Sidor som bilder

Mr. Green, of Ipswich, author of the Diary of a Lover of Literature, having no doubt examined Lobo and been disappointed, gave up Abyssinia altogether, and fell back upon an Indian Paradise described by Rennell:

"The secluded Valley of Cashmere-forming an oval hollow 80 miles by 50; blooming with perennial spring, refreshed with cascades, and streams and lakes, and enriched with mountainous ridges towering into the regions of eternal snow-was perhaps Johnson's prototype for the Happy Valley of Amhara in Rasselas."- See Johnsoniana, 665.

The name of Johnson's celebrated prince was evidently taken from that of the Ras, or prince, Sela Christos, called by Lobo, or perhaps misprinted Rassela Christos (p. 102). He was governor of Bagameder, and commander-in-chief under Sultan Seged, or Segued (grandson of Basilides), who was crowned in 1609. The Eastern word Ras means a head, and also a prince, chief, or captain. Lobo says:

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"Sometimes the Emperor creates a Ratz [Ras], or Viceroy, general over all the empire, who is superior to all his other officers."-P. 48.

The name of Imlac, the prince's Mentor, seems to have been taken from that of an Abyssinian emperor who ascended the throne about the year 1300. Imla, or Imlac, is said to have been the name also of the Ethiopian eunuch whom St. Philip baptized; and Lobo mentions his name at p. 45.

Johnson's philosophic tale, setting forth a search after happiness, may have been partly suggested to him by a passage in the Miscellanies of Norris of Bemerton, who, after speaking of Solomon's experiments, gives a story of an Eastern emperor out of Nieremberg. I shall prefix two verses of a poem by Norris on the Pursuit of Happiness, addressed "To Himself":

"Not yet convinced? why wilt thou still pursue
Through Nature's field delusive Bliss ?
'Tis false, or else too fugitive if true;
Thou may'st as soon thy shadow overtake as this.
The gaudy light still dances in thine eye,

Thou, hot and eager in the chase,

Art drawn through many a thorny rugged place, Still labouring and sighing, but canst ne'er come nigh." "Give o'er, my Soul, give o'er, nor strive again

This treacherous Chymic Gold to find.
Tell me, why should'st thou fancy, there remain
Days yet to come more sweet than those thou'st left

A wiser Chymist far than thou, t'obtain
This Jewel all his treasures spent ;
But yet he failed in's grand Experiment,

And all he gained was this, to know that all was vain." "And that what this great Inquirer after Happiness experimented is every man's case, I am farther assured, when I contemplate that the greatest favourites of Fortune, those who have had the world at command, and could enjoy all that is good in it, have yet all along been subject to melancholy, especially after some notable enjoyment; as the Grecian hero wept when he had con

their fulness;

quered the world. Now what should the cause of this be, but that they find themselves empty in the midst of that however every sense be feasted to the height, yet that they desire farther than they enjoy; there remains a general appetite, that of being happy, which is not satisfied; and not only so, but because they suspect withal (as indeed they have very good reason, having tasted the utmost of Nature's entertainment) that it never shall be. And from this desire and despair proceeds their melancholy and dejection of spirit. And to this purpose, I call to mind a very remarkable story recorded by Eusebius Nierembergius, in his De Arte Voluntatis (1. vi. p. 537), concerning an Eastern Emperor who was minded to try the same experiment upon his son as Solomon did upon himself; and see how far the accommodations of life might go towards true Felicity. He accordingly trained him up from his infancy in magnificent objects, that he might not have so much as a notion of apartments, studiously removed from him all pitiable Misery, humoured him in every punctilio, and furnished him with whatsoever he either did wish for or might be supposed to take pleasure in till at length, the unfortunately happy young man, observing himself to be still in desires, and that in a state of all possible worldly affluence, could no longer flatter himself with imaginary prospects, but concluded that no condition would ever mend the matter; and so fell into extreme melancholy and despair."- Miscellanies, 6th edit., London, 1717, pp: 26, 216.

Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, quotes from Marco Polo an account of another Happy Valley:

"A Tartar prince, saith Marcus Polus (lib. i. c. 28), called Senex de Montibus, the better to establish his government amongst his subjects and to keep them in awe, found a convenient place in a pleasant valley environed with hills, in which he made a delicious park full of odoriferous flowers and fruits, and a palace full of all worldly contents that could possibly be devised, music, pictures, variety of meats, &c.; and chose out a certain young man, whom, with a soporiferous potion, he so benumbed that he perceived nothing; and so, fast asleep as he was, caused him to be conveyed into this fair garden. Where after he had lived awhile in all

such pleasures a sensual man could desire, he cast him into a sleep again and brought him forth, that when he awaked he might tell others he had been in Paradise."Edit. 1840, p. 673.

This is the "Mahumetical Paradise" described by Purchas as having been formed in the northeast parts of Persia by a certain false prophet named Aloadin, or Aladeules, and afterwards destroyed by the Ottoman Emperor Selim: it is "the Paradise of Sin" so vividly pictured in EIRIONNACH. Southey's Thalaba.


In the Catalogue of the National Exhibition of Works of Art at Leeds, my friend Mr. William Smith, F.S.A. has written a short section, introductory to the etchings and engravings which, as the Honorary Superintendent, he has collected and arranged.

In a résumé of the History of Mezzotint Engraving, he justly gives the credit of the invention

to Louis von Siegen, a Dutch artist, but of German extraction, and observes that up to a comparatively recent period Prince Rupert, on the authority of John Evelyn, had the honour of the discovery, "and that Leon Laborde, in his History of Mezzotinto Engraving, gives the facsimile of a letter written by Siegen, dated 1642, in which he states that he has recently made the discovery, but gives no account of the process." Mr. Smith's observations_remind me that, more than thirty years since, I exhibited at meetings of the Society of Antiquaries an extensive series of early mezzotinto engravings (then in my own possession, but since purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum); and in a letter to Sir Henry Ellis, I pointed out that Prince Rupert was not entitled to the honour of being considered the discoverer of the process, although he distinctly claimed it in his lifetime as his own discovery.

Evelyn, in his Sculptura, or History of the Art of Chalcography (London, 1662), gives a chapter "Of the new way of Engraving or Mezzotinto, invented and communicated by his Highnesse Prince Rupert, Count Palatine of Rhyne, &c.," and says:

"This obligation, then, we have to His Highness PRINCE RUPERT, Count Palatine of Rhyne, &c., who has been pleased to cause the instruments to be expressly fitted to show me with his own hands how to manage, and conduct them on the plate, that it might produce the effects I have so much magnified, and I am here ready to show to the world, in a piece of his own illustrious touching which he was pleased to honour this work withal, not as a venal addition to the price of the book (although for which alone it is most valuable), but a particular grace as a specimen of what we have alleged, and to adorn the present chapter.'

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So long as Evelyn's works exist, persons will be disposed to give the prince the credit of the invention, and many admirers refuse to admit the claims for another. An author of great popularity has observed, in writing of Prince Rupert: "His strict reputation of the invention of the art of mezzotint engraving has been somewhat questioned, but with little probability." I remember being addressed by the late Mr. Eliot Warburton, in scarcely courteous terms, on the attempt to deprive his hero of his then acknowledged right.

No doubt others before myself were cognisant of the facts brought before the Society of Antiquaries, but it did not then seem to me that the various allusions were supported by actual knowledge, or a sight and examination of the pictures on which these opinions were offered. I made the suggestion that, from the great rarity and delicacy of the works of Siegen, it was most probable that "they were merely distributed among his friends and patrons." That suggestion is

The work contains a small plate, the facsimile work of his head of the executioner of St. John, after Spagnoletto, dated 1658. It is of considerable rarity. A good copy of the book, with the print, is in the library of the Society of Antiquaries.

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"In the same manner as my humble devotion, more than a consideration of reward, has brought me to your by your Grace, have been rather derogated by some Grace's service; although these services, however agreed persons: I have not relented in devoting to your Grace my diligence, my labour, and my time; in proof of which I most humbly do present the present piece to your Princely Grace.

