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except swine, hares, rabbits, and camels : they might eat fishes, too, that had fins and scales ; but no others. They were commanded, also, not to eat birds, or beasts of prey; nor cuckoos, nor swans, pelicans, storks, nor lapwings. Yet they were allowed to eat locusts, beetles, and grasshoppers : but neither blood nor fat. The Mahometans eat nothing, reckoned impure in the Old Testament. . The Jews were not expensive at their entertainments. Nehemiah, while gover- . nor of Judah”, had, however, prepared for his household one ox, six sheep, several fowls, and once in ten days store of all sorts of wine. Ahasuerus is said to have entertained all the governors of his kingdom for six months : and for seven days he kept open table for all the inhabitants of Susa.
Though Persia abounded in excellent fruits, yet, in the time of Cyrus, Xenophon relates, that the most agreeable meal to a Persian consisted of bread and water-cresses. Porphyry sayso that the more ancient Greeks and Syrians abstained entirely from the flesh of animals ; in which they resembled the ancient and modern Hindoos, the Gaures, and Macassars. In the time of Boadicea, even the British lived upon vegetables. “One great advantage,” said she to her army, “is, that we live upon herbs and roots : water supplies the place of wine ; and every tree is to us as a house.” But Arcammes, a prince of Gaul, gave a great feast, which lasted an entire year: every one that came was welcome; even the strangers that travelled through the country d. .
Among the Tartars mare's milk was preferred ; in Arabia camel's; in Lapland reindeer's; in Peru lama's; in Poitou the French prefer the milk of sheep. In many parts of North and South Wales sheep are as regularly milked as cows. In the Tyrol goat's milk is in frequent use; and in the part of France, in which Montaignee lived, mothers, * Nehemiah, ch. v. 18. Cyroped. lib. i. c. 8. 1). Lib. iv. par. ii. xv.
& Athenæus, lib. iv. c. 13. e Essays, b. ii. c. 8.
who had no milk of their own, frequently permitted goats to suckle their childrena.
The existence of cannibals was, for a long time, disputed; and it would be well, if it could be disputed still; but the fact is now established beyond the possibility of doubt.
Homer accuses the Cyclops of this practice. But we must confine ourselves to fact. Herodotus accuses the Scythians"; Diodorus the Cimbrians d; and Cæsar the Gaulso. The Melanchlænif and the Lamiæ & were, also, addicted to this horrid practice. Strabo h accuses the ancient Irish of this practice; and St. Jerome says ', that he saw several Britons, then in Gaul, eat the flesh of men. “ They esteemed," says the venerable father, “the breasts of women great dainties.” The Gauls of Gascoigny, during the siege of Alecia, ate the bodies of those, who were incapable of bearing arms. It is right, however, to remember that Juvenal, who alludes to this circumstance, qualifies the account by adding, est famak.
At the capture of Rome by the Goths, in 410, the lands not having been tilled for some time, and the ports being blockaded, such distress prevailed, that human flesh was publicly sold in the markets; and many mothers ate their own children. At the time, in which Belisarius was employed in the Gothic war, a horrible famine afflicted Italy. Procopius assures us, that multitudes, in the agony of their want, committed suicide. Numbers ate acorns and the grass of the fields. Many mothers even destroyed their own children, and ate them: and one woman, who lived by letting lodgings, murdered, and ate no less than seventeen strangers, who had lodged at her house in succession. Her enormities coming, by accident, to the knowledge of the eighteenth, after he had entered her house, he dispatched her.
a I believe the best method of rearing children, when their mothers cannot nurse them, is by allowing them to suck a domesticated animal. I know a fine healthy young lady, now about seventeen years of age, who was thus reared. A goat is the best animal for this purpose, being easily domesticated, very docile, and disposed to an attachment for its foster-child: the animal lies down, and the child soon knows it well, and, when able, makes great efforts to creep away to it and suck. Abroad, the goat is much used for this purpose; the inhabitants of some villages take in children to nurse; the goats, when called, trot away to the house, and each one goes to its child, who sucks with eagerness, and the children thrive amazingly. Gooch's Lectures.
6 Odyss. ix. 290 ; x. 129. Tantalus is represented as having slain his son, and served him up for the gods to eat, in order to try their divinity: and Progne is fabled to have murdered her own son, Itys, in revenge to her hus. band, for his conduct to Philomela, and gave his flesh for him to eat. c Lib. iv. 18. 20; also Pliny, vii. 2.
d Lib. v. c. 32. e De Bell. Gall. vii. 71. Diod. Sic. v. c. 32, p. 355. f Herodotus. 8 Philostr. in Vit. Apol. iv.
h Lib. iv. 201. i Adv. Jovent. lib. ii.
k Sat. xv. 93.
The Jews, above all other people, are accused of this disgusting practice. An instance is recorded, in the second book of Kings a, where two women are described, as agreeing to eat their two sons, during the famine in Samaria b. And when the Jews destroyed upwards of 200,000 Romans, in the time of Trajan, they were said to have glutted their rage by feeding on their bodies. These enormities were even foretold by their prophets. In Barucho it is written, that “ the man shall eat the flesh of his own son, and the flesh of his own daughter d.
