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20,000, when they all perished. Being replanted, however, their number amounted, in 1754, to 98,946. At that time, there were also not less than six millions of banana trees.

The Portuguese introduced the tobacco into Japana. The culture of this plant has lately been checked in China by royal edict, on the plea, that it is not necessary to human life. The sugar-cane was found by the Crusaders near Tripoli •, where it was cultivated with great care. It was afterwards planted in Madeira, whence it was carried to the Brazils, where, for some time, it was used only as a medicine. The quince, the apple, and the cherry, on being taken to that country, flourished so abundantly, that entire hedges are formed of them.

The only indigenous fruits at the Cape of Good Hope are the wild plum, the chestnut, and the wild almond. All others have been introduced at different times, by different persons. The camphor tree, from the East Indies ; strawberries from Holland ; and vines, mulberries, and peaches from France. The last of these fruits is indigenous in Japan. From Persia it emigrated through Asia Minor to Rhodes: and in the time of Claudius it was first planted in Italy.

The Emperor Bauber planted the first cherry-tree, and

"Thunberg, vol. iii. p. 85.

b Albert, p. 270. Bougainville introduced the Otaheitan cane from that island to the Isle of France, in his return from a voyage round the world ; whence, in 1788, it was introduced to Cayenne and Martinico. Lavayse seems to suppose, that it might be cultivated in Europe, where the grounds could be irrigated in dry seasons. Of the emigration of sugar-canes, vid. Journal de Pharmacie, 387. 1816. Of its transplantation into Caraccas, vid. Humboldt, Tableaux de la Nature, i. 74. Of its introduction into the Canaries, vid. Notice sur la Culture du Sucre, &c., par Von Buch.

May 7, 1821, cherries were sold, by a gardener in the vicinity of London, for 42s. a pound; strawberries and raspberries at 2s.6d. per ounce; and grapes at 18s. per pound. . In 1822, cherries were sold at Sydney for ninepence a dozen. In a few years they will, perhaps, be sold for less than ninepence a bushel.

the first sugar-cane in Caubul. The former is now particularly abundant. Peter the Great introduced the vine to Astrakhan : and the Tartars the mulberry near Olavato Yerik; where it bears fruit of a white, black, and pale violet colour; and is found growing among poplars, alders, dwarf elms, and plane trees. Hence some travellers have supposed it to be indigenous. Among the Caucasus wild fruit trees are abundantly scattered among shrubs and forest trees. Indeed, some believe the Caucasus to have been the original country of all the plants and animals, which Europe and Asia have in common; since all the separate climates and soils are combined there a

Hercules brought the orange into Spain; the Moors the pistachio, the banana, and many other tropical plants. Indigo was naturalised in the municipality of Lille, in the department of Vaucluse, by M. Icard de Bataglini. Jussieu intrusted Deslieux, in 1720, with a young coffee tree, which he planted in Martinique ; and that one plant became the parent of all those now in the West Indies. Mons. Louis Dupoy, a colonist of St. Domingo, introduced seeds of the cotton plant : and near Dax they came to maturity. Baudin brought New Zealand flax" from Norfolk Island. Cook had previously discovered it; and it is peculiarly valuable, since it unites the useful qualities of both flax and hemp.

FRANCE furnished England with almost all her apples and pears, if not with vines d. In the reign of Henry VII. apples

• Harpalus, Alexander's governor of Babylon, introduced many Greek trees and shrubs into that province"; all of which succeeded well, except the ivy, which would not grow. Vid. Plut. in Vit. Alex.

b Some suppose that the Spaniards introduced oranges and lemons into the new world ; but Humboldt thinks they were there before. Vid. Ess. Politique sur l'Isle de Cuba, t. i. 68.

c Phormium texile (tenax). d Tacitus says, in Vit. Agricol. c. 12:-The British soil and climate were adapted to all kinds of fruit-trees, except the olive and vine. The latter was introduced in the reign of Probus.Script. August. Hist. p. 942, The Ger. mans had no fruit-trees in the time of Tacitus.

were from one to two shillings apiece ; and eight and sixpence were given for a few strawberries.

Two of the most active introducers of foreign seeds and plants, in England, were the excellent Peter Collinson, and Sir Joseph Banks. But even in England the adoption of plants, till of late years, was comparatively slow a The Jeru. salem artichoke, a native of Brazil , has a valuable root, and is well worthy an extensive propagation. It was introduced to England in 1617: and yet it is even now more known by name than in use. In respect to pines, of those most known in Great Britain, the Scotch alone is indigenous. The common larch came from the Alps in 1629 c; and from America the balm of Gilead in 1696; the Weymouth in 1705; and the frankincense in 1736. The Aleppo came from the Levant in 1732: the spruce from Norway; and the silver pine from the Alps in 1739 ; while the Jersey came from North America even so lately as 1748. In respect to the relative value of these woods, it is only within these few years, that the larch has been known to be almost equal to the oak for internal uses.