"This is the copper-plate print, most gracious Prince and Lord, which some time ago I mentioned to you to have executed to your Grace's mother's laudable commemoration with the view to bring the said portrait into the possession of several persons of rank, acquainted with the illustrious deeds of this far-famed Princess.


"But having invented quite a new and hitherto unknown proceeding, I have been able to print off from the copper-not thousands as from common plates-but only a few, owing to the subtlety of the workmanship, for which reason I have only a small number of copies to present. Of course I first of all make application to your Princely Grace, especially in dedicating the same to you according to the inscription at the bottom, and for the following reasons: for the first, because the said object-the remembrance of your mother-cannot but be agreeable to your Grace as being the nearest, nay the only Son of the reigning Princess. For the second, because I durst not omit dedicating a work of art so rare as never heard of before to such an extraordinary amateur of the fine arts as your Grace is.

"No Engraver, or no Artist, will be able to imagine how this work could be done, because as your Grace is aware of, hitherto only three different species of work

manship are seen: to wit, 10, Line Engraving or cutting;

2o, Etching; 3o, A very uncommon manner, called the dotted manner, with points altogether-but different and very troublesome, and therefore not in use.

"This present manner, however, is none of thesethough also consisting entirely of little dots, without a single line, and tho' some parts has the appearance of lines, the whole is altogether stippled.

"I ought not to omit to state this, for the guidance of such an experienced amateur as your Grace is.

"Recommending your Grace to the Divine Providence and welfare, I also recommend myself, remaining your Grace's most true and humble servant, "L. DE SIEGEN.

"Amsterdam, 19/29 August, 1642. "To His Highness

The Landgrave of Hesse

at Cassel."

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find a tolerably accurate list of their works in the article to which I have referred in the twentyseventh volume of The Archæologia.

I may note that the increase of the value of the early mezzotints is something fabulous; the more interesting of the early specimens scarcely ever occur for sale, and prints which formerly could have been bought for shillings would now be thought to be fairly purchased at as many pounds. HUGH W. DIAMOND, M.D.

From Sloane MS. 1590, fol. 1.

"This was writ 1551; I mean, all the olde writeing," says a side-note in a later hand on the MS. The poem, like the last, "Tell them all they lie," bewails and denounces the evils of the time, but in much more stilted phrase, with much less vigour. The rhymester's oten reede skrekes out his dolourous lines till, in the last verse but one, he rises to something like power. Still, in whatever words, the spirit that will not be quiet while wrong goes on, is welcome to the ear. Reform is one of the cries which in this world should never cease.

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The title of the present series of poems is altered into "Pieces from Manuscripts," because not only have two out of four that I have printed as "Inedited Pieces" turned out to have been printed before, but the last is actually in Percy's Reliques, vol. ii., though with a different title, and without the two stanzas on London and cuckolds. I propose to follow up the present poem with one of Occleve's, and then to begin the Songs and Carols from Richard Hill's Commonplace Book, a Balliol MS. F. J. FURNIVALL.

The auncyente writers of Philosophie,
whose purchas'de fame shall neuer be forgotten,
but viridante in perpetuitie

shall liue extoll'd,-though they are dead & rotten,-
while we declare how they were wonte to scanne
& study of the misery of man.

The loue of wisdome bids me set in frame
the barbrous skrekinge of my oten reede,
in rustique sheapheards tones to singe the same
that they my witty auncyents first did breede,
that I, poore Impe, may striue with pipe & pen
to shew the shininge fame of learned men:
And as they spente theire yeares, theire dayes, theire

to tell of things that douptles then were rife,
restinge them-selues amidste the leafy bowers,
pondringe the state & crosse of humane life;
soe I mine otes to dolefull notes will rayse,
& singinge, weepe the crosses of these dayes.
Ah wretched worlde! ah vale of miserye !
while I liue heare vpon these downes contente,
my bright & euer-rowlinge eyes can see

how thou arte fram'd, & which way thou art bente.
& how thy weale, thy wante & woe doth bringe,
ofte makes me morne when as I thinke to singe.

