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Compare the date of Miss Howe's letter with sense or conjecture. -- The various readings are fairly put the burial entry, and we ascertain with certainty in the margin, so that every one may compare them; and that Peg Hughes, the actress and mistress of those I have preferred into the text are constantly ex fide

codicum, upon authority." — Alexander Pope, 1725. Prince Rupert, died in October, 1719. Of Mrs. Hughes there is an excellent portrait the most part religiously adhered to, and the numerous

“ His genuine text (i, e. the text of Shakspere) is for by Lely at Lord Jersey's, at Middleton in Ox- faults and blemishes, purely his own, are left as they fordshire; and of Ruperta, her daughter by Prince were found. Nothing is altered but what by the clearest Rupert, and the mother of Sophy Howe, there is reasoning can be proved a corruption of the true text, and

the alteration a real restoration of the genuine reading." a characteristic full length by Kneller at Lord

- Lewis THEOBALD, 1733. Sandwich's, at Hinchinbrooke. She is dark, and

“ As the corruptions (of the text of 1623] are more like what Prince Rupert was when old.

numerous and of a grosser kind than can well be con

PETER CUNNINGHAM. ceived but by those who have looked nearly into them; Kensington.

so in the correcting them this rule hath been most strictly observed, not to give a loose to fancy, or indulge a licentious spirit of criticism, as if it were fit for any one to presume to judge what Shakespeare ought to have written,

instead of endeavouring to discover truly and retrieve “ It had bene a thing, we confesse, worthie to haue bene what he did write.” — Sir Thomas Hanmer, 1744. wished, that the author himselfe had liu'd to haue set forth,

“ The whole a critic can do for an author wbo deserves and ouerseen his owne writings.. Iohn Heminge, Henrie bis service, is to correct the faulty text, to remark the Condell,

peculiarities of language, to illustrate the obscure allu

sions, and to explain the beauties and defects of sentiment Aspiring to act the moderator between certain

or composition; and surely, if ever author had a claim to disputants on the fidelity and typographic correct- this service, it was our Shakespeare." - William Warness of the Shakespeare of 1623, as printed by BURTON, 1747. Isaac Jaggard and Edward Blount, I submit to

“That many passages [in Shakspere] have passed in a the consideration of those who make the fray, and

state of depravation through all the editions is indubitably

certain; of these the restoration is only to be attempted by of those who lament it, the brief remarks of some

collation of copies or sagacity of conjecture. - As I praceminent critics on the principles of editorship, and tised conjecture more, I learned to trust it less; and after on the delicate process of emendation ; together I had printed a few plays, resolved to insert none of my with the repeated admission made by one of the

own readings in the text. Upon this caution I now concontemporaries of Shakspere that errors of the gratulate myself, for every day encreases my doubt of my

emendations." - Samuel JOHNSON, 1765. press are unavoidable, and emendations therefore often requisite.

The extract from Gesner, while it refers to I firmly believe that both parties are actuated Horace alone, is quite as applicable to an English by the same motive: I believe they are both classic. It is a capital summary of editorial duties. anxious to give us the text of the plays as Shak- The other remarks are copied from the prefaces spere left it — but they differ on many points. to the plays of Shakspere; and there cannot be Now it seems desirable that every editor of the much temerity in asserting that the writers have dramatist should publish, in due form, his editorial rather shown their acquaintance with the ARS

We should then have the argument in CRITICA, and courted public favour by the presmaller compass

should be led to compare ideas, tence of editorial fidelity, than fairly described and to reflect on principles -- and might award their own proceedings. praise or censure with more discrimination.

