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clean sheet to commence again ; but if I hold a present indulgence of the above form, “to be valid for all future times,' I need not get the license renewed, for it operates as a forgiveness of all future punishments for future sins to be hereafter committed.” (Introd., p. viii.)

Nothing can be plainer than this. Mr. Collette explains the effect of the “form," and is quite satisfied with his conclusions. Indeed, he has no doubts whatever, for he gives the form, and what is more to the purpose at least to his purpose—he translates it into English as follows : of course, it is the latter portion of a Papal Brief :

“We mercifully grant in the Lord a plenary Indulgence and remission of all their sins, by these presents, to be valid for all future times, with a power of applying the same plenary Indulgence to the souls in purgatory.” (Introd., p. vii.)

That is highly satisfactory for the living sinner, but we do not see the use of it for the souls in purgatory, seeing that they cannot sin. That has probably escaped the researches of Mr. Collette, so we leave it.

There can be no doubt that Mr. Collette was sincere, and that he believed all this, for he quoted his document in Latin. The translation was for the service of his friends, to whom the knowledge of the Latin tongue is a science beyond their reach. Here are the words in Latin :

“Plenariam omnium peccatorum suorum Indulgentiam et remissionem misericorditer in Domino concedimus, præsentibus, perpetuis, futuris, temporibus valituris, cum facultate etiam eandem plenariam indulgentiam applicandi animabus in purgatorio."

It is a great pity that this document was not accepted at once, and in the sense of Mr. Collette. Dr. Green thought otherwise ; and he has in the most ruthless manner pointed out that the translation itself requires every possible indulgence, because it sins, as the saying is, against a rule of grammar which admits of no dispensation. It is true Mr. Collette might have revived an Oxford doctrine current there before the end of the thirteenth century, by which his translation might be supported; for the learned disputants in grammar there maintained that ego currit was perfectly good Latin when Kilwardby and Peckham were Archbishops of Canterbury. Dr. Green spoils the whole affair, and observes that Mr. Collette “has applied the term valituris—a participle in the ablative caseto the terms indulgentiam et remissionem,—substantives in the accusative,an essential rule of grammar is against him.” (p. x.) This is the mischief : grammar is against the discovery.

It does not appear that Mr. Collette has ever expressed an opinion on the interpretation which Dr. Green gives, and we are therefore unable to say whether he thinks it necessary to respect the rules of grammar in his exposition of Papal Letters.

But Dr. Green's book is not to be judged of by this discovery of Mr. Collette, and the further discovery of its worthlessness. The book is really a learned, calm, and clear discussion of the doctrine of Indulgences, written in a most sober style—exhibiting in every line the most careful conscientiousness. It is clearly a work done with great pains, and nobody

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can read it without either learning something new, or having his learning already in possession made more his own by the singular minuteness with which the learned doctor has entered into his subject. He has exposed the blunders of Mr. Collette and men of that mint, that is true ; but he has also done much more than that: for he has explained many points about which, ordinarily, men's knowledge is wont to be hazy. He has put forth most clearly, and yet most concisely, the doctrine of Indulgences, and explained it so that children might understand it. He has further taken pains to tell us what the Taxæ Cancellariæ, &c., really mean, so that even the most obstinate heretic is left without excuse, if he were to maintain that there is in Rome a tariff of sins. He has done a good service also by exposing the dishonest dealings of heretics with the book in question, which being nothing else but the table of fees to be paid for the parchments and the writing therein, was interpolated and altered for evil ends. It would be as true to say that the English judges sell justice, as it would be to say that the Pope does so; and nobody dreams of throwing dirt on the ermine, as men say. Well, the papers and writs necessary for a lawsuit in England have to be paid for, not to the lawyers only whom a client employs, but to the officers of the court also. But we pay more in England than they do in Rome, and there are in Rome many papers of great importance which can be had for nothing, for no payment whatever ; and we have never heard that an English court of justice issues out any papers whatever without payment, unless it be blank forms, which in that state can be of no great service to anybody.