To see how many murmurre at theire state, how manye weepe at theire calamities, how many nature as a stepdame hate, how many blush not, laughe, at miseryes, how many, desprate, yeilde to Tymons tree or some such like dispairinge destinye! As I remember, longe agoe I reade vpon this hill, or not farre from this place, of on Aurelius that now is deade, who as a prince in Roma run his race, who fiftye yeares endevored to see whether mans nature might sufficed be. "whereon," sayde he, "my braynes were almoste spente, my sences in the floud of study drownde,

my wits growne weakened, wrested, wracke & rente,"
if you will heare, I'le tell you what I founde,
his purpose, through his labours, brought to passe:
"Ah, worthy ruler,"-this his language was-
"I hongred in the deepe of dayntie fare,
I thirsted in the midste of dronkennesse;
sleepe made me sleepe, in reste I slothfull were;
In Avarice I loued that exesse,

the more I sought, the more was fortune scante,
& still, me thought, a worlde of wealth was wante."
Rare speeches from soe great an Emperoure!
worthy to be engrau'd in marble faire,
or if twere soe, they cud by mortall powre
be fixed & deciphred in the aire

Soe playne, that ech man by a kings directions
might view the Image of his owne affections.
Alas! the earth is dronke in Blasphemies,
effusions, slaughters, stratagems & fraudes,
Ambition, rapine, hatred, avarice,
rigour, vengeaunce, adultery of baudes.
ah, this would make kinge David speake anew!
this prooues the Prophesie of Esay true!
These fowle reproches, & a thousand more
which my poore pen, (beleeue me,) can not name,
began when heavenlye loue shut Eden dore;
& we, like wretches, persevere the same;

& for these faultes, be-holde what woes are sente,
that wilbe worser if we not repente.


It will probably be difficult, at this time of day, to obtain much information as to this obscure writer. I have succeeded in learning nothing of him myself beyond the few facts which I have gleaned from his books. In the first place we have:

"The Frauds of Roman Monks and Priests set forth in Eight Letters. Lately written by a Gentleman, in his Journey into ITALY, and Publish'd for the Benefit of the Publick," 8vo, 1691.

From the dedication of this book to the Earl of Nottingham, we learn that its author was "a stranger in this country"; and from his address to the Reader we gather some further particulars as to his former condition, and his motives for the publication of his work:

"It must be granted, that the Publick have been just in the kind Reception they have given to the LETTERS of Dr. Burnet, now the Right Reverend Bishop of Salisbury, concerning his Voyage to Italy. The Truth of his

Relations hath been own'd by all those who have had the Curiosity to Visit those Countries, and given occasion to the Learned, to make curious Reflections upon them. But above all I have observed, that the Passages he hath inserted by the by, about some of their Religious Practices, have particularly pleased the English Nation, who (above all) abominate Popery. 'Tis this consideration at first, that begat a Desire in me to publish many other Particulars on this subject, especially upon the Lives and Practices of Romish Priests and Monks, which were known to me, as having been a Secular Priest of the same Church, and could not come so easily to the knowledge of


He further adds, that he has

"Still Matter enough in store to fill another Volume as big as this, which might serve for a Second Part, &c.; and concludes

"Lastly, Forasmuch as those Observations made in my Travels have much conduced to the Change of my Religion; so (I trust in God) the Publication of them will have a good effect upon others, by opening the Eyes of the People of the Roman Church; by discouraging those that Seduce them; and by putting Protestants upon Rendring hearty Thanks to God, for having delivered them from so miserable a Slavery."