- Ch. vi. v. 28. b Dr. Martin relates *, that an Indian woman “ dug up a favourite child, which had been dead some montbs, separated the bones from the flesh, and having boiled them together, drank the broth ; after which she wrapped up the bones in palm-leaves, and returned them to the ground."
| c Ch. ii. v. 3. d In Deuteronomy t, Moses describes it as being one of the curses, entailed upon their heirs, for the crime of disobedience :-“ Thou shalt eat the fruit of thine own body; the flesh of thy sons and thy daughters in the siege, and in the straitness, wherein thine enemies shall distress thee. The tender and delicate woman, which would not set the sole of her foot to the ground, for delicacy and tenderness, shall eat the children which she shall bear ; for want of all things, secretly, in the siege.” Josephus says, that during the siege of Jerusalem, “ Women snatched the food out of the very mouths of their husbands, and sons of their fathers, and mothers of their infants.” (Lib. i. 5, c. 10, p. 3.) “In every house, if there appeared any semblance of food, a battle
* Trav. in Brazil, p. 692.
+ Ch. xxviii. v. 53,
During the great famine at Moscow, not less than 500,000 persons perished. Multitudes were seen in the roads and streets ; some dead; some expiring; and some with hay and straw in their mouths. Children sold their parents for bread ; and even mothers and fathers satisfied their hunger with the bodies of their children.
During the reign of Shâh Husseyn, Ispahan was besieged by Mahmud, chief of the Afghauns ; when the besieged, having consumed their horses, mules, camels, the leaves and bark of trees, and even cloth and leather, finished, -80 great was the famine,—with not only eating their neighbours and fellow-citizens, but their very babes. During this siege more human beings were devoured, than was ever known in a siege before. Mahmud having at length listened to terms of capitulation, Husseyn clad himself in mourning; and with the Wali of Arabia, and other officers of his court, proceeded to the camp of his adversary, and resigned the empire. The Afghaun chief, in receiving his resignation, exclaimed, “ Such is the instability of all human grandeur ! God disposes of empires, as he pleases, and takes them from one to give to another !” This occurred in the year 1716. During a late revolution at Naples, too, the lazaroni roasted men in the public streets : and begged alms of the passengers, to enable them to buy bread, wherewith to eat their meat. This fury was directed against the Jacobins a.
During the famine, which desolated Egypt, A. D. 1199, in consequence of the Nile not overflowing its banks, many women were executed at Cairo for killing and eating their ensued, and the dearest friends and relatives fought with one another, and snatched away the miserable provisions of life.” (Josephus, l. ii. c. 3.) During the famine of 1033, in France, “ Men lived on roots and dead carcases; guests were sacrificed by those who had welcomed them to the enjoyment of hospitality; children were enticed into secret places and slain; and human flesh was exposed for sale in the market-place of Tournus, in Burgundy.”—Glaber, lib. iv. c. 4; Ranken, iii. 318, 19.
a See also what occurred in the Russian campaign, where the French soldiers fed on human flesh, in Segur. b Abdallatiphus, Hist. Egyp. lib. ii. c. 2.
own children ; and at the siege of Antioch by the Crusaders a, in 1097, a famine existing in the Christian camp, thistles were boiled and eaten, and human flesh eagerly devoured. At the siege of Marra, too, the Crusaders ate bodies, taken from the graves of their adversaries ; and one of the historians , who records the fact, even expresses surprise, that they should prefer the flesh of dogs to that of Saracens and Christians.
The people of Maniana, south of the Gambia and Senegal, are cannibals. They eat spiders, beetles, and old men. “ When a stranger dies,” says Molliend, “ they purchase his corpse for the purpose of eating it.” Other tribes of Africa have been convicted of this practice. The Battas not only eat men, when dead, but they begin to eat them even when alive. It has the sanction not only of custom, but of law ; and the crimes, for which the victims are delivered to this punishment, are midnight robbery, adultery, treacherous attacks, and intermarrying in the same tribe.
In Celebes several instances have occurred, in which, after they have slain their enemy, they have cut out the heart, and eaten it while it was warm 8. The natives of New Zealand", New Caledonia', and New Holland , also, are cannibals. When Columbus first landed at Guadaloupe, he saw human limbs suspended, as if for drying, from the beams of houses'; and that cannibals still exist among the Chippewa, Miamim, Potawatomi ", and other Indianso; among the Mania Avidissime devorabant. William of Malmesbury, 433 ; Bernardus, 691.
b Albert. Maffæius and Molina say of the Brazilians, that they were cannibals; and that they often declared, that the flesh of those who had been baptised lost much of its flavour.–Vid. Maff. xv.; Molina, 167. d Trav. in Afric. p. 302, 4to.
e Vossius de Nili Origine, c. 18, 19. f Raffles' Life, 432, 4to. Vid. also Anderson's Account of the Mission to the East Coast of Sumatra, in 1823, p. 35.
& Hist. Java, Append. F., vol. ii. 179. h Hawkesworth, ii. 389; iii. 447. i D'Entrecasteaux's Voy. ii. 199. 295. « Voy. in Search of Perouse, i. 173.
1 P. Martyr, Ep. Pompon. Leto. No. 147.
• Humboldt, Pers. Nar. vol. iv.