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but utterly frivolous and vain. But such alterations as were tendered to us (by what persons, under what pretences, or to what purpose foever tendered) as seemed to us in any degree requisite or expedient, we have willingly, and of our own accord assented unto; not enforced so to do by any strength of argument, convincing us of the necessity of making the faid alterations; for we are fully persuaded in our judgment, (and we here profefs it to the world) that the Book, as it stood before eftablished by law, doth not contain in it any thing contrary to the Word of God, or to found doctrine, or which a godly man may not with a good conscience use and fubmit unto, or which is not fairly defensible against any that shall oppose the fame; if it shall be allowed such just and favourable construction, as in common equity ought to be allowed to all human writings, especially such as are fet forth by authority, and even to the very best translations of the Holy Scripture itself.

Our general aim therefore in this undertaking was not to gratify this or that party in any of their unreasonable demands; but to do that, which to our beit understandings we conceived might noft tend to the preservation of peace and unity in the Church, the procuring of reverence, and exciting of piety and devotion, in the publick Worship of God, and the cutting

off occafion from them that seek occasion of cavil or quarrel against the Liturgy of the Church. And as to the several variations from the former Book, whether by alteration, addition, or otherwise, it shall fuffice to give this general account; That most of the alterations were made, either first, for the better direction of them that are to officiate in any part of divine férvice, which is chiefly done in the Calendars and Rubricks: or secondly, for the more proper expressing of some words or phrases of ancient ufage, in terms more suitable to the language of the present times, and the clearer explanation of some other words and phrases, that were either of doubtful signification, or otherwise liable to misconstruction: or thirdly, for a more perfect rendering of such portions of Holy Scripture as are inserted into the Liturgy; which, in the Epistles and Gospels especially, and in fundry other places, are now ordered to be read according to the laft translation; and that it was thought convenient that some Prayers and Thanksgivings, fitted to especial occasions, should be added in their

due places; particularly for those at Sea, together with an Office for the Baptism of such as are of Riper Years; which, although not fo necessary when the former Book was compiled, yet by the growth of Anabaptism, through the licentiousness of the late times crept in amongst us, is now become neceffary, and may be always useful for the baptizing of Natives in our Plantations, and others converted to the faith. If any man, who shall desire a more particular account of the several alterations in any part of the Liturgy, fhall take the pains to compare the present Book with the former, we doubt not but the reason of the change may easily appear.

And having thus endeavoured to discharge our duties in this weighty affair, as in the light of God, and to approve our sincerity therein, (fo far as lay in us) to the consciences of all men; although we know it impossible (in such variety of apprehensions, humours, and interests, as are in the world) to please all; nor can expect that 'men of factious, peevish, and perverse spirits, should be satisfied with any thing that can be done in this kind by any other than themfelves; yet we have good hope, that what is here presented, and hath been by the Convocation of both Provinces with great diligence examined and approved, will be alfo well accepted and approved by all sober, peaceable, and truly conscientious fons of the Church of England.

CHERE was never any thing by the wit of man fo well devised, or fo rupted: As, among other things, it may plainly appear by the Common Prayers in the Church, commonly called Divine Service. The firft original and ground whereof, if any man would search out by the ancient Fathers, he shall find, that the fame was not ordained but of a good purpose, and for a great advancement of godlinefs. For they fo ordered the matter, that all the whole Bible, (or the greateft part thereof) should be read over once every year; intending thereby, that the Clergy, and especially such as were Ministers in the congregation, should (by often reading, and meditation in God's word) be ftirred up to godlinels themselves, and be more able to exhort others by wholesome doctrine, and to confute them that were adversaries to the truth; and further, that the people (by daily hearing of the holy fcripture read in the Church) might continually profit more and more in the knowledge of God, and be the more inflamed with the love of his true Religion.

But these many years passed, this godly and decent order of the ancient Fathers hath been lo altered, broken, and neglected, by planting in uncertain ftories, and legends, with multitude of responds, verses, vain repetitions, commemorations and fynodals; that commonly when any book of the bíble was begun, after three or four chapters were read out, all the rest were unread. And in this fort the book of Isaiah was begun in Advent, and the book of Genefis in Septuagefima; but they were only begun, and Dever read through: After like fort were other books of holy Scripture used.. And moreover, whereas St. Paul would have fuch language spoken to the people in the church, as they might understand, and have profit by hearing the fame; the service in this Church of England thefe many years hath been read in Latin to the people, which they underftand not; to that they have heard with their ears only, and their heart, fpirit, and mind have not been edified thereby, And furthermore, notwithstanding that the an. cient Fathers have divided the Psalms into seven portions, whereof every one was called a Nocturn: Now of late time a few of them have been daily faid, and the rest utterly omitted. Moreover, the number and hard. ness of the rules called the Pie, and the manifold changings of the service, was the cause, that to turn the book only was so hard and intricate a matter, that many times there was more business to find out what should be read, than to read it when it was found out.