Dr. Parr wrote in his copy, "a very entertaining book." A reprint of it appeared, "London, 1817," in the title-page to which it is ascribed to

"A Frenchman who was formerly a monk, but afterwards became a Convert to the Church of England." And the editor, in his "Address to the Reader," alludes to the matter, which

And setting forth as a motive for its publication"Several of the Order of Gray and Black Fryars, hav ing had confidence in the late King James's Reign, not only to flock by Troops from beyond Seas into England, but also to appear publickly in their Monkish Habits, and a great many others of different Colours preparing to follow. The People here was not in a little amazement to see these new Faces, while the Papists were very busie in combing the Fox's Tail to make it appear finer, and magnified every where the pretended Holiness, both of these Monks and of their Habits. The good Protestants did only laugh at them, but the wiser sort inquired who they were, and in what Book one might have a sufficient notice of them," &c.

So much for these three little volumes, which are not often found together, or indeed separately, but which will repay the collector for the trouble and expense of their acquisition. Birmingham.



Although the discussion of every political question, as a matter of course, is excluded from the columns of "N: & Q.," the historical illustration of any such question may very properly find a place in them.

Under these circumstances, as I have lately had occasion to look into the history of the Coronation

“He has every reason to believe is actual fact, which he Oath, with the view of ascertaining the circumknows by an experience of twenty-eight years."

-There is a French translation —

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"Ruses et Fourberies des Pretres est des Moines," 8vo. Leipzig, 1845.

The success which the work met with the copy before me is the third edition-encouraged the author to publish his threatened sequel, which is entitled ::

"Observations on a Journey to Naples, wherein the FRAUDS of Romish Monks and Priests are farther Discover'd. By the Author of a late Book, Entituled, &c." London, 8vo, 1791.

This also met with the approbation of Dr. Parr, who styles it "very interesting"; and, indeed, both this and the former volume will be found to contain a great amount of very curious and amusing matter.

We next hear of the author in

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"A Short History of Monastical Orders, in which the Primitive Institution of MONKS, their Tempers, Habits, Rules, and the Condition they are in at Present, are Treated of." By Gabriel d'Emillianne. 8vo. London: Roycroft, 1693.

He dedicates his book to the archbishops, bishops, and the rest of the reverend clergy of the Church of England, stating in his preface:

"As I cannot sufficiently praise God for his great Mercy in calling me to be a Member of this Holy Church, so I thought I could not honour enough those who are the Pillars, and the chief ornaments of it," &c.

stances under which it assumed its present form, I venture to hope that a brief note upon that subject may not be without interest to all who have had their attention drawn to that oath by the recent important discussions in which it has been so frequently referred to.

Those who desire to know what oaths were taken by the sovereigns of this country previous to the Revolution of 1688, will find much curious and trustworthy information upon the subject in Mr. Arthur Taylor's valuable volume, The Glory of Regality.

The present Coronation Oath, however, dates only from the accession of William and Mary. Immediately upon that event, "An Act for establishing the Coronation Oath" (1 Will. & Mary, c. 6) was passed, which recites that

Realm, the Kings and Queens thereof have taken solemn "Whereas, by the Law and ancient Usage of this Oath upon the Evangelists at their respective Coronations, to maintain the Statutes, Laws, and Customs of the said Realm, and all the People and Inhabitants thereof in their Spiritual and Civil Rights and Properties; but forasmuch as the Oath itself, on such Occasion administered,

hath heretofore been framed in doubtful Words and Expressions, with relation to ancient Laws and Constitutions at this time unknown. To the end, therefore, that one uniform Oath may be in all Times to come taken by the Kings and Queens of this Realm, and to them respectively administered at the times of their and every of their Coronations."

And then proceeds to enact: –

"That the Oath herein mentioned and hereafter expressed, shall and may be administered to their most Excellent Majesties King William and Queen Mary (whom God long preserve) at the time of their Coronation, in the presence of all persons that shall be then and there present at the solemnising thereof, by the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Archbishop of York, or either of them, or any other Bishop of this Realm whom the King's Majesty shall thereunto appoint, and who shall be hereby thereunto respectively authorised; which Oath followeth, and shall be administered in this manner; that is to say,

"The Archbishop or Bishop shall say

"Will you solemnly promise to govern the people of this Kingdom of England, and the Dominions thereunto belonging, according to the Statutes in Parliament on, and the Laws and Customs of the same?

