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animal spirits of Mrs. Barnaby. Like her, she has married after her first youth is past, and is determined to make the most of her prosperous, moneyed widowhood. Like her, she takes a niece to a watering-place, deals largely in fiction about her dead husband, places the date of his death at a conveniently far back distance, enters into all the available gaiety on the pretence that she is sacrificing her feelings to her niece's welfare, exults in the splendour of her weeds, changes her maid's name from Jane to Jeannette (who does not remember Mrs. Barnaby's Sally Hicks, who was turned into Jerningham ?), and attaches to herself a brace of rival lovers, one being a modified copy of Major Allen, with his stories of Waterloo, duels, and the beautiful Isabella. The imitation is daringly close, but Mrs. Greenow is a highlyfinished painting, while Mrs. Barnaby was only a clever daub. Captain Bellfield is a close study of life, while Major Allen, in all his metamorphoses, was a coarse caricature. . The rivalry between Bellfield and Cheesacre is one of Mr. Trollope's masterpieces of humour, and Kate Vavasor's letter, descriptive of the day which she and her aunt passed at Mr. Cheeseacre's farm, when he showed the manure heaps to the widow, as an irresistible appeal to her ambition, is enough to make Kate captivating-only that we know so well it is not hers, that Mr. Trollope has written it for her. In a few instances Mr. Trollope has permitted himself to be vulgar. “Miss Mackenzie," "Rachel Ray," and "The Belton Estate," are vulgar books, and the Neefit episode in “Ralph the Heir” inust, in justice, be called vulgar too. They are, to his more highly-finished productions, what an exceedingly clever farce is to a fine comedy, lower in kind, but equally susceptible of perfection in degree. The insinuating, unctuous schemer, Mr. Prong, who tries to secure the fortune of the grim young widow, Rachel Ray's sister, and the ranting, blustering, flattering, squinting bully, Mr. Maguire, who makes Miss Mackenzie miserable and ridiculous, are the broad farce to the high-comedy stories of “Barchester."
Great in small talk, unequalled in the dialogue of flirtation, skilful beyond praise in minutiæ, so just that he never makes any man or woman a monster of perfection, and has only once been tempted to produce, in George Vavasor, a monster of wickedness, and in that case has fallen short of his customary success; with the keenest powers of surface observation of any living novelist, and the finest humour, Mr. Trollope falls
, short in two of the attributes of a great writer. They are breadth and height. His landscapes of life are deficient in perspective; and his men and women are deficient in soul,
ART. VII.-LORD ARUNDELL ON TRADITION. Trailition, principally with reference to Mythology and the Law of Nations,
By LORD ARUNDELL OF WARDOOR. London: Burns, Oates, & Co. 1872. N the opening paragraph of his preface Lord Arundell states
very candidly that there is no way of finding out the purport of his book except its perusal. We can, with equal candour, testify to the truth of the statement. And the perusal, as the author further remarks, inust be an honest one, journeying dutifully over every chapter and every page, pausing patiently to examine notes, and occasionally after a day's travel taking a sharp walk through outlying appendices. Not only are the chapters interdependent, but their various themes are so suggestive of one another that until the book is finished there is no saying of any one of them when it has made its final appearance. Nor is the requisite perusal quite an easy matter. The book is full of learning and full of genuine, if somewhat perplexed, thought, and constitutes on the whole as tough a bit of reading—for one who reads it properly—as any that has made an appearance even in this age of scientific literature and literary science. Lord Arundell's style, too, is scarcely formed on the highest models, and occasionally is such a very poor interpreter of his thought as to leave his meaning involved in mystery. But the difficulties to be met in perusing his book are not principally due to his somewhat straggling style ; they are in the main naturally inherent in the subjects of which he treats. These are, in in a high degree, rugged and roadless. And that is not all. They have of late got so crowded with what are called views, so hemmed in and overshadowed by jungles of what is called evidence, as to be hardly recognizable by their oldest admirers. Lord Arundell does as much to restore their natural appearance as could be fairly expected.
Though the purport of the work cannot be fully appreciated until the book has been properly read, it is still possible, even in the small space at our disposal, to make the reader possessed of its main dominating idea. Lord Arundell finds the present age, both in political and in social life, strongly disposed to get rid of the order established. But he believes “that no democratic organization, however extended among the masses, will overthrow the established order of things so long as the possessors of property, the upper classes, are true to the objects for which property was instituted.” And he has a reason for the faith that is in him. He undertakes to find, even outside the Church, an authority that forbids that political and social levelling which proceeds at present. That authority is the Divine Voice speaking through human traditions. These traditions, he contends, carry down to our times a revelation made to the heads of the race, and in that revelation are contained laws-among others the Law of Nations-binding men and states for all time. And the traditions do more. They not only preserve divine communications made to the first members of the human family, but they carry on to us the history of these first members and of their leading successors. But where are these traditions to be found ? The author is ready with an answer.
Tradition, he says (page 107), in the sense in which we have just seen it used by Lacordaire, (and this is the sense in which ths author himself understands it,] is not limited to oral traditions, but may be termed the connection of evidence which establishes the unity of the human race ; and, with this evidence, establishes the identity and continuity of its belief, laws, institutes, customs, and manners. The more closely the tradition is investigated the more thoroughly will it be found to attest a common origin, and the more fully will its conformity with the scriptural narrative be made apparent.
