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alien from the ecclesiastical custom : for we have heard from our Lord's mouth, that no man can serve two masters; for he will either hate the one, and love the other; or he will cleave to the one, and despise the other. Let therefore every one, according to the Apostle's injunction, remain in that calling wherein he was called, and place himself in one Church only ; for those things which are done in ecclesiastical affairs for filthy lucre, are alien from God.” Now either those words of St. Paul do really command all clergymen to abide in that Church, in which at first they were placed ; and those words of Christ do, in their true and proper sense, forbid them to have two benefices with cure, or two churches under their care, or they do not so: if they do, then do the Doctors of the Church of Rome continually practise what is forbid by Christ, and as continually neglect what is commanded by Št. Paul ; we also have, according to the determination of this Council, a full conviction that they are generally addicted to filthy lucre, and are, above all other clergy, transgressors of ecclesiastical custom. If these texts do not bear the sense here put upon them, then hath this Council erred in their interpretation of these Scriptures; and if they have so evidently erred in those interpretations of the Scripture, which concern the manners and duty of the Christian clergy; why may they not err also in those things which concern their faith ? "Moreover, it being evident and confessed, that the command to tell the Church, especially concerns offences against good manners; and that our Lord's promise is to be with those guides, “teaching men to observe those things he hath commanded ;” surely it must be evident, that these texts are impertinently alleged for the infallibility of General Councils, in their interpretations of the holy Scripture, if they do not prove the infallibility of this General Council in the interpretation of these Scriptures.

Secondly, This Council, in her second canon, speaketh thus :* “Since when we sing, we promise to meditate in the judgments of the Lord, and not forget his words;t it is most wholesome that all Christians should observe this, but espe

Επειδήπερ ψάλλοντες συντασσόμεθα τω θεώ, εν τοίς δικαιώμασί σου μελετήσω, ουκ επιλήσομαι των λόγων σου, πάντας μεν Χριστιανούς ταύτα φυλάττειν σωτήριον και εξαίρετον, τους δε ιερατικήν αμπεχομένους άξίαν, ένθεν ορίζομεν πάντα τον προάγεσθαι μέλλοντα εις τον της επισκοπής βαθμόν πάντως το ψαλτήριον γινώσκειν. 2 Nic. Concil. Can. 2. [Ibid. p. 596.]

+ Psal. cxix. 16.

cially the hierarchy: and therefore we command that all who are promoted to a bishopric, should altogether know the Psalter.” Now I desire to know of the Romish doctors, how they will reconcile the sense here given of the Psalmist's words, with their public singing in an unknown tongue? For if it be wholesome that all Christians should observe this, and if it be certain that they cannot do it, unless they do entirely know the Psalter : it is also certain, that when the Psalter is only sung in Latin, all Christians cannot meditate in these judgments of the Lord, how wholesome soever it


be to them so to do. Again, if the forementioned privileges did certainly belong unto this Council, then must she also be infallible in these following decisions, viz.

1. In that of canon the third, which runs thus :* “ All elections made by princes, of bishops, presbyters, and deacons, shall be void, according to that rule which saith, if any bishop, by using the secular powers, obtain a bishopric, let him be deposed; and they who do communicate with him, let them be excommunicated.” According to which canon, all the elections of French and English bishops must be void, and all Christian princes must be deprived of their just prerogative in this affair.

2. In their first canon they confirm all the “canonst of the Apostles, and of the six holy and æcumenical Synods, and also of the topical Councils assembled to make such determinations ; and of the holy Fathers, because all these being enlightened by one and the same Spirit, decreed things expedient ; whom therefore they anathematized, deposed, or separated from communion, we also do anathematize, depose, and separate from communion.” And in particular, they frequently anathematize and condemn among the list of hereticsf Pope

Πάσαν ψήφον γινομένην παρά αρχόντων επισκόπου, ή πρεσβυτέρου, ή διακόνου, άκυρον μένειν κατά τον κανόνα τον λέγοντα, Εί τις επίσκοπος κοσμικούς άρχουσι χρησάμενος, δι' αυτών εγκρατής εκκλησίας γένηται, καθαιρείσθω και αφοριζέσθω, και οι κοινωνούντες αυτό Távtec. Ibid. Can. 3. [Ibid. p. 597.]