Now come the promised remarks on errors of The remarks on editorship shall now be intro- the press, which were all made by the same perduced. No attempt has been made to increase

son in the years 1620, 1623, and 1628. the mass. I have been satisfied with giving, from

[ To the reader.] the most accessible sources, what seemed to claim “ Of such errours as haue escaped in the presse, I haue transcription on the score of brevity and per- thought good to collect onely those, which may bee suptinency.

posed likely to trouble the reader in his way, the rest

being few, and but literall, I hope shall eyther passe “Quæ adhuc disputavi, ea ad illam fere partem consilii

vnobserued, or excused." - Horæ subseciuæ, 1620. 8vo. mei pertinent, quod statui conservare quantum in me est, Horatii verba, ordinemque poematum, ut ea ex antiquis

The printer to the discreet and curious reader. libris ad nos pervenere. Nisi ita mollis, ita liquida, ita “ After so much as you haue read heere, vttered in clara, ita unica sit emendatio, plane uti dubitare homini their iust commendation [i. e. the author and translator), rerum perito non liceat, modestiæ nostræ et bonorum li- let it be my minute, to be heard in a line or two for my brorum integritati potius ita consulamus, ut in margine, selfe: which is, that you would be pleased not to lay my quid nobis videatur, indicemus. Dici non potest, quam faults on them. I will neither pretend badnesse of copy, facile sit bic falli, labi, corrumpere quod emendare velis.” or his absence, whose prouince it was to correct it; but - J. M. GESNERUS, 1752.

pray the amendment of these few escapes (as you finde “I have discharged the dull duty of an editor (of them here-vnder noted,) before you begin to reade: with Shakspere), to my best judgment, with more labour than hope of your pardon, the rather, because it hath bcene I expect thanks, with å religious abhorrence of all in

my care they should be no more.” — Guzman de Alfanovation, and without any indulgence to my private rache, part 1. 1623. Folio,


The printer to the curious reader.

many artists; and, sometimes, it has been adopted by “ It were a hard taske and rarely to be performed, for

the less provident followers of art, as a convenient mode

of settling an account with the landlord. Morland is any printer to vndertake the printing of a booke of this bulke and nature, without some faults; vea, were his

known to have had recourse to this expedient on more

than one occasion. Wales can boast of another sign from copy neuer so fayre, or his apprehension so quicke. It is a decorum in Guzman to commit many solecistes, whose

the pencil of a distinguished landscape painter. For the life was so full of disorders. This life of his being 26.

little inn of the hilly Ruthin, Richard Wilson painted the seuerall times printed in the Spanish tongue in a few

well known ‘Loggerheads, with the inscription, “We

three Loggerheads be.' ” years, did neuer appeare to the world, but with errata : which makes me the more presuming on your humane This seems to open up a fit, and not unintercourtesie: and as in the first, so in this second part, esting, subject for “N. & Q.," some of whose vouchsafe with your pen, the amendment of these few faults, before you begin to read the rest of his life."

correspondents may be able to point out how Guzman de Alfarache, part II. 1623. Folio.

many of Morland's four thousand pictures were

inn-signs ? painted for “ The Plough,” at Kensal “ To the reader.

Green, or the like places of resort; and may also “ If any faults baue escap'd the presse, (as few bookes add similar instances of other artists. can bee printed without), impose them not on the author

Cuthbert Bede, B.A. I intreat thee; but rather impute them to mine and the printers ouersight, who seriously promise on the re-im- Size and Sizings. — Richardson, in his Dicpression hereof, by greater care and diligence for this our former default, to make thee ample satisiaction.”—Micro- sizings thus : size, the same as assize, means to

tionary, explains our Cambridge word size and cosmographie, 1628. 120.

"allot," “ weigh,” or“portion out;" hence, “ sizings, In the Hore subsecivæ, twenty-five errors are the allotted part,” (I am quoting from memory). noticed. Some are material ; as least for most, In Matthew Robinson's Biography, edited by nations for natures, must for much, prescription for Mayor, we find (p. 23.) an extract from Strype's proscription. Others are slight, or relative to letter to his mother; in which he says he somepunctuation. In Guzman de Alfarache we have times got a ciza, i. e. a farthingworth of beer from forty errors save one. Examples: time for ayre, the butteries: and also, that his breakfast cost in clearing for indearing, many for money, top for five farthings; two farthings for his bread, and toy, cartas for cantos, indisposition for in disposition, two for his butter or cheese, and a cize of beer. the for they, ad ebbe for an ebbe, fc. The last I wish to know whether sizings, góc., may not error noticed is a turned letter!

come from this word ciza? I will just add, that Whatever be the merits or defects of the folio

do not find this word in either Richardson or of 1623, and whatever may have been the pre- Webster.

