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gallow-tree! Men and women, who made all others “beautiful to look upon.”

Warfare of defence alone is justifiable. The rest is infamy: and the man who urges it, proclaims it, or assists in it, be he prince, minister, or counsellor, is entitled to the united hisses of an injured world.

But who are those, niched in the eternal amphitheatre, who live from age to age, and who, to the utmost limits of time, will charm and instruct, not only a nation, but a world? Who are those, of whom enlightened men are speaking every hour ? Who are they, who walk with us, accompany us in long journeys, advise us in secrecy, and reprove us without a frown? Who are they, who dry the tears of the widow, and cheer the bosoms of the wretched? Whose birth-places do we visit with sympathy and delight? Over whose tombs do we bend with all that fascinating awe, with which a Tasso would pause among the ruins of a venerable temple? Who teach us to derive happiness from ourselves; and thrill us with all those delicate emotions, of which our nature is susceptible? And to whom-hear it, ye vulgar?—to whom do kings and warriors, and statesmen, look for consolation, when they are foiled, defeated, and disgraced ? To whom, but to men of learning, talents, and genius :-men, who possess the power of imparting all the colours of the rainbow to the dull mosaic of a spider's web:—men, who glide through life unobserved and unknown; whose merits are only acknowledged in death ; and whose coruscations are allowed only to emanate from the grave :-Men, whose memories live, not on pillars, on monuments, or on obelisks ; but in the bosom of every amiable and enlightened man: whose images are multiplied, in proportion to the extension of the human race; and whose honourable names are echoed with rapture, even through the universe.

By fairy hands their knell is rung;
By forms unseen their dirge is sung;

There Fancy comes, at twilight grey,
To bless the turf, that wraps their clay;
And Pity does a while repair,

To mourn, a weeping pilgrim, there. After the expiration of several ages, the Portuguese have at length attempted to cover the ignominy of their forefathers, by erecting a monument over the ashes of Camöens. Illustrious shade! rise from thy bed of earth ;—pulverize the monument ;--and strew it to the winds !

CONTRASTS THE SPRINGS OF OUR HAPPINESS. CONTRASTS are the springs of our happiness. Without a knowledge of the muriatic, we should be ignorant of the sweet; without the sweet, we should be incapable of the pungent. Had noon no excess, we should never enjoy the temperature of evening; were there no darkness, we could never appreciate the value of light: without labour, who could be sensible of the enjoyments of rest ? and were we not sometimes visited by pain, where would be found the captivations of pleasure ? Such is the organization of man. That we could have been formed in a manner to have a continual appetite for enjoyment, without any of the contrasts arising from vicissitude, is as certain, as that we possess a general appetite for food, even though we feel no pain from partial hunger, or from temperate thirst. But it has pleased the Eternal thus to frame us. He has decreed, also, a temporary success to vice, and a temporary depression to virtue. Regardless of the means he employs, the villAIN prospers ! He rolls in wealth, and becomes the petty despot of his village; the Napoleon of his neighbourhood. His will is his logic; power is his mistress ; and money his god. He dies ! unpitied, unlamented, he is almost hissed and hooted into his grave. The hatred of his relatives is signified by the nettles growing over his monument; and the joy of the poor is the best epitaph he deserves. The GOOD MAN, on the other hand, frequently pines from

day to day. His efforts are unavailing: to him industry brings no harvest of profit: every object he touches crumbles into ashes ! Weary and fainting, he droops into the midnight of the grave; after having borne, with meekness and resignation,

The strife of little tongues,

And coward insults of the base-born crowd. His body consigned to the earth, his friends weep over his monument; and lament the hard destiny of a man, adorned with all the embellishments of education, and animated with all the impulses of virtue. They look at each other, in all the amiable ignorance of grief; and appear to anticipate the unanimous question, whether, indeed, there is an all-governing Providence! In the mean time, the soul of their friend has separated from its tenement of clay; it has passed through its aurelia state ; and has awaked to landscapes of matchless beauty, and to scenes of endless happiness.

