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Cod. memb. ci., and was the gift of John Mabelthorpe. Percy's connection with the ducal house of It is entitled “ Dionysii Areopagitæ de Cælesti Hierar- Northumberland is “not proven.” In the Bridg. chia liber in capitulis quindecim distinctus; cum com- north register the name is spelt “ Pearcy; mento abbreviato.” Then follows, “Liber de Ecclesiastica the Council books of that town Piercy,” and also Hierarchia, ex ejusdem interpretis versione et interpreta- in the catalogue of Oxford Graduates; in a Battel tione.” (Vide Coxe's Catalogue, and Pegge's Life of book at Christ Church it is “ Peircy;” but in the Bishop Grosseteste, 1793, 4to, p. 290.)]

register at Easton Maudit, in his own hand, it is RAYMUND LULLY.- I shall feel obliged if you most clearly and legibly written “Percy,” and the will kindly furnish me with a list of books giving date of this is 1753. The fact of his father having any account of Raymund Lully. OSPHAL. been a grocer at Bridgenorth was disputed by his

[Some account of Raymund Lully, the Enlightened descendants, but it is now proved beyond doubt ; Doctor, may be found in the Penny Cyclopædia ; Aikins's

for MR. HUBERT SMITH, the deputy town clerk of Biographical Dictionary; the new edition of the Biográ- Bridgenorth, found a minute referring to his trade phie Universelle, and Trithemius On the Illustrious Writers -namely, “it is ordered and agreed that Arthur of the Church, 1546, 4to.]

Piercy of Birmingham, the son of Arthur Low

Piercy of Bridgnorth, grocer, shall be admitted as Replies.

a burgess, August 12,1755,” the said Arthur Piercy

being the brother of the editor of the Reliques of BISHOP PERCY, AND HIS “RELIQUES.” Ancient English Poetry. (4th S. ii. 169.)

The Memoir of Percy prefixed to the Ballad Having contributed several articles to the Third Book was undertaken and written from my having Series of “N. & Q.” on Thomas Percy, Bishop of

ever taken an interest in the Reliques, and from Dromore, and his books, under my

old signature,

once having held a curacy almost within a walk OXONIENSIS, I am rather surprised that MR. PAYNE of Easton Maudit, in Northamptonshire, for so COLLIER has not noticed them before, as his note many years his quiet home.

Several inaccurain the last number of your periodical indicates cies have crept in, and it might easily have been his taking an interest in the subject. They were

made more perfect had access to a good library written, besides, chiefly with a view of obtaining been afforded, but in a lonely country place the additional information, and any given would have chance was not permitted. It has, however, I been gladly received.

hope, chronicled hitherto unrecorded facts conNow, first, the letter which Mr. PAYNE COLLIER cerning Percy, and shown his industrious painsprints, dated Easton Maudit, April 16, 1761, is, I taking character. He might not indeed have imagine, addressed to the publisher of the Grand | been a man of first-rate abilities, but at any rate Magazine-a periodical to which Percy contributed. the merit is his of having been the first to pioneer I have in my possession a copy of a letter of a

the way in several hitherto untravelled tracts of somewhat similar kind, transcribed from an original

literature. in the Bodleian Library, from him to the pub- I should imagine that no library possesses a lishers, offering some translations, &c., for insertion. complete collection of the books that Percy either

Then as to the little poem, “Deep howls the compiled or edited, for they are many in number storm with chilling blast,” &c., it was inserted in the and some are of extreme rarity. Very few copies Appendix to my Memoir of Bishop Percy in order again were printed of his interesting correspondto show that the attachment to Mrs. Percy was ence with Paton, Edinburgh, 1830. One is in the of the most permanent kind, and the date given Bodleian stores, and was shown to me by a friend. is undoubtedly March 22, 1788, as MR. PAYNE I have heard that MR. PAYNE COLLIER possesses COLLIER observes, "six years after Percy became a copy of the works of Surrey edited by Percy, Bishop of Dromore," and, it may be added, when the whole of the impression of which was dehe was fifty-nine years of age. I pass no judg- stroyed by a fire which took place in Red Lion ment on the merits of the poem. It was sent to Passage, in 1808, with the exception of a few me by the Rev. H. B. Knox, the present rector copies privately circulated. It may interest him of Dromore, who told me that he had copied it to know that now an excellent photograph of the from an album belonging to a lady of that place, bishop's birth-place at Bridgnorth may, for a but I was unable even with the assistance of a very trifling sum, be procured, and that the house friend to decipher some of the words in the MS., itself was very recently in the market, and might and this will account for inaccuracies, for we had have been purchased at a reasonable rate. to guess at some words, and endeavour to go as

