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to the woman of Samaria, “ Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again ; but whosoever drinketh of the water, that I shall give him, shall never thirst.”
Most of the similes and illustrations (if we may judge from translations) of Ferdousee, Hafiz, Sadi, and other oriental poets a, are also drawn from the natural world. Tasso, too, has scarcely one that has not a similar derivation. Thus he compares Argantes to a comet; the fury of Solyman to a stormy ocean, seen at intervals through flashes of lightning ; and the virtues of Rinaldo to a tree, bearing fruit and blossoms at the same time. Armida, recovering from a swoon, to a rose restored by the dew; the archangel Michael to a rainbow; the softening of Armida’s anger to snows melting in the sun ; and the sound of soldiers to the distant murmuring of the waves.
Milton is equally abounding in references to natural objects; though, in his range, he likewise embraces many arts and sciences. Thus he compares the legions of Satan to the autumnal leaves, that “ strew the brooks of Vallambrosa ;" the rising of Pandemonium to an exhalation ; the applause of the darkened angels to the sound of winds, rushing from hollow rocks upon the billows; and the atoms of Chaos to the unnumbered sands of Barce or Cyrene. The countenance of Eve he compares to the first smiles of morning ; the combat of Michael and Satan to two planets, rushing from their orbits, and confounding the spheres ; the songs of the trees and the bramble is well known *; as is the celebrated passage in Isaiah, where the glory of Assyria is compared to a cedar. In Numbers, Balaam, seeing the tents of Jacob pitched in the plains of Moab, bursts out—“How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy tabernacles, O Israel: as the valleys are spread forth ; as gardens by the river side ; as the trees of aloe, which the Lord hath planted; and as cedar trees beside the waters t."
a This is abundantly shown in the Analysis of the Bráta Yudha, a Javan epic poem I.
* Judges, ch. ix. v. 8.
+ Ch. xxiv. v. 5, 6. Raffles' Java, vol. ii. p. 437, 4to.
angels to the sound of seas; and the descent of Michael to the gliding of an evening mist. Satan to a comet; his shield to the moon ; his standard to a meteor ; his frown to a thunder cloud; and his recoil from the force of Michael to a mountain, sinking in an earthquake.
In Virgil, also, references to the animal, the feathered, and the vegetable world, are perpetual. Those instances where he compares Orpheus to a nightingale ; the love of Dido to the anguish of a wounded stag; and the engagement of Tarchon and Venulus to the combat of an eagle and a serpent, are admirable. The last is, assuredly, the finest simile in Virgila; as the one, where the ecstacy of a good man, at the approach of death, is compared to the music of a dying swan, is the most beautiful in Plato.
Brumoy compares Æschylus to a torrent, rolling over rocks and precipices ; Sophocles to 'a rivulet flowing through a delightful garden ; and Euripides to a river, winding among flowery meads. No illustration, however, do I remember, that so justly bears upon our subject, as that, where Addison contrasts the Iliad and the Æneid by the different aspects of grand and beautiful scenery.
But of all writers, ancient or modern, Ossian b is the poet, who may strictly be styled the Poet of Nature; since there is scarcely a single allusion, that does not expressly refer to the productions of Nature. To quote instances were to quote the whole of his poetry: but the following passage is so exquisite, that I assure myself, my dear Lelius, you will not only forgive its introduction, but hail it with pleasure. “ Ullin, Fingal's bard, was there; the sweet tree of the Hill of Cona. He praised the Daughter of Snow, and Morven’s highdescended chief. The Daughter of Snow overheard, and left the hall of her secret sigh. She came in all her beauty, like the moon from a cloud in the east. Loveliness was around her, as light. Her steps were like the music of songs.” Surely Homer has nothing, in its kind, superior to this.
a Virg. lib. iv. I. 99. Georg. iv. I. 511. Æn. xi. 751. . • The authenticity of Ossian's poems has been rightly questioned. They are, strictly, neither ancient nor modern. They are poems, grounded on oral and traditional fragments in Gaelic; blended with imitations of Homer, Virgil, Tasso, Shakspeare, and Milton: the whole being amalgamated, by Macpherson, with a taste, spirit, and enthusiasm, worthy the aspirations of a superior genius. Homer's Iliad, and even the Odyssey, were, perhaps, compiled and amalgamated after a similar manner. The character of Fingal is the finest in all poetry.