The lichen is, says an author, whose name we have neg* The number of exotics in this country, previous to the time of Elizabeth,

. . . . . . . . . . 2112
Introduced in her reign . . . . 578

James I. . . . . . 44
William III. . . . . . 298
Anne .* .

. 230
George I. . . . . . 182
George II. . . . . . 1770

George III. . . . . . 6756
Total, in 1819 . . . . . . 11,970

b Vid. Hortus Vindobonensis, 161. © The two first larches ever seen in Scotland are still alive at Dunkeld, in the park of his Grace the Duke of Athol. They were brought in two garden flower-pots from Switzerland, and put into a greenhouse. They were afterwards transplanted into the park. From these two patriarchs, introduced in 1738, have sprung all the larches now in Scotland. The first fig-trees (1562) are said to be still at Lambeth; the first lime-trees at Dartford; and the first mulberry-trees (1596) at Sion House, the seat of the Duke of Northumberland.

was

lected to note, “ the first plant, that vegetates on naked rocks, covering them with a kind of tapestry, and drawing its nourishment, perhaps, chiefly from the air. After it perishes, earth enough is left for other mosses to root themselves; and after some ages, a soil is produced, sufficient for the growth of more succulent vegetables. In this manner, perhaps, the whole earth has been gradually covered with vegetation, after it was raised out of the primeval ocean, by subterranean fires."

This plant (the lichen) grows, I believe, in all cold countries. It graces a thousand rocks, and gives elegance to a thousand castles, and monastic ruins. The last time I saw it was on the rocks of Snowdon; and I could not behold it without remembering lines ; not, perhaps, to be surpassed in the entire range of British descriptive poetry. Even Lucretius has nothing superior to them.

Where frowning Snowdon bends his dizzy brow,
O'er Conway, listening to the surge below;
Retiring LICHEN climbs the topmost stone,
And drinks the aerial solitude alone.
Bright shine the stars, unnumber'd, o'er her head,
And the cold moon-beams gild her flinty bed;
While round the rifted rocks hoarse whirlwinds breathe,
And, dark with thunder, sail the clouds beneath.

DARWIN, Loves of the Plants.

Every soil would produce plants, if those, peculiar to their natures, were planted in it. Even the white sand of Eastern Louisiana produces cedars, pines, and ever-green oaks. The Tartarian box-thorn will grow in soils, replete with nitre; and sycamores among rocks on sea coasts, where most other trees wither and perish. In the great desert of Arabia, too, are found stalks of rosemary and lavender, shedding an agreeable perfume over a dreary wilderness, which the wild palm renders comparatively rich..

In Chili there are many medicinal plants which are natural to France and Spain. Trefoil, mallows, and mint are, also, indigenous. In many parts of that country, the fruits of Europe flourish so well, that Frazier assures us they are in bud, in flower, green, and ripe, at the same time. In the Chilian deserts, white strawberries are as large as walnuts ; and minerals have no effect whatever upon the life of vegetables. The plant, which most impoverishes the soil in South America, is the indigo.

One of the most fragrant shrubs of the East,—one of the most elegantly formed, too,—Limonia pentaphylla, grows on the uncultivated lands of the Coromandel coast. It flowers all the year. “ The whole plant,” says Dr. Roxburgh 4, “ when lying in the shade, diffuses a pleasant fragrant scent, which I cannot describe. The flowers are exquisitely fra

grant.”

The Madhuca has very peculiar flowers. They resemble berries, which look more like fruits than flowers. They hang in clusters, and never expand. Their seeds are replete with a thick oil, of the consistence of butter. The tree grows in barren soils, and seems to destroy all the brushwood and small trees near it. The fruit and flower are, nevertheless, of great use to the poor; and as it yields equally in a dry season, as in a wet one, it ought to be planted throughout the whole continent of Asia.

How come Mangoes, which grow in America ; grapes, that luxuriate in Europe ; parrots, that people the woods of Madagascar; and green turtle, that visit the shores of the West Indies, to be found in the isles of Condore, on the

a Plants of the Coast of Coromandel, vol. i. 59. fol. Mr. Hamilton, speaking of this tree in the neighbourhood of Chatra Ramga, observes,—"Notwithstanding its utility, I have never observed, nor can I find any of my acquaintance who have ever remarked, one single tree in this neighbourhood, in its infant state. We can see, every where, full-grown trees in great abundance; but we never meet with any young plants : and we are all at a loss to know how they came here. This sufficiently marks the character of the lower orders in their supine indolence. As to the Zemindar, speaking to one of that order, one day, upon the subject, he replied, “It is the food of poor people; how then should I know any thing about it!'"-Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 304, 305.

VOL. II.

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