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their fellow-subjects, in which they could not in conscience acquiesce. How can they declare, after this, that they will be content with nothing but State education? No doubt it is well understood that their religious code comprises very few points of a distinctive dogmatic character, which may be the motive that brings them at once more into harmony with education unaccompanied by religion. I know that if educational grants were given in strict proportion to the number of members who form the different religious communities throughout Ireland, their quota would look miserably small on paper. But surely they must be guided, in their opposition to Catholic claims, by a higher principle than this, even though gratitude towards their best friends did not provide a different course. While the Catholics of Ireland acted thus towards the Non-Subscribing Presby. terians, it was not from a spirit of hostility to those who hold the Westminster Confusion of Faith; for this latter body will remember that during the passing of the Marriages Bill, Parliament dubbed their ministers unordained teachers, and their children the offspring of bastardy. ! know they will pardon this parrhesia of mine, for I only mean to recall the independent and generous action of the Catholics of this kingdom at that time, who did not suffer this foul brand to become the heritage of the children of Presbyterian marriages. Can they ever forget the contrast that was presented between the Catholics and Protestants of Ireland on that trying occasion? In and out of Parliament the voice of the Catholic nation was raised against the injustice and insult which threatened the entire Presbyterian body. And will they, after that, still clamour for State control in matters of education,-a control under which they might have been deprived of the privileges and honours of social life? If they must kiss the rod that was raised to strike, let them not turn upon those who saved them from its infliction.” (pp. 11–13.)

This is well put, and is only another proof how much more truly liberal (we use the word, of course, in its proper sense) Catholics are than members of any other so-called religious body; but we fear that there is something in the North of Ireland stronger than gratitude, and that is hatred of God's Church,-hatred which not only blots out of the memory of the Presbyterians the acts of kindness done to them by Catholics in the past, but forces them, regardless of all inconsistency, to sacrifice even their own interests, in order that the Catholic Church may be deprived of her rights. There are no words more frequently on the lips of Irish Presbyterians than "No priestly dictation ! No clerical control!” “No clerical control, indeed!” writes Mr. Pye. “Why, it is as rampant amongst the Protestants of Ulster as in any other part of Ireland. Take the Queen's College in Belfast, and you will find to the number of deans and professors proportionately as many ministers as you can name priests in the Catholic University of Dublin.” (p. 6.)

We cannot conclude these remarks without adding a few words from a recent speech of the Bishop of Elphin, as quoted by Mr. Pye:-" There are 20,000 Protestant children of all denominations in Belfast, and such is the zeal of their parents and pastors for a practically denominational system, that not onė single Protestant child is permitted to attend a National School in which literary instruction is imparted by a Catholic." Yet the Presbyterians are advocates of the mixed system. How is this? There is only one answer. The mixed system which they advocate is that under which, while they will not allow Protestant children to be taught

by Catholic teachers, Catholic children shall attend Protestant schools, and be taught by Protestant masters! The whole paper is vigorously written, and we recommend it to the notice of all who take an interest in the present crisis of Catholic education in Ireland.

Graduale de Tempore et de Sanctis, jucta Ritum Sacro-Sanctæ Romance

Ecclesiæ, cum Cantu Pauli V., Pont. Max., jussu reformato. Cui addita
sunt Officia postea approbata, sub auspiciis Sanctissimi Domini nostri
Pii P.P. IX., curante Sacr. Rituum Congregatione. Cum privilegio.
Ratisbonæ, Neo-Eboraci, et Cincinnatii sumptibus, chartis, et typis
FRIDERICI Puster, S. Sedis Apost. et Sacr. Rituum Congregationis
Typographi. 1872.

E wish to call immediate attention to the above, which is the first of

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special supervision of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, hoping later on to give a more detailed account of what promises to exert a powerful influence on the choral part of the offices of the Church. And we do so for two reasons1st, because of the high authority intrinsically which this edition possesses ; and, 2nd, because of the extrinsic authority with which it is accompanied. We

say intrinsic because it is not an adaptation of the Roman, nor a reprint of any local Gregorian chant for the liturgy, but because it is a faithful re-issue of the great “Editio Medicea,” printed in Rome under Paul V., in 1614, which has continued to be the standard there ever since. We say extrinsic because it is not only “under the auspices of His Holiness Pius IX.," but also is brought out “under the supervision of the Sacred Congregation of Rites”; while the decree, which we give in full, accompanying its publication, “specially recommends it to the ordinaries, that by their adopting it in their dioceses, the wished-for uniformity in the sacred liturgy may be obtained, even in the chant."