B. A. H. vailing state of the press at that period, it is

Trin. Coll. Camb. manifest that the author of the above addresses To the reader was perfectly aware of the import.. Aljuration in Pembrokeshire. — The peasantry ance of typographic correctness, and very anxious of Pembrokeshire are still in the habit of using a to secure it.

form of adjuration which has descended to them Now, the author of those addresses was no other from the old Roman Catholic times. They swear than the aforesaid Edward Blount; and it is my to this day “By our Lady," although they have conviction, which I can justify by a variety of corrupted the phrase into “b'lady,” and are quite circumstantial evidence, that he was the real ignorant of its origin: still it forms a curious link editor of the FIRST FOLIO SHAKESPEARE.

between the past and present, and shows how

Bolton CORNEY. forms of speech will linger in the memory, when The Terrace, Barnes.

the time and circumstances which gave them their
origin have passed away. John Pavin Phillips.

Rinor Notes.

Cardinal Wiseman andNice." — The cardinal, Inn-Signs painted by Eminent Artists. — The in a very ingenious lecture, delivered by him in Birmingham Journal of Dec. 13. contains an in- April last, at the Marylebone Institution, remarks teresting article (copied, with additions, from the

on the vague and indiscriminate use of the word Brighton Gazette,) entitled “An Artist's Haunt,"

“Nice,"and the necessary result, "vague and indisdescriptive of Bettws-y-Coed and David Cox. criminate thoughts." But the cardinal is himself It states, that the sign of “ The Oak,” at Bettws, in great error in insisting that the word in the was painted by Mr. Cox; and amusingly tells English language properly designates "accuracy, how ibat bold landscape painter, while mounted precision, discrimination," and seeks to confirm upon a ladder, and working away at his sign, was his assertion by a reference to any old dictionary. caught in the very aet by one of his lady-pupils. Such old dictionaries as Ainsworth and Johnson Then follows this extract:

are in his favour; but our older dictionaries (which “ Sign painting has been the occasional amusement of the cardinal cannot have consulted) all agree that

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“nice" primarily means “ soft," whence, continues Thomas Widdrington, and the rest of the late CommisMr. Smart, who with his usual good sense adopts

sioners of the Great Seal, be brought into this House this their interpretation,“ delicate, tender, dainty," &c.

Forenoon, before the Rising of the House, by the said

late Commissioners, or those Two of them that are Mem*It is agreed by our etymologists that “ nesh and

bers of this House, to be here defaced. nice". are the same word differently written. "Nesh,” I have in my younger days frequently

“ The Smith, according to the Order of this House, heard used in the Midland counties --- as Junius

came to the Bar of this House; and there, sitting the explains it tener frigoris. In Richardson's House, broke the Great Seal in several Pieces: And the Supplement are two (to modern ears) rather cu- same, so broken, was delivered to the late Commis ners, rious usages of this word from Wiclif: “God hath

as their Fees." maad neische myn hert (mollivit),

" A nessh


Birmingham, answere (mollis) breketla wrathe.” The explanation and etymology (from Skinner) correspond. Simon's Account of Irish Coins.".

