make markets afterwards: also the encouragement of St. Chrysostome, It is altogether impossible, that he that is sober (and watchful) should at any time be neglected: lastly, the admonition and menacing of St. Augustine, They that despise God's will inviting them shall feel God's will taking vengeance of them. It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God; but a blessed thing it is, and will bring us to everlasting blessedness in the end, when God speaketh unto us, to hearken; when he setteth his word before us, to read it; when he stretcheth out his hand and calleth, to answer, Here am I, here we are to do thy will, O God. The Lord work a care and conscience in us to know him and serve him, that we may be acknowledged of him at the appearing of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, to whom with the Holy Ghost be all praise and thanksgiving. Amen.
Before CHRIST 4004.
e John 1. 1, 2.
Heb. 1. 10.
& Ps. 8. S.
& 33. 6.
& 89. 11, 12.
& 102. 25.
& 136. 3.
e Ps. 33. 6.
e2 Cor. 4. 6. between the light and between the darkness. Ps. 74. 16. & 104. 20.
↑ Heb. And
THE FIRST BOOK OF MOSES, CALLED
1 The creation of heaven and earth, 3 of the light,
IN the beginning God created the
2 And the earth was without form, and
3 And God said,
4 And God saw the light, that it was good and God divided † the light from the darkness.
5 And God called the light Day, and
6 And God said, 9 Let there be a fir-
the morning g Job 37. 18. Ps. 136. 5.
9 And God said, * Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one Jer. 10. 12. place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.
& 51. 15. 1 Heb. expansion. & Prov. 8. 28. i Pa. 148. 4. A Job 26. 10, & 28.8. Ps. 33. 7. & 93. 5. & 104. 9. & 136 6. Prov. 8. 29. Jer. 5. 22. 2 Pet. 3. 5. ! Heb. 6. 7. † Heb. ten
der grass. m Luke 6.44 = Deut. 4. 19 P. 74. 16. & 136. 7. ↑ Heb. between the
13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.
14 And God said, Let there be "lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them day and be be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the carth: and it was so.
tween the night. • Ps. 74. 17. & 104, 19. PP. 136. 7, 8. 9. 149. 3, 5. ↑ Heb. for the rule of the day. Ps. 8. 3. r Job 38. 7. Jer. 31. 35.
10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.
11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth and it was so.
12 And the earth brought forth grass. and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself 5, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
17 And God set them in the firmament of
the night, and to divide the light from the
above the earth in the † opens firmament
21 And God created great whales, and every living 10 creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
22 And God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.
23 And the evening and the morning
24 And God said, Let the earth bring
26 And God said, Let us make man
27 So God created man in his own image,
29 And God said, Behold, I have given
yielding seed every beast of the earth, I
31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
Before CHRIST 4004.
Heb. tel fowl fly.
ch. 6. 20.
7. 14. & 8. 19.
Ps. 104. 26.
w ch. 8. 17.
1 The first sabbath. 4 The manner of the crea
& 9. 6.
Ps. 100. 3. Eccles 7.29. Acts 17. 26, 28, 29. 1 Cor. 11.7. Eph. 4. 24. Col. 3. 10. James 3. 9. ych. 9. 2.
Pa. 8. 6.
21 Cor. 11. 7.
Mal 2. 15.
b ch. 9. 1, 7.
Ps. 127. 3.
Heb. treepeth 1 Heb. seeding seed. ech. 9. 3.
30 And to
and to every fowl of the air, and to
Job 36. 31. Ps. 104. 14, 15.
& 136. 25.
& 146. 7. Acts 14. 17.
a Ps. 33. 6.
& 31. 17. Deut. 5. 14. Heb. 4. 4.
Is. 58. 13.
VAR. REND.-Chap. 1. 1 Vs. 1-3. In the beginning,HUS the heavens and the earth were TH when God created the heaven and the earth-when finished, and "all the host of them. the earth was waste and wild, and darkness was upon 2 And on the seventh day God endedEx 20. 11. the face of the deep, and the spirit (or, breath) of his work which he had made; and he God was brooding (or, hovering) upon the face of rested on the seventh day from all his the water-Then God said, &c., Ew. Schr. Martineau, work which he had made. Or else render r. 1 as in A. V., for a superscription 3 And God blessed the seventh day, and Neh. 9. 14. of the chapter, and continue; Now the earth was sanctified it: because that in it he had waste and wild, &c. (as above), and God said.-Graf, Ch. 2 V. 5. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. Similarly throughout the chapter, —3 V. 11. trees. -in the several kinds thereof. So throughout the chapter. V. 12. wherein is the seed thereof. V. 16. the two.
e Job 38. 41.
† Heb. a
living soul. Pe. 104 24.
1 Tim. 4. 4.
VAR. REND.-7 V. 20. Lit. swarm with a swarm of living souls.- -8 before the. V. 21. sea-monsters. 10V. 21. Lit. soul. V. 24. Lit. living souls. VAR. READ.-Chap. 1. V. 26. B the living creatures of the earth, Pesh. Ew. Ol.