In one thing we are not able to agree with Dr. Green; he has not been just to Tetzel in our opinion.

“The principal delinquents, however, were the eleemosynary quæstors : and their offences were of various kinds. . One of the most notorious of their number was a Dominican friar, named Tetzel.” (p. 124.)

In another place (p. 127) he speaks of the puffs of Tetzel.” For our own part we disbelieve the stories told of Tetzel ; they are on the face of them utterly incredible, and they come to us from a drunken friar and his friends. Of course if there be untainted testimony against him, let him be given him up to the censures he deserves; but if not, we should be inclined to believe, and we do believe, that he was a holy and learned friar, probably a man of great repute in his order, and most certainly of blameless life. Heretics and revolutionists do not usually attack bad men : they respect them and leave them alone, if it be dangerous to use them. It is against good men, against the servants of God, that they hurl their arrows. To us it seems certain that Tetzel would never have been spoken against as he has been if he had not been a much better man, more holy and more learned, than his adversaries, who were neither the one nor the other.

On this subject we beg our readers to read again what was written in this Review for July, 1867; or, what is more to the purpose, the work of Dr. Gröne, on what the observations then made were grounded.

Thoughts on some Passages of Holy Scripture, by a Layman. Translated

from the French. Edited by John EDWARD BOWDEN, Priest of the

Oratory of S. Philip Neri. London: Burns & Oates. 1872. THIS little book contains in the most unpretending form twenty-four

ments. They are not exactly either sermons, or meditations, or commentaries, but partake of the character of all three. The author's preface informs us that they are the private notes of a father of a family, never intended to be published. This accounts for the fact that he has followed no fixed order or system. We are glad that he was prevailed on to publish them. He has not aimed at anything very deep or very original, but he has expressed in a fresh and simple style the reflections of a devout and thoughtful Catholic reader of Holy Scripture.

His little book is a useful contribution towards a kind of spiritual reading much needed for devout people in the world, and we could have wished there were more of it.


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Shall France perish? A Sermon delivered by His Lordship the Bishop

of Poitiers, in the Cathedral Church of Tours, at the opening of the Solemn Triduum in honour of B. Jeanne Marie de Maillé, on Sunday, April 7, 1872. Translated from the French, with the permission of the Author, by a Secular Priest. Together with a Sketch of the Life of the Servant of God. London, Dublin, and Derby :

Richardson & Son. HE Holy See has few more vigorous supporters, the Church of France

few more eloquent Bishops than Mgr. Pie. We trust therefore that this striking sermon of his will obtain both for the Holy See and for France many heartfelt prayers from English and Irish readers. The mediæval Saint whose cultus has recently been approved of by the Holy Father, gives the Bishop occasion in this sermon to contrast mediæval and modern times, and to point out that the great superiority of the former over the latter consists in this, that notwithstanding many undoubted evils, the Christian principle was then in a marked manner the principle of all, and on the foundation of this principle it was always possible for order when disturbed, to be re-established. In those days men kept their baptism; in other words, the principle of faith. We may add that the Bishop of Poitiers seems to us to form a far truer estimate of modern times than Père Gratry, in the work which we have already noticed. There are many eloquent passages in this sermon. Prefixed to it is a Sketch of the Life of B. J. M. de Maillé, whose name deserves to be held in reverence by all nations for the great services she rendered to the Church and the Holy See in the fourteenth century.

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Those who are acquainted with the other publications of the “Secular Priest,” will know how thoroughly they may trust the faithfulness of this translation, and at the same time how spirited and vernacular they will find its English.

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Catholic Progress : The Journal of the Young Men's Catholic Association.

London : Burns & Oates. In

N April we expressed a hope, that we might give in our present number a to do this however, it would be necessary to consider its May and June articles on the higher education of English Catholics ; for this is a subject, which no other can exceed in importance. But it seems to us, that under existing circumstances we cannot with propriety comment on those articles ; and we reserve therefore further notice of the periodical to some future occasion.