Thele inconveniences therefore confidered, here is fet forth such an Order, whereby the fame thall be redresled. And for a readiness in this matter, here is drawn out a Calendar for that purpose, which is plain and easy to be underftood; wherein (fo much as may be the reading of holy Scripture is fo set forth, that all things shall be done in order, without breaking one piece from another. For this caufe be cut off anthems, re. fponds, invitatories, and such like things as did break the continual course of the reading of the Scripture.

Yet, because there is no remedy, but that of necessity there must be some rules; therefore certain rules are here set forth; which, as they are few in number, so they are plain and eafy to be understood. So that here you have an Order for Prayer, and for the reading of the holy Scripture, much agreeable to the mind and purpose of the old Fathers, and a great deal more profitable and commodious, than that which of late was used. It is more profitable, because here are left out many things, whereof some are untrue, Tome uncertain, fame vain and fuperftitious; and nothing is ordained to

CONCERNING THE SERVICES OF THE CHURCH.

be read, but the very pure Word of God, the holy Scripture, or that which is agreeable to the fame ; and that in such a language and order as is most easy and plain for the understanding both of the readers and hearers. It is also more commodious, both for the shortness thereof, and for the plainnefs of the order, and for that the rules be few and easy.

And whereas heretofore there hath been great diverlity in saying and Singing in Churches within this realm; fome following Salisbury use, some Hereford use, and some the use of Bangor, some of York, some of Lin. coln; now from henceforth all the whole realm shall have but one use.

And forasmuch as nothing can be fo plainly set forth, but doubts may arise in the use and practice of the fame; to appeare all such diversity (if any arise) and for the resolution of all doubts, concerning the manner how to underttand, do, and execute the things contained in this book; the parties that so doubt, or diverlly take any thing, shall alway resort to the Bishop of the Diocese, who by his discretion shall take order for the quieting and appealing of the fame; so that the same order be not contrary to any thing contained in this book. And if the bishop of the diocese be in doubt, then he may send for the resolution to the archbishop. “THOUGH it be appointed, That all things shall be read and fung in

may be thereby edified; yet it is not meant, but that when men fay “ Morning and Evening Prayer privately, they may say the same in any “ language that they themselves do understand.

“ And all priests and deacons are to say daily the Morning and Evening “ Prayer either privately or openly, not being let by fickness, or some “ other urgent cause,

And the Curate that miniftereth in every parish church or chapel, “ being at home, and not being otherwise reasonably hindered, shall lay “the fame in the parish church or chapel where he ministereth, and shall $ cause a bell to be tolled thereunto a convenient time before he begin, “that the people may come to hear God's Word, and to pray with him.”

OF CEREMONIES,
Why some be abolished, and some retained.
F

, ginning by the institution of man, fome at the first were of godly intent and purpose devised, and yet at length turned to yanity and superstition; some entered into the Church by indiscreet devotion, and such zeal as was without knowledge; and for because they were winked at in the beginning, they grew daily to more and more abuses, which not only for their unprofitableness, but also because they have much blinded the people, and obscured the glory of God, are worthy to be cut away, and clean re. jected: Other there be, which although they have been devised by man, yet it is thought good to retain them ftill, as well for a decent order in the Church (for the which they were first devised) as because they pertain to edification, whereunto all' things done in the Church (as the Apostle teacheth) ought to be referred.

And although the keeping or omitting of a Ceremony, in itself consis dered, is but a small thing; yet the wilful and contemptuous transgression and breaking of a common order and discipline is no imall offence before God“Let all things be done among you,” faith St. Paul, “ in a seemly

and due order:" The appointment of which order pertaineth not to private men; therefore no man ought to take in hand, nor presunie to appoint or alter any public or common Order in Christ's Church, except he be lawfully called and authorized thereunto.

And whereas in this our time, the minds of men are so diverse, that some think it a great matter of conscience to depart from a piece of the least of their Ceremonies, they be fo addicted to their old customs; and again on the other lide, some be so new-fangled, that they would innovate all things, and so despise the old, that nothing can like them, but that is new: it was thought expedient, not so much to have respect how to please and fatisty either of these parties, as how to please God, and profit them both. And yet lest any man should be offended, whom good reason might satisfy, here be certain causes rendered, why some of the accustomed Ceremonies be put away, and some retained aad kept still.

