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Siberia is found in some of the American islands ; and the Pyrenean honeysuckle, introduced to England (1739) from the garden of the Duc d'Ayen, at St. Germains, is not only a native of the Pyrenees, but of Canada. The rhododendron is also found on the top of the Andes ; as well as on the Caucasus. On the Alps it grows so luxuriantly as sometimes to smother the grass. The Greenland saxifrage is found in Iceland, among the Pyrenees, and La Perouse a discovered it on a mountain of the Pacific, 1600 toises above the sea.
The Pallasia Halimifolia grows in Russia, and it is known also in Peru. In North America is found the lilium superbum of Japan; and in a glen near Hudson's Bay, auriculas, with leaves of a fine green, and flowers of purple. They have, however, no mealiness; but in other respects they differ little from those of Switzerland and Norway. Labradore, which exhibits, in the midst of its winds and storms, many fine scenes of natural grandeur, has mosses, equal to any in point of beauty seen in any other quarter of the world : and there, also, grow wild currants, gooseberries, cranberries d, and the raspberries and strawberries of Europe.
The mountains of Spitzbergen, however barren they may appear in the distance, afford moss, and other small plants, such as poppies, scurvy grass, and ranunculi e. The spurred violets, though not a native of Britain, is indigenous in Iceland and in Switzerland ; and yet Iceland plants are almost all British In what manner could this violet become indigenous in Iceland, when Britain, lying between the two countries, knows it only as a guest ?
a Hooker, ii. 323. M Keevor's Voy. p. 69.
c Integrifolia. Flora Danica. 188. d Chappel's Newfoundland and Labradore, 138. e The same as in Lapland. “Caule unifolio et unifloro, foliis tripartitis.”— Flora Lapponica. Ranunculi, taken at Spitzbergen, and subject to pressure between paper and boards, during the voyage, vegetated in that position, and were living, when opened in England in the month of December.-See Parry's Narrative. Append. p. 208. 4to.
f Viola calcarata.
Among the rocks of Sweden wild roses and geraniums add interest and splendour to one of the finest cataracts in that countrya; while the elegant pyrola uniflora, having a fragrance equal to that of the lily of the valley, blossoms not only in Sweden and the Hebrides, but in the south of France, and north of Italy. In Sweden, too, grows the rare plant, cypripedium bulbosum, which is a native of North America. It is seen in no part of Europe but near Kiemi; and to that town the professors of Upsal c send for specimens. Near Christiana the salix herbacea grows; but so diminutively, that Dr. Clarke compressed twenty of them into two pages of a duodecimo volume. It is the smallest of trees.
How came ranunculi to grow on an island in the Polar regions, at the mouth of Waygat’s Strait, where there are no species of vegetation but moss, sorrel, and scurvy grass ? Whence does it arise, that the paper mulberry is found in the island of Lefooga, and in scarcely any other of the Pacific islands? Why is not the nutmeg,—so abundant in the Malaccas,—found in the other Indian islands? Why is the tea-tree, which grows so abundantly in Java and its dependent islands to the east, denied to Sumatra and the peninsula of Malabar? And why is the anana of Hindústân, the flavour of which seems to be compounded of sugar, strawberries, claret, and rose-water, and therefore so peculiarly worthy of transplantation, almost entirely confined to that country?
The Portuguese introduced the papaw into the Malay Islands d, and yet they have neglected to introduce many fruits into Portugal, which would flourish as well in that country as in any of their tropical settlements.
The Alfonsia has a large trunk, but its height is only six
a Kaardisen nivas. Clarke, Scandinavia, p. 324. 6 Acerbi, p. 339. 4to.
© Clarke, p. 476. 4to. d Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. i. p. 147.
feet; it produces, however, sometimes not less than 600,000 flowers at the same time. The Adansonia tree is found in Senegal. It is forty feet in circumference. “Stripped of its foliage,” says Molliena, “it resembles an immense wooden tower. This majestic mass is the only monument of antiquity to be met with in Africa.”
The soil, climate, and cultivation of Africa, and its islands, present many curious vegetable phenomena. Pineapples, long supposed to be foreign to that continent, were found by Tuckey on the plains, where Europeans had never previously been. At the mouth of the Gambia, Park saw the orange and banana of the West Indies : and yet not a single indigenous species, or any of the principal genera of plants, at St. Helena, are found in any part of the coast of Congo. Nor does the vegetation of that coast bear any resemblance to that of more Southern Africa; while the plants of Egypt and Abyssinia bear as little affinity to those of the Gambia, the Formosa, and the Senegal.