The Damnatory Clauses of the Athanasian Creed rationally Explained in a

Letter to the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P. By the Rev. Malcolm
MacColl, M.A., Rector of St. George, Botolph-lane, with St. Botolph-
by-Billingsgate. Rivingtons : London, Oxford, and Cambridge.
R. MACCOLL has contributed what seems on the whole a forcibly-

argued and eloquently-written volunie to the agitation now rising in the Church of England for the abolition of the Athanasian Creed, in the form of a letter to the Prime Minister. The subject is one with which we hope to deal at greater length in our next number ; but meantime such of our readers as take an interest in the controversy, will doubtless acquaint themselves with Mr. MacColl's work, written as it is in defence of those diminishing Catholic verities which the Church of England still respects. A great part of the book was revised while in proof by Dr. Newman ; and we observe in a note that Mr. MacColl also consulted Dr. Murray, of Maynooth, as to the exact authority attributed to the Athanasian Creed in the Church of Rome.

It is so rare to find such pains taken to be accurate in the representation of Roman Catholic doctrine by writers who are not Roman Catholics, that we cannot but be touched by the love of truth and the good feeling which it shows. There is one eminently amusing episode in the discussion, in which the writer deals with Mr. Ffoulkes's characteristically obtuse and grotesque supposition that the Athanasian Creed was a joint forgery of Charlemagne, Alcuin, and Paulinus. We elsewhere notice F. Jones's comment on this theory; and Mr. McColl, with great wit and equal point, shows its ludicrous absurdity. We have not had time to master the volume as a whole ; but we hope to do it more ample justice when we are able to consider the question in general.


The House of Yorke. By M. A. T. New York: The Catholic Publishing

Society. London: Burns, Oates, & Co.
THIS is a work of fiction, into which are introduced the leading scenes

in the persecution of a Jesuit Father and his people in the State of Maine, during the Know-Nothing Movement of 1854. We are told by the author in the Preface that every temptation to embellish the true story has been resisted, and that even striking incidents have been left out, because they chiefly concerned persons who prefer that God alone should know what they have suffered for the faith. We are also told that the roots of the Know-Nothing Movement have not been destroyed, and that they are even now preparing to start forth again in a more vigorous growth. That this may very well be the case we can easily believe from the description of American thought and feeling given in this interesting work; but if so, it will not be with the same result, for we are informed that American Catholics will not again submit to such a persecution. Of course, it would not be fair to criticize a work like the present according to the standard of ordinary fiction; but even as a work of fiction, we can safely say that the unity and the interest are well sustained throughout. The interest certainly never flags, while the descriptions of character are life-like and real. For ourselves, we can bear witness that the work now before us has enabled us to understand Anierican society, and the relation in which the Church stands to it, better than any other work we remember to have read. The author has not only a thoroughly Catholic, but also a thoroughly artistic mind,-advantages not always to be found combined in American writers of fiction. At the same time, religion is never thrust forward awkwardly, nor are we treated to dissertations upon art. The author shows us how things really are in America, yet we feel all the while that the story is being told us by one who is endowed both with a religious and richly-cultivated mind. Here is a specimen of the author's artistic taste, combined with a love of nature :

“He affected not to notice her emotion. 'All I have done in this house has been a labour of love and delight,' he said, and led her to a picture which bore the mark of his own exquisite brush, the only picture on the walls. “This is to remember Carl by,' he said. “It is painted partly from nature, partly from a description of the scene. It is a glimpse into what was called Kentucky Barrens. An opening in a forest of luxuriant beech, ash, and oak-trees showed a level of rich green, profusely flowersprinkled. The morning sky was of a pure blue, with thin flocks of white cloud, and everything was thickly laden with dew. The fringe of the picture glittered with light, but all the centre was overshadowed by a vast slanting canopy of messenger-pigeons, settling towards the earth. The sunlight on their glossy backs glanced off in brilliant azure reflections, looking as though a cataract of sapphires were flowing down the sky. Here and there a ray of sunshine broke through the screen of their countless wings, and lit up a flower or a bit of green. An oriole was perched on a twig in the foreground, and from the hanging-nest close by


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