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We have not wherewithal to imagine so strongly, so juftly, and so pleasantly: In short, if we have the fame Knowledge, we cannot draw out of it she same Quinteilence; we cannot give it such a Term, such a Propriety, and such a Beauty : Something is det cient in the Manner, or the Words, but more in the Nobleness of our Conception. Yet when you have finish'd all, and it appears in its full Lullre, when the Diamond is not only found, but the Roughness smooth'd, when it is cut into a Form, and let in Gold, then we cannot but acknowledge, that it is the perfect Work of Art and Nature : And every one will be fo vain, to think he himself cou'd have perform'd the like, 'till he attempts it. 'Tis just the Description that Horace makes of such a finish'd Piece: It appears so eafie, Ut sibi quivis Speret idem ; fudet multum, frustraque laburet, ausus idem. And besides all this, 'ris your Lordship’s particular Talent to lay your Thoughts so close together, that were they closer they wou'd be crouded, and even a due Connexion wou'd be wanting. We are not kept in expectation of Two good Lines, which are to come after a long Parenthesis of Twenty bad; which is the April-Poetry of other Writers, a Mixture of Rain and Sun-fhine by fits : You are always bright, even alınost to a Fault, by reason of the Excels. There is continual Abundance, a Magazine of Thought, and yet a perpetual Variety of Entertainment; which creates such an Appetite in your Reader, that he is not cloy'd with any thing, but fatis. fy'd with all.. 'Tis that which the Romans call Coena dubia; where there is such Plenty, yet withal so much Diversity, and so good Order, that the Choice is difficult betwixt one Excellency and another; and yet the Conclusion, by a due Climax, is evermore the best; that is, as a Con
clusion ought to be, ever the moft proper for its Place. See, my Lord, whether I have not study'd your Lordship with some Application: And since You are fo Modest, that you will not be Judge and Party, I appeal to the whole World, if I have *not drawn your Pi&ure to a great degree of Likeness, tho' 'lis but in Miniature: And that some of the best Features are yet wanting. Yet what I have done, is enough to distinguish You from any other, which is the Proposition that I took upon me to demonstrate.
And now, my Lord, to apply what I have said to my present Business; the Satyrs of Juvenal and Perfius, appearing in this new English Dress, cannot so properly be infcrib'd to any Man as to your Lordship, who are the First of the Age in that Way of Writing. Your Lordship, amongst many other Favours, has given me your Permission for this Addrefs; and you have particularly encourag'd me by your Perufal and Approbation of the Sixth and Tenth Satyrs of Juvenal, as I have Translated them. My Fellow-Labourers have likewise Commiffion'd me, to perform in their behalf this Of fice of a Dedication to you, and will acknowledge with all poffible Respea and Gratitude, your ACceptance of their work. Some of them have the Honour to be known to your Lordship already; and they who have not yet that Happiness, delire it now. Be pleas'd to receive our common Endeavours with your wonted Candour, without Intitling you to the Protection of our common Failings, in so difficult an Undertaking. And allow me your Patience, if it be not already tir'd with this long Epiltle, to give you from the belt Authors, the Origin, the Antiquity, the Growth, the Change, and the Compleatment of Satyr among the Romans. To describe, if not define, the Nature of that
nem), with its several Qualifications and Virtues, scther with the several Sorts of it. To compare
Excellencies of Horace, Persius and Juvenal, and bow the fa ticular Manners of their Satyrs. Andlaltly, to give an Account of this new Way of Verfion which is attempted in our Performance. All which, according to the Weakness of my Ability, and the bett Lights which I can get from others, shall be the Subject of my following Difcourse,
The most perfect Work of Poetry, says our Master Aristotle, is Tragedy. His Reason is, becaufe 'tis the most united; being more severely confin'd within the Rules of A&ion, Time, and Place. The Action is entire, of a Piece, and One, without Episodes: The Time limited to a Natural Day; and the Place circumscrib'd at least within the Compass of one Town, or City. Being exa&ly proportion'd thus, and uniform in all its Parts, the Mind is more capable of comprehending the whole Beauty of it without Diftra&ion.