RATISBONEN. Perillustris D. Eques Fridericus Pustet, a Sanctissimo Domino nostro Pio Papa IX. titulo Typographi Sanctæ Sedis ac etiam Sacrorum Rituum Congregationis pro editione tantum Gradualis, Antiphonarii et aliorum Librorum Gregoriani Cantus condecoratus, pulcherrimâ et magnificâ Editione jam ad exitum perduxit primum volumen Gradualis ad instar Editionis Medicea. Et licet eadem Editio expensis et laboribus supradicti Typographi lucem aspexerit, tamen quoniam directa fuit singulari diligenti, a Commissione peculiari ab eâdem Sacrâ Rituum Congregatione deputatâ, et continet Cantum Gregorianum, quem semper Ecclesia Romana retinuit, proindeque ex traditione conformior haberi potest illi, quem in Sacram Liturgiam Summus Pontifex S. Gregorius Magnus invexerat, ideo eadem Sacra Rituum Congregatio Reverendissimis Ordinariis præfatam Editionem summopere commendat ut eam adoptantes in suis Diæcesibus exoptata uniformitas in Sacrå Liturgiâ etiam in cantu obtineri valeat.

Die 14 Augusti, 1871. The history of the undertaking is this :—The well-known Ratisbon publisher Pustet, hearing that the question of bringing out a new edition of the Roman Gregorian Chant for the various offices was before the S. Congregation of Rites, offered himself to execute any plan they might determine upon. The Congregation, after duly weighing the proposal, determined to give him an exclusive privilege for thirty years, on condition that he should do two things—Ist, reproduce the recognized standard Roman edition in the same form, and at least as magnificently as the original ; and, 2nd, complete the same by adding the chant to all the new offices granted since 1614, while not a single sheet was to pass to press until it received the approval of the Committee of the S. Congregation. The publisher accepted this, engaging to bear the whole expense. The war between France and Germany retarded the execution of the great folio edition, and he applied to the Congregation for leave to bring out the same in 8vo. form, in order to meet the heavy expense of the original attempt, which has since been realized in the issue of the 1st vol. of the folio Gradual this year. The work in both forms can be seen, and (we need not add) also had, at Messrs. Burns & Oates, Portmanstreet; and the folio edition especially is worth a visit merely to see. We believe that though this century has, especially in France, seen several editions of the Gradual appear, not one can compare with the present one in style and execution ; indeed, we do not think that a single one is printed in red and black, a thing that not only gives such beauty to the old choir books, but very considerably assists the eye in following the music, especially when the singers are grouped round a lectern, reading from one large book.

We have spoken of a set of the officially recognized choir books in course of publication, under the same direction and by the same Editor. They areas follows:

1. Graduale de Tempore et de Sanctis, &c., as above. Folio and 8vo., red and black.

N.B.—The “Ordinarium Missæ,"containing all the invariable portions of the Mass, e. g. Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, &c., for the different classes of Feasts, for the Sundays, Ferias, and the “Missa pro Defunctis,” is published separately in both sizes. In the folio it costs about 10s.

2. Directorium Chori, which is in the press, in 8vo., red and black, taken from a MS. officially approved of by the S. Congregation of Rites.

3. Vesperale Romanum.
4. Hebdomada Sancta.
5. Antiphonarium Romanum, which will complete the set.

The organ accompaniment for the Ordinarium Missæ is already complete. It is the intention of the publisher to set the whole of the Gradual to music for accompanying. Another fact will interest. This splendid edition in folio is printed on three different sorts of paper : the two first we have before us; we have written for the third. The first is on machine-made paper, and costs £5. The second, on paper made by hand, very superior in

appearance and in strength, a thing to be considered in large choral books, costs £7. 108. The third, of which a very limited number of copies is promised, costs £10.

Our sympathies cannot but be with everything emanating from the Apostolic See; and here we have the highest authority in the Sacred Rites of the Church expressing at least a strong wish ("summopere commendat”) that the adoption of this, not local, but general, edition of the Gradual, may perfect the work which has been at last all but universally achieved (“uniformitas in Sacra Liturgia ”), by producing also uniformity in the musical rendering of the one great Liturgy of the West. This is at least an appeal to the adhesion of all Catholics : we do not venture to say adoption.