Join PICKFORD, M.A. near the mark as we could. Mr. Knox informed Tamworth, Staffordshire. me that the poem was addressed to Mrs. Percy, and that he believed it to have been written for While I am pleased to see Mr. PAYNE COLthe album above-mentioned, and never to have LIER's notes on "Bishop Percy and his Reliques," been printed.

and obliged to him for printing them, I ask you to

allow me, in justice to MR. PICKFORD, to observe I have known this song for nearly thirty years, that lines 5 and 6 of MR. PICKFORD'S “Life though I am unable to say if it has been in print; state that Percy's grandfather was a grocer as well but I think that such must have been the case. as his father; and also that the note on the remember hearing it sung, when I was a boy, at second page of the “Life” states that a woodcut the Kidderminster Theatre, by an actor dressed in of the old Percy house is to be found in Mr. Bel- character as an old farmer. It was sung between lett's Antiquities of Bridgnorth.

the drama and farce, and went to the tune of F. J. FURNIVALL. “The Cork Leg," and I afterwards sung it myself

at some schoolboy theatricals. Since then it has

lived in my memory, and it differed but little from ILLUSTRATIONS OF BISHOP PERCY'S the version quoted in your pages. The omitted FOLIO MANUSCRIPT.--No. II.

lines of the third verse were these (following " THE FARMER AND THE KING."

“He found the King to Windsor had flown,”) — (4th S. ii. 152.)

“If he'd a known he'd not been at home, When I was a boy I heard this ballad sung, He'd dang d his buttons if he'd ever have gone." and I have ever since remembered it. My recol- “ Home" was pronounced " whum," so as to lection enables me to supply some of the lacuna rhyme with “come.” The next verse began with in your correspondent's version. I think there is the line a dash of the seaside in such terms as he darned

“So this old chap to Windsor did stump." his eyes.” It smacks of Plymouth.

Of course the singing of the song was accom“There was an old chap in the west countree,

panied with much acting and expressive pant A flaw in his lease the lawyers had found;

mime.

CUTHBERT BEDE. 'Twas all about felling of five oak trees, And building a house upon his own ground. Right too ra loo ral, &c.

I learnt the following many years ago as the “This old chap to Lunnon would go

third and fourth lines of stanza 3, in the West To tell the king a part of his grief,

Country story of “The Farmer and the King":Likewise to tell him a bit of his woe, In hopes the king would give him relief.

“ Zays he, if I'd known he'd not been at home, Right too ra loo ral, &c.

Why, dash my buttons if ever I'd come.” “When this old chap to Lunnon was come,

Also my version of line 3, stanza 8, was :-
He found the king to Windsor was gone;
And gain he had known that he had not been there,

“ Likewise ten shillings and half-a-crown." He dashed his wig if he'd comed so far.

J. J. M. Right too ra loo ral, &c. “So when this old chap to Windsor was come, He walked right up before the door;

I send you the third verse of “ The Farmer and He banged and he thumped wi' his oaken clump,

the King," as I knew it when a boy: • There is room enough there for I to be sure.'

“ When this old chap to Lunnon was come, Right too ra loo ral, &c.

And found the King to Windsor had gone, “ Please, Mr. Noble, show I the king.

He said, If I'd ha known he han bin at home, Lord! bee's that the king as I sees there!