- Three maYet something may be said in favour of nice, as nuscript volumes of Minutes of the Physico-His. used in some of the cardinal's instances. Things torical Society of Dublin are deposited in the that are nice are also pleasing, agreeable; a nice library of the College of Physicians, Dublin, and day, a nice man, or a pleasant day, a pleasant man. contain the following particulars relative to We have many very loose expressions, as a good Simon's well-known work on Irish coins : dinner, a good whipping ; which latter good thing

Monday, December 7, 1747. Mr. Simon produced an was about, the other day, not very nicely, to be Essay on frish Coins, which is referred to the perusal of bestowed on the wrong member of the family. Dr. Corbet [Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin, apeł Mr. The cardinal makes some strong and just re

Harris (Editor of Sir James Ware's Works. ].” marks on the force of our word“ murther," and of “ Monday, January 4, 1747-8. Mr. Harris reported, the more powerful import of child-murther than that on the perusal of Mr. Simon's Account of Irish Coins infanticide, and of self-murther than suicide ; and by himself and the Rev. Dr. Corbet, it appeared to thein

worthy of publication. he might have taxed his ingenuity to account “ Ordered, that Mr. Simon's Account of Irish Coins be for the absence from the language of our ancestors published by, and with the approbation of, this Society.” of such words as would correspond to the Latin- “ Monday, October 3, 1748. Ordered, that the sum of isms, parricide, matricide, fratricide ; complex six pounds, eight shillings, be paid to Mr. James Simon, terms, which, as Locke would strangely contend, for eight copper-plates, for his Essay on Irish Coins." gave to the Romans so many more complex ideas The charge of sixteen shillings for each plate is than the circumlocutions - killing of a father, by no means high.

ABHBA. killing of a mother, &c., could denote. Q. Bloomsbury.

Queries. The Oldest Proverb. - It appears from 1 Sam. xxiv. 13., that the oldest proverb on record is,

PORTRAIT OF ERASMUS BY HOLBEIN AT GREY"Wickedness proceedeth from the wicked;" since David declared it to be “the proverb of the an- Amongst the valuable productions of art in the eients." Consequently it must be older than any possession of Henry Howard, Esq., at Greystoke proverb of his son Solomon.

ABHBA. Castle, a small bigbly finished portrait of Erasmus

has been preserved, which has been mentioned in Oliver Cromwell's Coach : Destruction of the Great Seal in 1660. — I have before me a frag

certain published accounts of Greystoke, as has

also an inscription on the back of the portrait. ment of the proceedings of the House of Commons This inscription, however, which may be regarded for Monday, May 28, 1660, from which I make

as nearly contemporary with the painting, bas not the following curious extracts : *

been perfectly decyphered. The correct reading “ The House being informed, that a rich Coach, here- appears to be as follows: tofore bought by Oliver Cromwell, and paid for at the

“ Haunze Holbeine me fecit public Charge, is seized by the Serjeant-at-Arms attending tbis House, but detained by a Coachmaker, upon

Johanne Novye me dedit Pretence of an Attachment for a Debt;

Edwardus Bānyster me possidit." “ Ordered, That it be referred to the Members of this Who were the persons thus commemorated, House, who are of the Council of State, to examine the

through whose hands this interesting picture is Matter; and whether there be any such real Debt; and

thus recorded to have passed ? ALBERT WAY. to give such Order for the securing the same, for his Majesty's Service, as upon Examination, they shall find just and meet.

Resolved, That the Great Seal, in the Custody of Sir (* These extracts are printed in The Journals of the

Again about an old ballad. My inquiry House of Commons, vol. viii. p. 47.- Ed.]

through “N. & Q." was so successful last time I



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was in a difficulty, that I am induced to put an- join the concluding stanza, which follows the other question to your correspondents of a similar mention of the battle of Bosworth Field : kind. In the first place, however, let me thank “Wherein the tyrant he was slain, DR. RIMBAULT for the ready assistance and useful

And Henry did the crown obtain,

Which many a year he wore; information he afforded me, respecting the fine old

Uniting so the roses two, national ballad on Henry V. and the battle of

Most deadly foes before, Agincourt. I did not bear in mind that it bad

To flourish here as erst they grew, been quoted in Heywood's “Edward IV.,” 1600 ;

And shall do evermore." but that fact had been previously called to my

Has the preceding production ever been printed recollection in a private note, which showed that it had already been noticed by our mutual friend, nuscript known? The sooner I procure informa

or reprinted ? and is any other copy of it in maMr. W. Chappell

, in the new edition of bis Po- tion on either of these points, the more serviceable pular Ballad Music of England, a work of the it will be to