Another suggestion we would make :—There is a general feeling that our niusic, especially for the Holy Mass, is very incongruous, and that a change must be made, and in an ecclesiastical direction. And supposing that the decree of the Provincial Synod of Westminster in 1852 were enforced, a gap would at once be made by one of its provisions, viz., the exclusion of female voices (“ut fæminarum, maxime pretio conductarum, in choro concentus, ab Ecclesiis excludantur") being carried into effect; the singing of the indubitable music of the Church, which the “Cantus Gregorianus" certainly is, would tell upon the boys' school of any mission ("Pueri etiam musicen in scholis edoceantur”); and thus the necessity created for male singers would produce a healthier tone in the male portion of our congregations, and to sing in the choir would become a proper aspiration among the boys.

Indulgences, Sacramental Absolutions, and the Tax Tables of the Roman

Chancery and Penitentiary considered, in Reply to the Charge of Venality. By the Rev. T. L. GREEN, D.D. London: Longmans. 1872. THE present generation, whatever its merits may be, is most certainly

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and sound views of political economy, but it nurtures a good many people in whom common sense has little sway. A good many people think it highly scientific, and far more learned than its predecessors; and there is a general consent that it is far more highly gifted than any other, and that knowledge was never more universal or more certain. In spite of all this, it is labouring under one delusion, and that is, that it understands the Catholic religion better than those who believe it and try to practise it. Everywhere throughout the world we find men—and unfortunately they are too often men with power in their hands—who, absolute strangers to the Faith, tell us that they know what the Church teaches, and what she onght not, or cannot, teach. The Prince Von Bismarck in this respect differs not from the most obscure dissenting preacher in the most obscure corner of the earth.

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It may be painful, but it cannot be astonishing, to learn that in Wolverhampton, in the diocese of Birmingham, a man was found-it will excite no surprise to be told that he was “an influential member of the Town Council,”--about five years ago maintaining that it was possible to purchase indulgences and absolutions for money, and that they were even cheap, some as low as two shillings; he added also the very useful information, probably inaccessible to anybody lower in dignity than a town councillor, that a man or woman who had judiciously traded in the market might, in virtue of indulgences purchased, “commit any sin, from reading the Bible to murder, with impunity." Well, certainly, in that case, we should expect the "impunity" as a matter of course; for we see no advantage whatever in spending our money in the purchase of an indulgence, when intent on murder, if “impunity” could not be guaranteed; the money without it would be thrown away.

This admirable Town Councillor-we regret that Dr, Green has not given us his name, for he deserves to be handed over to posterity-does not tell us whether reading the Bible be a very great offence or only a small one; and we also are left in the dark as to the number and nature of the offences and their names which fill the gap between it and murder; that is probably a knowledge that will never be vouchsafed to us.

A great many people, like the illustrious Town Councillor, have maintained that an indulgence is leave to commit sin or sins, and a great many people also have been asked to prove that assertion. Hitherto we say, not with any special satisfaction-for we see none in it—the proof has been kept back. Dr. Green was very nearly being rewarded for his researches, for Mr. Collette offered to enlighten his ignorance, or, as Mr. Collette might naturally believe, his pretended ignorance, seeing that Dr. Green must have been by that time a prosperous trader in indulgences and absolutions.

Mr. Collette was very confident; he had by laborious study and immense learning discovered a very common book, in fact, a dictionary, nothing else but the “Prompta Bibliotheca ” of Ferraris. It is, of course, a book kept very secret among us; for it has gone through many editions, and we believe has been twice reprinted within the last twenty years, notwithstanding its bulk. Mr. Collette's sagacity was too much for our secrecy, and he was also able to use the book, having apparently discovered that the key to its contents was a knowledge of the order in which the letters of the alphabet are arranged in Latin. Having got the book and mastered the principle on which it is methodized, Mr. Collette discovered the word “Indulgentia” in its proper place, and in large type ; but he was well aware that the discovery was not an easy one, and so he told the world that the long-desired proof was to be found in a certain volume of the work in question, and on a certain page. That is the history of the great discovery.

Now for the fact. Mr. Collette quotes a passage from the Dictionary of Ferraris, and to his mind it is a conclusive proof that Indulgences are, or were, sold, and that Indulgences are also permissions to commit sin. He is quite satisfied that he has found us out. “I maintain," he said, “ if I hold a plenary indulgence, that it operates for the past and present, with a

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