LANDSCAPE PAINTING ;-LANDSCAPE PAINTERS. Of all departments of the pictorial art, none has so great a power to charm the lover of Nature, as the landscape. For though he is willing to give all due applause to portrait and historic painting, and would allow appropriate praise even to the lodges of Raphael, the drolleries of Brewer, and the grotesque pieces of Mortuus Feltrensis and Leonardo de Vinci, he is far less charmed with any efforts of the painter, than with a full, a clear, and well delineated landscape. In this department of his art, the painter's subjects are unlimited. Every object having its varied and appropriate blending of colour, each tree, flower, and plant gives scope for his talents : his rocks are green with the living moss, and peopled with the bounding goat; his forests are clothed in the shade of summer, or in the varied foliage of autumn ; his hills are capped with snow; his vineyards bend beneath their purple wealth.
An artist is of every country :-he translates the temples, theatres, and aqueducts of Rome, the pyramids of Egypt, and the pillars of Heliopolis and Palmyra, on an English wall. For him, the Pays de Vaud glows with its soft and enchanting perspectives ;-Engelberg frowns with its masses of rocks ; --St. Gothard bends beneath the weight of its snows; the bird of paradise hovers in enjoyment, far from her native Gilolo; and the sensitive Melissa blooms upon a northern canvas. The vales of Savoy; the glens of Media; the savannahs of Africa; the rocks of Norway; the groves of Italy ;
the mountains of the west ;-all quit their native soils, and hang suspended in a British palace.
Ancient painters were not so rich in natural objects with which to exercise their genius as the modern. They knew nothing of China, Japan, or the Asiatic islands: Polynesia, Australasia, or America : and not much of the northern parts of Europe. They knew no flowers so beautiful as those of the Cape; no trees so magnificent as those of South America; nor any insects so splendid as those of Australia. They were almost entirely insensible, also, to the pleasure derivable from the contemplation of ruins; though Servius Sulpitius, Cicero, and Pliny the Younger, seem, in some degree, to have been susceptible of that “ divine sensation.”
6 If your Grace,” said Sir John Vanbrugh to the Duchess of Marlborough, “ desire to have a garden, truly elegant, you must apply for a plan to the best painters of landscape a."
The landscapes of BLOEMEN of Antwerp were generally decorated with mutilated statues and basso-relievos; with ruins; and light and elegant specimens of architecture : objects which contributed to give additional interest to figures, habited after oriental fashions, and remarkable for spirited lightness, and graceful inflexion. Molyn, in a peculiar manner, delighted in exhibiting the ocean, in all its sublime and terrible forms: and, from his passion for tempests and shipwrecks, he acquired the appellation of Tempesta. In poetical delineation of marine landscape, Homer (Odyssey), Virgil, Camoens, and Falconer, bear the palm from all competitors.
In every instance, landscape painters should tell a striking history; and not only ought they to select a fine landscape for their study and admiration, but a proper time for exhibiting it : for man scarcely differs more from man, than one scene differs from itself. What is lovely in the morning is, frequently, dull and uninteresting when the sun is in its meridian. For in the morning and evening, the shades of sepa
• Harris's Philos. Arrangements, ch. xiv. 353.
rate objects act upon each other, as contrasts: whereas at noon, the sun shooting its rays perpendicularly rather than horizontally, even the shadow of Etna, which at intervals throws itself to the distance of two hundred and twenty miles, is a comparative dwarf.
This taste for selection characterised LORENESSE ; who, attending to the varied phenomena of the heavens, and aided by an Italian climate, produced the richest and most beautifully fringed horizons, it is possible to conceive. BERGHEM of Haerlem had the faculty of exhibiting great variety in his landscapes. With variety he united beauty, compass, and grandeur. Mathematically correct in his proportions, he was no less faithful in the essential requisites of light and shade, proximity and distance. His colours are luminous, almost to transparency; and his clouds suspend in so natural a manner, that they seem to float at the discretion of the winds. His pieces, too, are agreeably embellished with figures.
CASTIGLIONE excelled principally in the drawing of castles, and abbeys; in which no master has surpassed him. His sketches of rural scenery are agreeable and faithful; but they are far inferior to the bolder efforts of his pencil. SNEYDERS of Antwerp excelled every artist in the delineation of hunting pieces. He may be styled the Somerville of painting. EDEMA of Antwerp painted precipices and cataracts; and even voyaged to Norway and Newfoundland to collect subjects for his pencil. BAMBOCCIO studied at Rome; but derived more from the environs of that celebrated city, than from the works of its greatest masters. He was so minute an observer, that no scene, which struck him, was ever lost to his memory. His imagination was in the highest degree elastic; and, like JORDAENS, his faculty in delineating was nearly as active, as his powers of combination. In looking at BAMBOCCIO's pieces, the eye is completely deluded; for the distances being well preserved, each has its appropriate relief, and every shade its characteristic tint.