Chief of the plants, hitherto discovered on the Congo, are found to exist in the equinoctial parts of New Holland; in Van Diemen’s Land; the South of Europe ; and the North of Africa b. Some few, however, there are, which have elsewhere been found only in Equinoctial America. The best plants on this coast are natives of other continents. From Asia" came the orange, the cane, the tamarind, and the plantain : from America the capsicum, the maize, the papaw, the tobacco, the cassava, and the pine-apple. Some plants, however, as the begoniacæ, are found in the Isles of France, Bourbon, Johanna, and Madagascar; and yet no research a has discovered them on the neighbouring continent; nor are there any of the laurinæ e, though they are found in Tene
Trav. in Africa, p. 41. 4to. b Tuckey, p. 423. 4to.
c Ibid. 469.
«A.D. 1818. · e Brown's Observations on Prof. Smith's Collection from Congo.Tuckey, p. 464. Appendix. 4to.
riffe and Madeira. All this may be regarded as being very extraordinary.
The maize and the pine-apple, the papaw and the tobacco of Africa, are said to have come originally from America ; and the tamarind and sugar-cane from Asia. But in what manner they were introduced no probable conjecture has been formed. The Cinnamon, too, is very remarkable in its emigrations. This tree is found in Ceylon, Malabar, Sumatra, Tonquin, Cochin-China, Caubul, Borneo, Timor, the Loo-choo Archipelago, Floris, Tobago, and the Philippine Islands. It grows, also, in the Isles of Bourbon and Mauritius ; in the Brazils; the Sichelle Islands ; Jamaica and Guadaloupe. In 1772 it was introduced from the Isle of France into Guiana ; and since that time into the Antilles. Now it is not very difficult to account for the appearance of this tree in so many longitudes; since, besides those, in which man is known to have had a share, birds might propagate its seed into some regions; and the tides might navigate its roots, and even its trunk, to the shores of others. But why has heath been denied to the western continents ? For, with the exception of a dwarf species found in Baffin's Bay, it is totally unknown, as a native, in both. We shall be told, by some botanists, that there is no soil adapted for its culture ; and by some naturalists, that there is no animal to feed upon its leaves. The traveller, however, will inform us, that there is, in America, not only the very climate, but the soil, in which it is accustomed to vegetate ; and abundance of animals, that would delight in its herbage.
European science has searched the civilized world; but only a small portion of savage plants, if so they may be called, are yet known; for even the numerous species, growing in the new world, examined by Bonplanda and Humboldt,
a Vide Nova Genera et Species Plantarum, quas in peregrinatione orbis novi collegerunt.-Amat. Bonpland et Alex. de Humboldt, 1815. Parisiis.
form but a small portion of the vegetable wealth of that magnificent continent.
The coasts of New South Wales have yet been but superficially explored: the interior still less. But its vegetable wealth may, in some measure, be conceived from the circumstance, that it affords even to a superficial survey twelve species of the pultenea; fourteen of the eucalyptus ; seventeen of the bakea ; twenty-one of the banksia ; and thirty-one of the melaleuca. While the Cape of Good Hope affords not only forty-nine species of aloe, and fifty-five of the oxalis ; but seventy-four of the protea; and not less than 304 species of heath.
In 1763, Linnæus reckoned 7,500 species of plants. In 1784, Murray, 9,000. In 1806, Person, 27,000. In 1809, there were reckoned 44,000. In 1816, M. Decandolle supposed them to amount to 50,000:--and as Spain, Dalmatia, Russia, Turkey, Brazil, the north-west coast of America, the centre of Africa, New Holland, Thibet, China, Cochin China, and other countries have been but imperfectly examined, he supposes the number to exceed even 100,000.
Humboldt calculated vegetables at 44,000: of which 6,000 are without sexual organs: in Europe 7,000; in Africa 3,000; in New Holland and the South Sea Islands 5000; in the temperate zone of Asia 1500; in the torrid zone of Asia 4500; in the two temperate zones of America 4000; and in the torrid zone of that continent 13,000. Here are very curious results. In New Holland, -almost unpeopled,—and the South-Sea Islands,—evidently of a comparatively recent formation,—we find nearly as many species of plants as there are in all Europe ;—more than in all Africa, and nearly as many as in all Asia. How strikingly do the celebrated lines of Gray recur to our imagination !
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,