As a knowledge of the mechanism of the visual organ affords no conclusive explanation how visual sensation arises, so, though we are conscious of the goodness of our original, yet are we no more permitted to fathom the purposes of our Creator, than the meanest soldier of an army is permitted to know the secrets of his general. Continual movements are ordered without any visible design ; long and weary marches , are made in the dead of night; fortresses of little apparent importance are invested; he breaks down bridges ; moves along narrow defiles ; animates his troops at one time, while he restrains their impatience at another. Wild.and angry conjectures, ceaseless murmurs, and innumerable complaints, are echoed through the camp. The moment, however, at length arrives. The trumpet sounds; the signal is given; the charge is made. It is irresistible! The place, the time, and manner, having been well chosen. The ranks of the enemy are broken ; thousands join in the pursuit; the notes of victory sound from hill to hill; murmurs, and conjectures,

and complaints, all are at an end; the whole design is cleared up; every one gives himself to joy ; every one celebrates and resounds the praises of his general.

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As there are in Nature many contrasts, there are, also, many resemblances, though there are no likenesses. Some of these resemblances constitute the best media, by which the several portions of Nature may be associated, or contrasted, with each other. The sciences become simplified by this method. Since illustrations of excursion, if the term may be · allowed, impart beauty to strength, colour to form, variety to monotony, and render more evident Nature's unison of systematic accordance. The perfume of the citron, for instance, may be imparted to less favoured fruits, by infusing its essence into the sap of their roots.

Plants claim some affinity with animals. The stalk of the former resembles the body of the latter ; the root the stomach; the bark the skin ; the pith the marrow; and the juice the blood. Like animals, too, plants are subject to a great variety of disorders. They imbibe air and moisture by their leaves; and food by their roots ; - both being transubstantiated into their own substance: as theirs is afterwards employed in the structure of animals :—for the entire frame of animated being derives its form and its consistence from vegetable organisations. . Some writers confound sensation with the power of motion : and if no motion is perceived, they cannot imagine the existence of sensation. Oysters have no more the locomotive power than thistles ; and they can no more forsake the beds, in which they are deposited by the tide, than fishes can swim without water, or birds and insects fly without air. Vegetable sensation, however, is not animal sensation; and it is no superficial mode of supporting this argument to observe, that, as Nature has given compensations to all, she would never

have ordained so cruel a result as animal sensation to plants, without giving in return the power of defence. A few plants, it is true, seem to be endued with this faculty: some by the noxiousness of their qualities ; and others by the peculiarity of their structures : as the nettle, the thistle, the noli me tangere, the thorn, the rose, the holly, the kamadu of Japan, with the deadly nightshade, and other poisonous plants. Yet these plants, armed as some of them are against attacks, and as others are against animal use, support innumerable insects. Some plants open their petals to receive rain: others avoid it. Some contract on the approach of a storm; and others at the approach of night; while some expand and blossom only to the evening air. Near the Cape, certain flowers form à species of chronometer. The Moræa unguiculata a and undulata open at nine in the morning, and close at four; the Ixia cinnamonea b opens at the time the other closes ; and sheds a delicious perfume during the night. The Mexican marvel of Peru also closės at four.

The stamina of the flowers of sorrel thorn are so peculiarly irritable, that, when touched, they will incline almost two inches ; and the upper joint of the leaf of the Dionæa is formed like a machine to catch food. When an insect, therefore, settles upon its glands, the tender parts become irritated; the two lobs rise up, grasp the insect, and crush it to death. The sensitive plant shrinks back and folds its leaves upon being touched, after the manner of a snail ; and a species of the hedysarum of Bengal has its leaves during the day in continual motion; on the approach of night these leaves sink from their erect posture and seem to repose. Nor is this motion confined to the time of being in full perfection ; for if a branch is cut off and placed in water, the leaves will, for the space of an entire day, continue the same motion ; and if any thing is placed to stop it, no sooner is the obstacle * Bot. Mag. 712.

. b Hesperantha, ibid. 1054. € Mirabilis dichotoma.

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