J. PAYNE COLLIER. greatest interest and industry.

Maidenhead. Dr. RIMBAULT states that the ballad on the “ Battle of Agincourt” exists, as he believes, in the Pepysian Collection at Cambridge. Is such MORLEY'S FIRST BOOKE OF AYRES, FOL. 1600. the case with respect to another historical effusion

The late Mr. T. Rodd, a few years ago, sold a of the same sort, on a very different subject, the life and character of Richard III.? Å ballad copy of this work for ll. ls. Its full title is : with the title of “A Tragical Report of King “ The first Booke of Ayres, or little short Songs to sing Richard III.” was licensed, with twenty others, and play to the Lute with the Base-Viol, by Thomas to Henry Carre in the summer of 1586; see the Morley, fol. London, 1600.” Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers' Com- A copy of it is most particularly desired, and if pany (published by the Shakspeare Society in the purchaser of Rodd's exemplar of it, or any 1849), vol. ii. p. 212. Has this production come other possessor, would kindly communicate with down to our day in any shape, either printed or me at No. 6. Tregunter Road, West Brompton, manuscript ? That is my question. The late near London, I would willingly, if a purchase is Mr. Heber had a volume of short popular poems, practicable, give ten guineas for the book rather in a handwriting of about the time of Anne or than not possess it. The “N. & Q.” would inGeorge I., which he lent to me, and from which, crease the obligations to which many of us are with his permission, I copied several pieces, one under to it, if it could be a medium for obtaining of them a ballad headed “ Of King Richard III.” some otherwise almost“ impossible” books. There It is not at all impossible that this is the very are some old plays of Shakspeare and others that ballad licensed to Henry Carre, and it opens I know are in existence, for which one would wilthus :

lingly give weight in gold including their binding “ King Richard, you shall understand,

in the scale. How gladly would I give 105l. for Was cruel'st tyrant in this land;

a nice copy of the Hamlet of 1604, to put in the King John that Arthur slew,

same case with the recently acquired and cherished Was not so bloody as this king:

treasure of that of 1603 ! J. O. HALLIWELL.
He kill'd but one nephew,
But Richard did a bloodyer thing;

He smothered nephews two."
I give my extracts in modern orthography, be-

Minor Queries. cause the MS. I copied did not at all profess to " John Decastro and his Brother Bat.". Can follow what must have been the old spelling. An

any reader of “ N. & Q.” give information reother stanza (there are eight of them in the specting a novel called John Decastro and his whole) is this :

Brother Bat, published by Mr. Egerton in 1815; “ No sooner was King Edward dead,

any particulars respecting the book and its author ? Than he made shorter by the head

J. M. L.
The friends of the poor Queen;
For Rivers, Hastings, and Lord Gray,

Interment in Stone Coffins. — I request to know
Alive no more were seen :

any well-authenticated instances of interment in At Pomfret they were made away,

a stone coffin, with recess for the head, and a As they had never been.”

bevelled or peaked lid of stone, as early as the end Here we have an historical error (not of much of the eleventh or during the twelfth century, or consequence in productions of this class), for it how soon thereafter ? was Vaughan, and not Hastings, who suffered I inquire, also, for any instance of a body, so with Rivers and Grey at Pomfret. The preceding entombed or otherwise, swathed in a leathern quotations will be enough to enable the readers of shroud, laced or not on the back or front, about “N. & Q.” to identify the ballad, but I will sub- the same period.