Dash my buttons if I'd ha come.' Well, I seed a chap at Bartlemy Fair

Ri tooral looral,” &c. Look'd more like a king nor that chap there.'

DAVID GOODING. Right too ra loo ral, &c. “ • Well, Mr. King, an' how do you do? I ha' gotten for you a bit o' a job,

There is a chorus to “The Farmer and the King," And gain for me the thing you will do,

“ Ri tooral looral looral loe, I ha' gotten a summat for you in my fob.'

Right fal la fal la."
Right too ra loo ral, &c.
“The king he took the lease in han,

The third verse is, I believe :-
To sign it too he were quite willin;
So the farmer to make him a bit o' amends

“When this ol' chap to Lunnun had come, He pulled out his bag, and he gi'ed him a shilling.

He voun the King to Windsor had gone,
Right too ra loo ral, &c.

But if he'd known he'd not been at home, “ The king to carry on the joke,

He dong'd his wig if ever he'd come.
He ordered ten pounds to be paid down.
The farmer he stared, but nothing spoke,
He stared again, and he scratched his crown.

“ Then this ol' chap to Windsor did stump,
* Right too ra loo ral, &c.

But the gates were barr’d and all secure, &c. “ The farmer he stared to see so much gold, And to take it up he were quite willing ;

“ The King, to carry on the joke, But he said, gain he'd known he had so much cash,

Ordered ten pounds to be paid down; He darn'd his eyes if he'd a' gien him the shilling." The Farmer he stared, but nothing spoke, J. EMERSON TENNENT.

He stared again, and scratched his crown.

III.

IV.

VIII.

IX.

of those parts grow very impatient that the “ The Farmer he stared and looked very funny, Royalists should be driven out of Leeds and To take it up was likewise willin;

Wakefield," for by them all trade and provisions But 'a said, if a'd know'd he'd a got so much money, He'd a dashed his wig vore he'd gi'd un a shilling."

are stopped, so that the people in these clothing

towns are not able to subsist ;” and goes on to This is the way my brother used to sing “The state that if speedy action be not taken by the Farmer and the King.” some thirty years ago. Parliamentary leaders the people will rise of them

HENRY WARREN, Vicar of Flixton. selves. He then proceeds to urge Lord Fairfax Bungay, Suffolk.

to give instructions as to what course he is to

pursue, as he shrinks from the responsibility of The song of “The Farmer and the King” is raising the country without the orders of his printed in the Universal Songster, vol. iii. p. 381, superior in command. The conclusion of the misunder the name of “The King and the West- sive shows that he calculated on finding great Countryman.” "The missing lines” are con- readiness for war among his neighbours. He tained in stanza 3:

says: “ Now this old chap to Lunnun did go,

“I am sure I shall have above six hundred muskets But found the King to Windsor had gone;

if I summons the country to come in, besides 3000 and But if he had a known he'd not been at home,

more with other weapons, that would rise with us. If He domed his buttons if ever he'd come.

Ri tooral, &c.”

your lordship please to give me power to join with the

readiness of the people, I doubt not but, by God's assistS. D, S.

ance, to give your lordship a good account of what we

do." The friend of Mr. FURNIVALL’s correspondent The old lord's answer has not, I fear, been says that the ballad of “The Farmer and the preserved. The summons to the Mirfield conKing.” was printed many years since. I have a stable shows that he gave his consent to the copy before me, under the title of “ The King and proposition “ to raise the country.” It appears the Countryman," in a little volume, The Comic froni Sir Thomas Fairfax's own memoirs that Songster, published in 1840, by Hamilton, Glas- summonses of this kind were issued on two occagow, from the press of our Paisley Nestor of sions. He wrote this meagre sketch of his public printers, John Neilson. It varies a little from the life many years after the events narrated had Devonshire version printed in “N. & Q.” In taken place, and the book is therefore very scanty printing the third stanza, Mr. Shelley does not in dates : though, where they are given, it is recollect the last two lines of it. This is the usually safe to trust them. I gather from these third stanza in our Paisley copy:

memorials that the first summons had been sent “ When this old chap to Lunnun had come,

out, probably in December, for the purpose of He found the King to Windsor had gone ; getting together footmen for the protection of But if he had a-known he'd not been at home, Bradford; and that the second, of which the MirHe domed his buttons if ever he'd come.”

field document is a specimen, was issued after

JAMES J. LAMB. Lord Fairfax had been communicated with, and Underwood Cottage, Paisley.

when Sir Thomas had fully determined on his line of conduct.