By traditions so found the author solves or approximates to a solution of many vexed questions. But it is to two especially, Mythology and the Law of Nations, that he makes application of his theory. And the application leads him to very important conclusions. Gentile mythology, he says, is mainly made up of truths that were really known and events that really occurred to the first peoples, with the truths corrupted and the events distorted in the course of transmission. A Law of Nations exists, not merely as a code of convenience sanctioned by politic diplomatists, nor merely as the precepts of the individual conscience applied to peoples, but as a positive divine law given in the first age and preserved even to this day (in forms more or less corrupted) among all the nations of the earth. Take instances. In Mythology Saturn is a leading and perplexing and repellent personage, the least loved of the characters of Lempriere. But Saturn is no other than Noah; his very name comes to him because “ Noah, a husbandman, began to till the ground”; and the ugly point in his history, namely, that with a depravity of taste scarcely credible in a Divinity, he was accustomed to banquet upon his own progeny, and, in fact, disposed of them cannibalistically, all but three, is only a confused remembrance of the truth that Noah and his three sons were safe from the waters of the Deluge, and that all cxcept these were, by reason of their being excluded from the ark, utterly destroyed. Then, in the Law of Nations it is, or is said to be, certain that if one state resolve to attack another, it is bound to make known its intention by a previous declaration of war. But where do you discover a ground for such obligation ? Not in what is called International
Law, which permitted the invasion of Papal territory in 1860, though that invasion was not only in direct violation of every received principle of political justice, but commenced and continued and completed without even the formality of notifying to the Pope that he must submit to the bandit : nor yet in an application of the precepts of the individual human conscience, for these are at present not only extremely shaky as to whether they are precepts at all, but, even though they are precepts, binding only in so far as they are found to be useful. But our anthor shows a ground for the obligation which is not dependent either on diplomatic convenience or on philosophical teachings. He finds it, where he finds the Law of Nations itself, --in the traditions of humanity. Not only have all nations had a common custom of observing the rule with regard to the declaration of war, but, what is more striking, they have had substantially a common mode of making the declaration. These two facts can be accounted for only in one way. Before the races of men were dispersed, one of the laws imposed upon them was the law which regards the declaration of war.
The line of inquiry which Lord Arundell follows in respect of the two subjects already named he also follows in respect of several other subjects equally important and equally troublesome. The mysteries of Egyptian and Chinese chronology, which at one time looked as if they intended to dispose of the Bible, have the light of Tradition turned full upon them, and are at once seen to be very innocent and very harmless mysteries indeed. Like results are obtained in regard of the Primitive Life of Man, the Origin of Society, and (indirectly) in regard of that most humorous of all modern productions, Mr. Darwin's “Origin of Species." By introducing and discussing subjects such as these, which, in comparison with the two mentioned in the title-page, must be considered as of only secondary importance, the author attains a double end. He not only illumines these secondary subjects themselves, but, while so doing, he illustrates for ns by special instances the power of Tradition, and thus disposes us to listen to it very attentively when it speaks to us on what is really his main subject, the Law of Nations. Each question is treated with a fulness of evidence and fairness to opponents which reflect high credit both on the author's learning and his courtesy. And even unscientific readers, if there be any such in existence, will find Lord Arundell's Look curiously interesting by reason of the many quaint facts and corruptions of facts which it reveals.
This is not the first time, as our author reminds us, that Tradition has been employed as he employs it. It has been often similarly called on both by Catholic and Protestant, and, indeed, by infidel writers. But during the present century it has been unusually suggestive, and Lord Arundell has been the first to make its later VOL. XIX.--N0. XXXVIII. [New Serier.]
pronouncements collectively known to the public. It is that fact which renders his book so valuable an addition to the literature of the time. Besides, there is, in so far as we know, no writer, ancient or modern, who has so fully as our author vindicated for human traditions—and of human traditions only we speak throughout-their proper place in what may be called the loci scientifici. On this matter the following passages (pages 118, 119) will be found very suggestive :
The special intervention (says Lord Arundell) which appears to me destined to bring the various sciences into harmony, will be the elevation of the particular department of history or archæology which has to do with the traditions of the human race as to its origin into a separate and recognized branch of inquiry ; and I am satisfied that if any portion of that intellect which is cunning in the reconstruction of the mastodon from its vertebral bone, had been directed to the great lines of human tradition, that enough of the reliquiæ and vestiges of the past remain to establish their conformity with that which alone has solved the problem—the Book of Genesis ; and which, apart from the consideration of its inspiration, will ever remain the most venerable and best attested of human records. This inquiry [the inquiry into human traditions] might no doubt form a department either of scriptural exegesis, universal history, or of ethnological research ; but, in point of fact, its scope is too large practically to fall within such limits, whereas, if it were recognized as a separate branch of study, it would, I venture to think, in the progress of its investigation bring all these different branches of inquiry into harmony and completeness. And I further contend that the conclusions thus attained are as well deserving of consideration as the conclusions of science from the implements of the drift. . . . . So that when on one side it is said that science (meaning the science of geology or philology, &c.) has proved this or that fact apparently contrary to the Scripture narrative, it can on the other hand be asserted that the facts, or the inferences from them, are incompatible with the testimony of the science of tradition.
And Lord Arundell declares his conviction that even the tradition of usages found in the various families of the human race would enable us to establish the main points of human history :
The Fall, the Deluge, the Dispersion, the early knowledge and civilization of mankind, the primitive monotheism, the confusion of tongues, the family system, marriages, the institution of property, the tradition of a common morality, and of the law of nations.
One of the most curious chapters in Lord Arundell's book is that on “ Primitive Life," especially when read in connection with another chapter,—“Sir John Lubbock on Tradition.” The first two chapters are, as we shall see, not quite in their proper place, unless they be regarded as purely introductory, and the chapter on