P. C.

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and was,

Northaw. - What is the derivation of this would be of great use to those whom the Athenæum name? It is a parish in the Hundred of Cashio- designates as the unlearned ingenious. Such a bury in Hertfordshire, and is sometimes called work, too, would be full of curious personal hisNorthall. What is the name by which it is first tory, and would exhibit examples of the most mentioned in any known record ? M. N. heroic struggles against nature and reason.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. A Man Eating Himself. - Can you, or any of Birmingham. your readers, inform me in what book it is related that a man was taken prisoner by savages who, Major André. - Was he descendant of, or a before killing him, cut a steak from him and put member of the same family as, St. André, the surit before the fire; while thus engaged they were geon of Queen Anne's time; who, like “ Wicked attacked by hostile tribes and reduced to flight. Will Whiston," was so egregiously imposed upon The prisoner being released, and famished with by Miss Tofts of Godalming, of rabbit-breeding hunger, was unable to find anything else to eat notoriety ?

HENRY T. RILEY. except his own steak. On this he made a hearty meal, and recovering from his wound, lived to tell Michaelmas Day Saying. · A lady wishes to the strange tale that he had eaten bis own beef- know the origin of the saying, that “On Michaelsteak. I am told that this story is to be found in mas Day the devil puts his foot on the blacksome book of travels, &c., and am anxious to know berries ;” whence it is inferred that they should the name, in order to see this curious anecdote not be eaten subsequently. Is this saying current with my own eyes. F. J. W. elsewhere than in the north of Ireland ?

E. H. D. D. A Query about a Snail. Some years ago I made a “Note" of a curious woodcut representing

Songs. - In Doran's Table Traits there is given

a well-known song in India, which used often to a snail defying the attacks of armed men. It was


sung, I believe, written by somebody a very curious engraving, and it was accompanied during the first Burmese War. The chorus, with with the following lines :

a slight variation, is : “I am a beest of right great mervayle, Upon my backe my house reysed I bere;

“Ay! Stand to your glasses – steady !

The reckless here are the wise ;
I am neyther flesshe ne bone to avayle:
As well as a great oxe two hornes I were:

One cup to the Dead already -
If that these armed men approche me nere,

Hurrah for the next that dies !
I shall them soone vaynquysshe every chone: Can anybody tell me who the author was ?
But they dare nat, for fere of me alone."

Where can I procure a copy of the well-known I noted this at the time, it being in Pynson's song written by a Dublin College student: edition of the Kalender of Shepherdes, but on re

“ Who fears to speak of '98? ” ference to the Grenville copy of that work in the

T. H. D. British Museum, I cannot discover any trace of Union Jack. either the lines or woodcut. The Grenville copy is imperfect, and I have a faint impression I may

“ The new system began with a change of flag. From

the accession of the Stuarts, the Union Jack had streamed have copied from one of the Bagford scraps, not from the topmasts of every vessel engaged in the service thinking it necessary to refer to the latter, but of the State: but the King's removal having dissolved rather to the work itself. Either this is the case, the necessary legal connection of the two countries, all or the reference is altogether a wrong one, oc

ships at sea in actual service were henceforth ordered to casioned by some oversight or other. If any of

carry only a red cross on a white ground.” your readers could assist me in unravelling this

Is this (from Hepworth Dixon's Robert Blake, little mystery, they would confer a very great p. 98., edit. 1856,) correct ? favour.


At p. 101. infra, Mr. Dixon says :

“ Before going on board the flag-ship, he (Blake) took Impossible Problems. — Would PROFESSOR DE care to supply himself with Jacks, standards, and studMorgan inform me whether it is possible to prove ding sails for giving chace.” the impossibility of solving the following pro- How, or why did he, if Jacks in the navy were blems? (1.) The three bodies. (2.) The per- done away with ? Unless, perhaps, for the sake of petual motion. (3.) The quadrature of the circle.

J. O. L. (4.) The trisection of a plane angle.

I am in want of demonstrations of the impos- “ Perimus licitis." - This was the motto of the sibility of solving the last two.

first Lord Teignmouth, who said that he did not It is not enough to say that r is not a square know the authority for it. Can any one tell ? In number. Can Professor De Morgan give me, the Cripplegate Lectures (vol. i. p. 389.) is quoted, or refer me to such demonstrations? It seems to “ Licitis perimus omnes,” but without any authome that a history of the failures to solve (3.) rity being given.


& ruse.

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