Some are put away, because the great excess and multitude of them hath so increased in these latter days, that the burthen of them was intolerable; whereof St. Augustine in his time complained, that they were grown to fuch a number, that the estate of Christian people was in worse case concerning that matter than were the Jews. And he counselled that such yoke and burthen should be taken away, as time would serve quietly to do it. But what would St. Augustine have said, if he had seen the Ceremonies of late days used among us; whereunto the multitude used in his time was not to be compared? This our excellive multitude of Ceremonies was 1o great, and many of them so dark, that they did more confound and darken, than declare and set forth Christ's benefits unto us. And belides this, Chrift's gospel is not a Ceremonial law (as much of Moses' law was) but it is a Religion to serve God, not in bondage of the figure or shadow, but in the freedom of the Spirit; being content only with those Ceremonies which do serve to a decent order and godly discipline, and such as be apt to stir up the dull mind of man to the remembrance of his duty to God, by fome notable and special fignification, whereby he might be edified. Furthermore, the moft weighty cause of the abolishment of certain Ceremonics was, That they were so far abufed, partly by the superstitious blindness of the rude and unlearned, and partly by the unsatiable avarice of such as fought more their own lucre, than the glory of God, that the abuses could not well be taken away, the thing remaining still.

But now as concerning those Persons, which peradventure will be of: fended, for that some of the old Ceremonies are retained still: If they con. sider that without some Ceremonies it is not pollible to keep any order, or quiet discipline in the Church, they shall easily perceive just cause to reform their judgments. And if they think much, that any of the old remain, and would rather have all devised anew: then such men granting some Ceremonies convenient to be had, surely where the old may be well used, there they cannot reasonably reprove the old only for their age, without þewraying of their own folly. For in such a case they ought rather to. hare reverence unto them for their antiquity, if they will declare themselves to be more ftudious of unity and concord, than of innovations and new fangleness, which (as much as may be with true setting forth of Christ's Religion) is always to be eschewed. Furthermore, luch hall have no just cause with the Ceremonies reserved to be offended. For as those be taken away which were most abused, and did burthen men's consciences without any cause; so the other that remain, are retained for a discipline and order, which' (upon just causes) may be altered and changed, and therefore are not to be esteemed equal with God's law. And moreover, they be neither dark nor dumb Ceremonies, but are fo set forth, that every man may understand what they do mean, and to what use they do ferve.

So that it is not like that they in time to come should be abused as others have been. And in these our doings we condemn no other nations, nor prescribe any thing but to our own people only: For we think it convenient, that every country should use such Ceremonies as they shall think best to the setting forth of God's honour and glory, and to the reducing of the people to a most perfect and godly living, without error and superftition; and that they should put away other things, which from time to time they perceive to be most abused, as in men's ordinances it often chanceth diversy in divers countries.

THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK.* THE Order how the Pfalter is Solemnization of Matrimony. appointed to be read.

Visitation and Communion of the The Order how the reli of the holy Sick.

Scripture is appointed to be read. Order for the Burial of the Dead. Table of Proper Lejlons and Pfalms. Thanksgiving of Women after The Calendar, with the Table of Child-Bearing Lefonso

A Commination, or denouncing of Tables and Rules for the Feasts and God's Anger and Judgments

Falls throughout the whole Year. against Sinners. The Order for Morning Prayer. The Psalter. The Order for Evening Prayer, Formis of Prayer to be used at Scą. The Creed of St. Athanafius. The Form or Manner of Making, The Litany.

Ordaining, and Confecrating, of Prayers and Thanksgiving's upon Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. several Occasions.

A Form of Prayer for the Fifth Colletts, Epistles, and Gospels, to be Day of November.

used at the Ministration of the holy A Form of Prayer for the Thirtieth Comunion throughout the Year. Day of January. Ministration of the holy Communion. A Form of Prager for the TwentyBaptifin both Publick and Private. ninth Day of May. Baptism for those of Riper Years. A Form of Prayer for the Twentya The Catechism; with the Order for fifth Day of October. Confirmation of Children.

Articles of Religion.

I The Order how the Psalter is appointed to be Readet "HE

ap pointed, both for Morning and Evening Prayer. But in February it shall be read only to the 28th or 29th day of the Month.

# The contents of Edw. Filh's second edition of the Common Prayer Book, printed by Grafton, A.D. 1549, are as follow: "1. A preface. ii. a table and kalendar for pralines and lesions, with neceffary rules perteienvng to the famo. iii. The ordre for matyus anderenfong throughout the ycre. Hii The introites, collects, cpittles, and gorpulies, to be used at the celebration of the Lordes supper and holy communion through the vere, with proper prames and lefions for divers feattes and laies. v. The Suppes of the Lorde and holy comm nion, commonly called the Marie, vi. Of Baptifme bothe publique and private. vii. Of Confirmacion, where alfo is a catechisme foc children. viii. Of Matrimony. ix of vifitacion of the fickt, and communion of the fame. x. of Buriall. xi. The purification of women. xii. A declaration of Scripture, with certain practs to bec used the first daie of Lent, commonly called Am-wedne:laie. xiij. Of Ceremonies omistod or retcigncd. xin. Certein notes for the more plain cxplication and decent ministracion of thinges conteined in this Boke."

+ In Edward's and James's Bocks the direâions for reading the Plalter differ from the present order in the following particulars :-"The Pfalter fiall be solihrouglionce every moneih, and because that some monthes be longer then some other bc, it is thought good to make thçm even bị

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