+ Τών εκτεθέντων υπό των πανευφήμων Αποστόλων, τών τε εξ αγίων οικουμενικών Συνόδων, και των τοπικώς συναθροισθεισών επί εκδόσει τοιούτων διαταγμάτων, και των αγίων πατέρων ημών» εξ ενός γάρ άπαντες, και του αυτού πνεύματος αυγασθέντες ώρισαν τα συμφέροντα. Και ούς μεν αναθέματι παραπέμπουσι, και ημείς αναθεμα. tiçouev, &c. [Ibid. p. 596.)

# Vid. Act. 7. [Ibid.] p. 556, 588. Vid. Act. 3. [Ibid.] p. 165, 181. Act. 6. (Ibid.] p. 421.

Honorius. Now if all these canons be not to be received, either as to matters of faith or manners; then hath this Synod dangerously erred in determining, that they were all to be received, as being made by men enlightened by the Holy Ghost in their decisions. If they be to be thus esteemed, to omit at present infinite advantages, which this concession gives to our cause, then was the sixth Council in Trullo assisted by the Holy Ghost to determine thus :

1. ** Because we know that in the Roman Church they have made a canon, that they who are to be ordained priests, or deacons, shall promise no more to accompany with their wives: we, following the old canon of Apostolical appointment, will have the conjugal society of holy men, according to the laws still firm and valid, by no means dissolving their conjugal society with their wives, nor defrauding them of the enjoyment of each other at times convenient. If therefore any person be found worthy to be ordained subdeacon, deacon, or priest, let him by no means be hindered from receiving these orders, because he lives with his lawful wife ; nor shall any man require him to promise, that after his ordination he will abstain from conjugal duties, lest by so doing we become injurious to that marriage which God ordained, and our Lord blessed with his presence. The voice of the Gospel crying out, “What God hath joined, let no man put asunder ;' and the Apostle teaching, "That marriage is honourable, and the bed undefiled ;' and saying, “Art thou bound to a wife? seek not to be loosed.'

2. When they determine thus :t Renewing the canon made by the General Councils of Constantinople and Chalcedon, we decree, that the chair of Constantinople shall enjoy equal privileges with that of Rome, and be magnified in ecclesiastical matters, as that is.”

3. When they decree thus :I “ Since we have understood,

* Επειδή εν τη Ρωμαίων εκκλησία εν τάξει κανόνος παραδεδόσθαι δίεγνωμεν τους μέλλοντας διακόνου η πρεσβυτέρου χειροτονίας άξιουσθαι καθομολογείν, ώς ουκέτι ταϊς αυτών συνάπτονται γαμεταϊς, nues. Syn. Trull. Can. 13. (Balsam. Can. Apost. &c. p. 374. Par. 1620.]

+ Ορίζομεν, ώστε τον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως θρόνον των ίσων απολαβείν πρεσβείων του της πρεσβυτέρας Ρώμης θρόνου, και εν τοις εκκλησιαστικούς ώς εκείνων μεγαλονείσθαι πράγμασι. Ιbid. Can. 36. [p. 401.)

+ Επειδή μεμαθήκαμεν τους εν τη Ρωμαίων πόλει, εν ταϊς αγίαις της τεσσαρακοστής ημέραις, και νηστείαις τοίς ταύτης σάββασιν νη

that in the city of Rome they fast on Saturdays in Lent, against the tradition of the Church ; it seemed good to the holy Synod, that the canon which saith, if any clergyman be found fasting on the Lord's day, or any Saturday, except one only, let him be deposed ; if any layman, let him be excommunicated ; shall be inviolably observed in the Church of Rome also.” And,

4. “ When in their first canon they anathematize Pope Honorius ; that is, they by God's Spirit were assisted in the first decree, to condemn the practice and constitutions of the Church of Rome of that age; and much more the practice of the present Church of Rome, as contrary to the voice of Christ and his Apostles : in the second, to decree against the Pope's supremacy : in the third, to charge the Church of Rome with walking contrary to the tradition of the whole Church besides, and give laws to rectify that abuse : in the fourth, to declare not only that a General Council may be infallible without the confirmation, or even concurrence of the Pope, but also may infallibly condemn him for an heretic.”