But after all these Advantages, an Heroique Poem is certainly the greateft Work of Human Nature. The Beauties and Perfections of the other are but Mechanical; those of the Epique are more Noble. Tho' Homer has limited his place to Troy, and the Fields about it; his A&ion to Forty Eight Natural Days, whereof Twelve are Holy-days, or Cellation from Business, during the Funerals of Patroclus. To proceed, the Adion of the Epique is greater: The Extension of Time enlarges the Pleasure of the Reader, and the Episodes give it more Ornament, and more Variety: The Inftru&ion is equal; but the first is only Inftru&ive, the latter forms a Heroe, and a Prince.
If it signifies any thing which of them is of the more Ancient Family, the best and most absolute
Heroique Poem was written by Homer long before Tragedy was invented : But, if we contider the natural Endowments, and acquir'd Parts, which are necessary to make an accomplifh'd Writer in either Kind, Tragedy requires a lels and more confind Knowledge: Moderate Learning, and Obfervation of the Rules is sufficient, if a Genius be not wanting. But in an Epique Poet, one who is worthy of that Name, besides an universal Genius, is requir'd univerfal Learning, together with all those Qualities and Acquilitions which I have nam'd above, and as inany more as I have through Halte or Negligence omitted. And after alt, he must have exactly study'd Homer and Virgil, as his Patterns, Aristotle and Horace as his Guides, and Vida and: Bulju, as their Commentators, with many others both Italian and French Critiques, which I want Leisure here to recommend.
In a word, What I have to say, in relation to This Subject, which does not particularly concern Satyr, is, that the Greatness of an Heroique Poem, beyond that of a Tragedy, may easily be difcover'd, by observing how few have attempted that Work, in Comparison of those who have written Drama's; and of those few, how finall a Number have succeeded. But leaving the Critiques on either fide, to contend about the Preference due to this or that sort of Poetry; I will haften to my prefent Business, which is the Antiquity and Origin of Satyr, according to those Informations which I have receiv'd from the learned Casaubon, Heinfius, Rigaltius, Dacier, and the Dauphin's Yuvenal; to which I shall add Come Obfervations of my own,
There has been a long Dispute arnong the Modern Critiques, whether the Romans deriv'd their Satyr from the Grecians, or first invented it thern
selves. Julius Scaliger and Heinsius, are of th first Opinion ; Casaubon, Rigaltius, Dacier, and the Publisher of the Dauphin's Juvenal, maintain the latter. If we take Satyr in the general Signification of the World, as it is us'd in all modern Languages for an Invective, ’ris certain that 'tis almost as old as Verle; and tho' Hymns, which are Praises of God, may be allow'd to have been before it, yet the Defamation of others was not long after it. After God had cursid Adam and Eve in Paradise, the Husband and Wife excus'd theinfelves, by laying the Blame on one another; and gave a Beginning to those conjugal Dialogues in Profe, which the Pocts have perfected in Verse. The Third Chapter of Job is one of the firat InAtances of this poem in Holy Scripture : Unless we will take it higher, from the latter end of the Second; where his Wife advises himn to curse his Maker,
This Original, I confess, is not much to the Honour of Satyr ; but here it was Nature, and that deprav'd: When it became an Art, it bore better Fruit. Only we have learnt thus much. already, that Scoffs and Revilings are of the Growth of all Nations; and consequently that neither the Greek Poets borrow'd from other People their Art of Railing, neither needed the Romans to take it from them. But considering Satyr as a Species of Poetry; here the War begins amongst the Critiques. Scaliger the Father will have it descend from Greece to Rome; aud derives the Word Satyr, from Satyrys, that mixt kind of Animal, or, as the Ancients thought him, Rural God, made up betwixt a Man and a Goat; with a Human Head, hook'd Nose, powting Lips, a Bunch of Struma under the Chin, prick'd Ears, and upright Horns; the Body shagg’d with Hair, especially from the Wailt, and ending