“We summon'd the country again,” he says, and LETTER FROM SIR T. FAIRFAX.

made a body of twelve or thirteen hundred men, with (4th S. ii. 149.)

which we marched to Leeds." Your Dewsbury correspondent deserves the

These raw levies must have formed a considerthanks of all who take an intelligent interest in able part of the force with which he on January 23 the history of our great civil war. The document drove the Royalists under Sir William Saville out of which he has published in your columns to-day Leeds. On the 26th of the same month Lord Fairhas not, as far as I can make out, appeared in fax was at Selby. From thence he wrote a letter to print before. No doubt it was one of many copies Lenthall, the Speaker of the House of Commons, in sent abroad among the towns and villages near which, among other facts relating to the state of the Bradford for the purpose of raising forces for the then contemplated assault on Leeds. A letter

* Short Memorials of Thomas Lord Fairfax, written by from Sir Thomas Fairfax to his father, dated Himself, 1699, pp. 14-15.

+ Sir William Saville of Thornhill, co. York, married “Bradford, January 9th, 1642 ” [1643), is extant. Anne, daughter of Thomas Lord Coventry, Keeper of the The original is, I think, but am not sure, among

Great Seal. After his defeat at Wakefield he was apthe Additional Manuscripts in the British Museum. pointed Governor of Sheffield Castle. He was afterwards I only know it from the modernised copy in Bell's

Governor of York, in which post he died Jan. 24, 1643-4.

Hunter's Hallamsh, p. 112; Courthope's Synopsis of Memorials of the Civil War, vol. i. p. 33. In this Baronetuge, p. 176; Whitaker's Loidiæ and Elmete, pp. 314, communication Sir Thomas says that the people 317.

com

country, he gave an account of this action.* The perhaps prove not uninteresting to some of your fight lasted about two hours; only forty men were

readers less versed in Indian antiquities. slain in all. The Parliamentarians were

Two monolithic columns, one near Delhi, the pletely victorious. They captured five hundred other at Allahabad, bearing inscriptions in an unprisoners, of whom six were officers; took four known character, had long excited the curiosity colours, and two " brass sakers,” † and all the of the learned. In 1833 the interest felt in them munitions of war in the place," which was not was revived by James Prinsep, who published drawmuch.” Of Fairfax's people only thirteen were ings of them, with copies of the inscriptions, in killed, but two officers, Captains Briggs and Lee, the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.* This were wounded. The Royalist commander escaped led to the discovery of other similar pillars or “by secret ways towards Pomfrait. Ser- láts, as they were called, at Mathiah and Radhia jeant-Major Beaumont was drowned crossing the in Tirhoot, and of inscriptions on rocks in Cutriver, and Sir William Saville very narrowly tack, Ganjam, and Guzerat, which, on comparison, escaped the like fate.”

proved to be repetitions' identical, or nearly so, There is, I think, a misprint or an error of tran

one with another. At length, in 1837, Prinsep scription in the fifth line from the end : “ ye com- detecting the constant recurrence of the same mon pock” should be “ye common stock." word in some short cave-temple legends, which,

If your correspondent has found any more relics by a happy guess, he conjectured to represent the of the great civil war among the papers he has Sanscrit for “gift” (danam), hit upon the value of examined, I hope he will commit them to the a few letters; and following the clue thus obcustody of the printing-press.

tained, he completed the alphabet. † The inscrip

EDWARD PEACOCK. tions were then found to consist of a series of Bottesford Manor, Brigg.