Moreover, in this Nicene Council, this pleasant story is twice related, viz. “That a certain monk being haunted with the spirit of fornication (a spirit too familiar with such professors of continency), who vehemently urged him to uncleanness, the old man miserably cried out, How long will it be ere thou let me alone? thou hast been with me even to old age. Then the devil visibly appearing, said, Swear to me thou wilt tell nobody what shall now say to thee, and I will tempt thee no more. Then the monk swore by the High God, that he would tell no man what the devil should say. Whereupon Satan spoke thus to him: Worship thou no more the image of the blessed Virgin with her Son in her arms, and I will no more molest thee. The monk hearing this, notwithstanding his oath, goes the next day to Abbot Theodore, and tells him all that the devil said. And the abbot commending him for it, farther told him, That it was better for him to frequent all the stews in the city, than to deny to worship, by that image, the Lord and his holy mother. And when the devil comes again, and taxeth the monk with perjury, he tells the devil, that he knew it very well, but rests satisfied in this, that it was only perjury against his God and Maker.” Where note, στεύεις παρά την παραδοθείσαν εκκλησιαστικήν ακολουθίαν, έδοξε τη αγία συνόδω, ώστε κρατείν, και επί τη Ρωμαίων εκκλησία απαρασαdeÚTWS TÒV kavova, &c. Can. 5. (Can. 55.] [Ibid. p. 427.]

1. That this ridiculous tale is so acceptable to that good Synod, that they command it to be read, Act the 4th ;* and Act the 5th they make a repetition of it.

2. That they condemn the monk's oath,† as being opkos doepis, a wicked oath ; and, o Vevonc opkoc, a false oath, and so not binding; and say, “That it was better to forswear himself, than to keep an oath for the destruction of images;” and seem all pleased with the decision of Abbot Theodore. Now if this be good divinity, then is it better to be perjured, and take the sacred name of God in vain, than not to worship images; yea, it is better to commit fornication, and make the members of Christ the members of an harlot, than not to adore the works of men's hands.

Now every body knows, that perjury and fornication are sins against the law of nature; and that no law of nature doth command the veneration of the images of Christ, or of his blessed mother: that Christ and his Apostles said expressly, “ Thou shalt not forswear thyself; thou shalt not commit adultery;" but never said, thou shalt worship images : who then can want discretion sufficient to discern, that this determination made in the Synod, without the exception of one person, must be false?

It would be endless to reckon all the idle dreams, and foolish stories, produced by this Synod, in favour of their images. But it is also needless, seeing the Council of Frankfort hath well observed, I " that when these Fathers perceived that their doctrine by no means would accord with Scripture, they turned themselves to apocryphal and ridiculous tales.”

And Espencæusg doth ingenuously confess, “ that the Greeks defended images with the apparitions of devils, and the dreams of women, as is to be seen in the Nicene Council.”

3. Observe, that from the Epistle of Germanus, bishop of Constantinople, cited with approbation by this Nicene Synod, we learn not only, that the people then received the sacrament in both kinds, but also that they received both according

* [Ut supra,] p. 252, 381.

† Ibid. p. 253. | Illi cum errore suo Scripturas Divinas cohærere minime posse senserunt, ad Apocryphas quasdam, et risu dignas nænias pedem verterunt. Libr. Carol. l. 3. c. 30.

Ø Græci, qui Imagines defendebant, Dæmonum spectris et muliebri. bus somniis parum verecunde abusi sunt, ut in Nicæna Synodo videre licet. Comment. in 2 ad Tim. p. 155.

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