"The King and Queen shall say,

"I solemnly promise so to do. "Archbishop or Bishop,

"Will you, to your power, cause Law and Justice in Mercy to be executed in all your judgments? "King and Queen,

"I will."

We then come to the Coronation Oath :-
"Archbishop or Bishop,-

"Will you, to the utmost of your power, maintain the Laws of God, the true profession of the Gospel, and the Protestant Reformed Religion established by Law? and will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of this Realm, and to the Churches committed to their Charge, all such Rights and Privileges as by Law do or shall appertain unto them or any of them? "King and Queen,

"All this I promise to do.

Majesty in the Royal Government of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and so for ever hereafter, every King or Queen succeeding and coming to the Royal Government of the Kingdom of Great Britain at his or her Coronation, shall, in the presence of all persons who shall be attending, assisting, or otherwise there and then present, take and subscribe an Oath to maintain and preserve inviolably the said Settlement of the Church of England, and the Doctrine, Worship, Discipline, and Government thereof, as by Law established within the Kingdoms of England and Ireland, the Dominion of Wales, and Town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and the Territories thereunto belong


It will be observed that by this Act the Act of William and Mary was not interfered with; the oath was not removed to give place to any new oath, but every succeeding sovereign was to take and subscribe "an" oath "To maintain and preserve inviolably the said Settlement of the Church of England, and the Doctrine, Worship, Discipline, and Government thereof as by Law established," &c.

The oath thus modified was taken by George I., George II., and George III.; but during the reign of the latter monarch an important change took place in the relations between England and Ireland and the Churches of the two countries; and the fifth article of the Act of the 40 Geo. III. Britain and Ireland," is as follows: c. 67, entitled "An Act for the Union of Great

"That it be the Fifth Article of Union, That the Churches of England and Ireland, as now by Law established, be united into One Protestant Episcopal Church, to be called, The United Church of England and Ireland; and that the Doctrine, Worship, Discipline, and Government of the said United Church shall be, and shall remain in full force for ever, as the same are now by Law established for the Church of England; and that the Continuance and Preservation of the said United Church, as the Esta

"After this, the King and Queen, laying his and her blished Church of England and Ireland, shall be deemed hand upon the Holy Gospels, shall say,

"King and Queen,—

and taken to be an essential and fundamental Part of the Union; and that in like Manner the Doctrine, Worship,

"The things which I have here before promised, I Discipline, and Government of the Church of Scotland, will perform and keep, So help me, God!

"Then the King and Queen shall kiss the Book.

"And be it further enacted, That the said Oath shall be in like manner administered to every King or Queen who shall succeed to the Imperial Crown of this Realm at their respective Coronations," &c.

But though the Parliament in 1688 declared that "the said Oath shall in like manner be administered to every King or Queen who shall succeed to the Imperial Crown of this Realm," twenty years had not elapsed before the law in this respect underwent an important change.

In 1706 an Act, 6th Anne, c. 8 (5 & 6 Anne, cap. 5, in common printed editions), was passed "for securing the Church of England as by Law established," and by this Act, which was inserted bodily in the Act of Union with Scotland, of which it forms the twenty-fifth article, it was enacted:

"That after the Demise of Her Majesty (whom God long preserve) the Sovereign next succeeding to Her

shall remain and be preserved as the same are now established by Law, and by the Acts for the Union of the Two Kingdoms of England and Scotland."

The oath taken by George IV. at his coronation, having been altered to meet the requirements of the Act of Union with Ireland, assumed the following form:


"Will you, to the utmost of your power, maintain the Laws of God, the true profession of the Gospel, and the Protestant Reformed Religion established by Law? and will you maintain and preserve inviolably the Settlement of the United Church of England and Ireland, and the Doctrine, Worship, Discipline, and Government thereof, as by Law established within England and Ireland and the Territories thereunto belonging? and will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of

* Wales and Berwick-upon-Tweed having been included in all English Acts by 20 Geo. II. c. 42, § 3, these words were afterwards omitted from the oath.

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