Buddhist edicts, promulgated by a prince named
Piyadási, whose rule, as indicated by the extent

covered by his decrees, embraced the whole of MODERN INVENTION OF THE SANSCRIT

India. Another copy of the same edicts in the ALPHABET.

old Pehlivi character was found in the neighbour(4th S. i. 125, 610; ii. 67.)

hood of Peshawer. In reply to the objection that no notice has

This Piyadási was next identified with Asoca been taken of the Arabic collection of alphabets by means of the historical annals of Ceylon, on which the hypothesis of the modern invention brought to light by Mr. Turnour, and confirmed of the Sanscrit alphabet is founded, I have to ob- by M. Csoma de Koros from those of Tibet. They serve that, never having met with the work either clearly describe the rise and progress of Buddhism, in the original or translation, I did not feel com

and the conversion of “Asoca or Dhamma Asoca, petent to criticise it. I considered that if the Lát surnamed Piyadassi,” I to that faith. He is shown character could be shown to have existed

before to have been the grandson of Chandragupta, the the Christian era, the argument based on the col- Sandracottus of the Greeks, as first suggested lection of Ahmad bin Bakar, made in the seventh by Sir William Jones, Originally a mere military century after the birth of Christ, with the infer- adventurer, he succeeded in delivering his country ence that therefore the Sanscrit, Tamil, and other from foreign invaders, about 316 B.C.; and then dialects of S. India” "must have been invented extending his sway over all N. India, he left his subsequent to that compilation," would necessarily throne to his son Bindusára, B.C. 291. Asoca sucfall to the ground.

ceeded, B.C. 263, and still further extended his Believing that the identification of the earliest kingdom towards the south. With the zeal of a known inscriptions discovered in India with the

recent convert, he employed his great power to name of Asoca, a Buddhist sovereign of the third promulgate the tenets of his new

creed, despatchcentury, B.C., was a fact accepted by all Oriental ing missions to Tibet, Burma, Ceylon, and the a reference to it

, as a sufficient reply to the sug- tiers of Affghanistan to the Bay of Bengal. archæologists now living, I contented myself with neighbouring countries, and causing his orders to

engraven on rocks and pillars from the frongestion founded on the work of the Arabian palæographer. But, as R. R. W. Ellis is not satis

Although no date is found in the inscriptions fied with this answer, I will shortly state the themselves, they contain allusions to contemporary evidence on which it rests; which, moreover, may princes, who undoubtedly lived before the Chris

tian era. Among these is an Antiochus of the * The letter may be seen at length in Rushworth, part Seleucidæ, a Ptolemy of Egypt, and other Greek II. vol. iii. pp. 125-127.

†.“A very old gun 8 or 9 feet long, and of about 51bs. calibre, The name is thought to have been derived * Vol. iii. 105, and following vols. from the French oath sacre." (Smyth's Sailor's Word- Jour. As. Soc. Beng. vi. 460, 566, 790. Book, sub voc.) Surely it comes rather from sacre, a kind Jour. As. Soc. Ben, vi. 791. Turnour's Mahawanso. of hawk.

§ Cunningham's Bhilsa Topes, chaps. viii. ix. and xi.

names. Epigraphs in the Lát character likewise and copied, from which it appears that he was a occur on coins of some of the Bactrian kings, as mere, petty, local chief in the S.W. part of the Agathocles and Pantaleon, to whom Wilson as- Dekhan-a feudal dependant of the great Chesigns the dates of 135 and 120 B.c. respectively. lukya empire of Kalyán. In his grants, extending

The evidence for the antiquity of an indigenous from A.D. 1034 to 1064, he is styled “the head of Sanscrit alphabet thus appears to be complete. the Kadamba family, and chief of Banawagri; " Whether the promulgator of the edicts was named but in reality his territorial influence was conPiyadási or Asoca, or whether, as Wilson main- fined to a tract of country around Hangal, in the tained, † they were different persons, does not modern province of Dharwar, between the Krishna affect the question.

and Tungabhadra * rivers.

W. E. In addition to the above historical proof, I attempted in a former reply I to show by internal evidence, deduced from the forms of the letters

HAWAIIAN ALPHABET. themselves, that they were not derived from a foreign source. The simple forms of the charac

(4th S. ii. 80, 140.) ters, as they occur in the earliest inscriptions, Thanks to MR. T. J. BUCKTON. But as my seem to prove that they were invented or taken "native" informant, who appeared to understand arbitrarily to meet the requirements of the phone- the matter, assured me that the twelve letters, a, tic system of India when the use of written sym- e, i, o, u, h, k, l, in, n, p, w, constituted the fundabols in other (probably western) countries had mental alphabet, and as it appears Ellis says it shown the superior value of permanent records consists of seventeen letters, the other five being over oral tradition. Thus, the letter k was re- b, d, r, t, v, which is correct,—twelve or sevenpresented by a cross; the r by a line; the g by teen?' Let us try. an angle; the t by a curve; the t'h by a circle; the Now, as v is but a condition of b (see further

by a square; the p by a hook; the n by a per- on), both v and b may be referred to p; and as it pendicular on a horizontal line; the m by a curve appears that t, the twin of d, is but a poetical on a circle; the v by a line on a circle, and so substitute for k, to k may both t and d be referred. on,—the aspirated letters being often a reduplica- Next, y may be referred to l on the twin printion of the simple one, as in the case of t, th above. ciple; and then Ellis's seventeen letters becomAnd from these, not only the modern Sanscrit or ing thus reduced to twelve, will corroborate the Deva-nagari, but all the diversified Hindu alpha- statement of my informant. Ellis, it appears, bets now in use throughout India have been also says “there are no sibilants in the language, derived.

and that f, g, s, and z. have been added to his Prinsep inferred, from its complete and perfect seventeen" for the purpose of preserving the elaboration, that the Lát character had already identity of foreign words." Why may not his been used for some time before Asoca, and assigns other five have been some time added to the prito it an origin of at least two centuries earlier, mitive twelve, as the language became developed assuming the sacred works of the Buddhists to either by culture or by civilisation. Singularly have been written in it by the cotemporaries of enough our twenty-six letters may be classified Sakya himself, whose death is placed in 543 B.C. under the said twelve thus-1. A; 2. E; 3. 1, y,j; Mr. Thomas is not disposed to admit even this 4.0; 5. U; 6. H; 7. K, Ç, q, 9, t, d, 8, 2, X; 8. limit, and contends for å still earlier origin. L, r; 9. m; 10. n; 11. P, b, f, v; 12. w= : 1, 2, 4,

The whole subject has been fully discussed in 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, possessing identity, and 3, 7, the second volunie of Prinsep's collected essays, 8, 11, requiring explanation. Ionia, pinion, John, and illustrated by plates exhibiting the gradual exemplify the classification 3. In classification 1, mutation of the letters from the normal types c being = k or 8, 9 being=k, g being twin of k, into all the modern Hindu characters in use d being twin of t, and z being twin of s, we have throughout India, the different stages being de- only to show how t, 5, and x may be derived from rived from inscriptions on stone and copper at k. Well, a child, imitating an adult and trying every period from the sixth century B.C. down to to say come on, get away, generally says tum on, modern times.

det away, and shows thereby that ť and d are the The Mayúra Varma Déva referred to by Col. natural substitutes of k and g (bard); and thus Ellis has no connection with the Asoca of the the Society Islanders, whose language was inPali Buddhistical annals. A considerable num- fantile, pronounced Cook, Toote ; and most likely ber of inscriptions recording grants by him Gore, Doarro, and not Toarro. Next, t being and his immediate descendants have been collected the natural substitute of k, we find that s is not

Arcuna Antiqua, 294, 300 ; Jour. As. Soc. Beng. vi. only a natural equivalent for t by the Society 465. Jour. Roy. As. Soc. xii. xvii.

* Hindu Inscriptions in the Jour. Roy. As. Soc. No. 7. This did not appear in “ N. & Q.”

and Jour. Madras Lit, Soc, vii. 223 to 229.

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