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to gambling; but inebriety and conjugal infidelity are unknown to them. They have a great respect for age and learning; and are free from the listless indolence of other eastern nations. But, even here, the tincture of a barbarous state exhibits itself; for, like the negroes of the Gold Coast of Guinea a, they use no milk; and the burning of widows is far from being unfrequent b. They are divided into four castes ; having much of the Hindoo, not only in religion, but in manners. Rice is their principal sustenance ; but the mountaineers live, almost entirely, on maize and sweet potatoes. They employ oxen for ploughing, and women reap; but they do no other office of husbandry. In 1816, the population was about eight hundred thousand. Some years since, the slave trade was carried on in this island: when all insolvent debtors, prisoners of war, thieves, and those who attempted to emigrate, for the purpose of eluding the laws, were sold to slavery.
In the island of CELEBES, which is well watered, the climate is salubrious ; it has one mountain, the Boutain, which is 8,500 feet above the level of the sea. The inhabitants procure subsistence without much exertion. Marriages are early; polygamy is allowed; and women are held in more esteem than, in polygamous countries, they generally are. It is, indeed, said to be more difficult to procure a wife than a husband. The peasantry are bold, and have a spirit of independence and enterprise ; while no little pride of ancestry and chivalry distinguishes the higher orders : but many of their customs are barbarous in the highest degree. Thus, they eat the blood and the flesh of animals raw; and one of their favourite dishes consists of the heart and liver of a deer, cut into pieces, and mixed raw with the warm blood.' In respect to their ferocity, it may be sufficient to instance, that it has several times occurred, that, after they have slain an enemy, they have cut out the heart, and eaten it while it was warm“. The slave trade, too, exists in its most odious form; one of the chief sources of the Rajah’s revenue consisting in the sale of his subjects.
a Bosman, p. 226, ed. 1721. b Crawford's Communications to Sir S. Raffles, Appendix, p. ccxxxix.
The COREAN ARCHIPELAGO affords the most picturesque views in the world. For a hundred miles, ships sail among islands, which lie, in immense clusters, in every direction, varying in size, from a few hundred yards to five or six miles in circumference. The sea is generally smooth ; the air temperate ; and the natives are frequently observed, sitting in groups, watching ships as they pass. The valleys are cultivated, and objects perpetually changing. When Captain Hall was in this archipelago, he counted no less than 130 islands from the deck of his ship, presenting forms of endless variety. Many of those islio clusters are inhabited : the houses are built in valleys, almost entirely hid by hedges, trees, and creepers ; but the natives are, in manners, cold and repulsive. They have many gardens ; and on the sides of the hills are seen millet and a peculiar species of bean. The animals seen here, and at Loo-choo, are pigeons, hens, hawks, and eagles ; crows are innumerable. Here are also cats, dogs, pigs, bullocks, and horses; butterflies, grasshoppers, spiders, snakes, and monkeys; and in pools, left by the tide, are numerous fish of various colours. The inhabitants, as before observed, are cold ; while, not far distant, reside the Loo-choos, a people amiable and engaging to the last degree.
The heat of AFRICA is but little relieved, in any latitude of that great continent. At Congo, the climate may be ascertained by the number of its flowers. There is scarcely a field that does not present a richer assemblage than the finest garden in Europe : the lilies, which grow in the woods and valleys, are exquisitely white, and of the most bewitching fragrance. Flowers, which grow single in other places, are here seen associating upon one stalk in clusters. Under the
* Raffles' Hist. Java, Appendix E., vol. ii. p. clxxix.
trees and hedgerows are beds of hyacinths and tuberoses, one or two hundred in a group: their colours are variegated profusely; and the roses and honeysuckles afford a stronger perfume than those of Asia : while American jessamines, some white, and others of the brightest scarlet, grow, we are informed, by dozens in a bunch. These flowers yield little scent in the day; but in the evening and morning they are truly delicious. The soil is, in fact, encumbered with luxuriance of vegetation : and Captain Tuckey found the natives stamped, as it were, with mildness, simplicity, and benignity.
The CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS approach, in vegetation, more nearly to the temperate regions than the tropical: owing, it is supposed, to the abundance of its vapours. MADEIRA has the most healthful climate of all the African islands ; but MADAGASCAR is the most beautiful: Nature seeming there to have taken pleasure, in exhibiting herself in the richest brilliancy of youth; and in producing every species of fine landscape ; from the luxuriance of uncontrolled vegetation to the grandeur of immense forests, and the sublimity of rocks, cataracts, and precipices. This is a country in which, though Nature has done every thing, man has done comparatively nothing: for its natives are wild in their habits, and barbarous in their manners to the last degree. Here are found gumlacca, benzoin, amber, and ambergris ; beds of rock crystal ; and not only three kinds of gold ore, but a multitude of jaspers, sapphires, topazes, and emeralds. Above all, the island contains two hundred millions a of acres, equal to any in the world. It would, therefore, be eminently worthy of being erected into an empire, were not its climate so noxious, and its waters so pestilential. It produces apples, pears, peaches, guavas, and strawberries ; with oranges, lemons, grapes, and other fruits, growing both without and within the tropics : bulbous-rooted flowers, too, are innumerable ; and the hedges are frequently composed of myrtles, quinces, and pomegranates.
a Rochon's Voyage to Madagascar, 1792, p. 171.
Full of unnumbered flowers,
Unbounded beauty to the roving eye. The southern Cape oF AFRICA displays all the splendour of the vegetable kingdom. In no quarter of the world are flowers more rich in size, in colour or variety. -At the source of the Elephant river, corn grows luxuriantly with little culture; and so abounding is it in apricots, figs, mulberries, and almonds, that the Dutch called it the Good Hope b. Aloes are in blossom all the year; and the air is so pure, along the south-eastern coast, that the new moon is frequently seen like a piece of white silk. Dividing the Atlantic from the Indian ocean, it has
A shore so flowery, and so sweet an air,
Venus might plant her dearest treasures there . Towards the south pole, stretches a land, discovered by Dirk Gherritz, a Dutch captain, in 1599. In 1739, two vessels discovered land in latitude 47 degrees and 48 degrees, but they did not land on account of the ice. In 1820, an English captain, voyaging from Monte Video to Valparaiso, found land in 61 degrees, longitude 55 degrees. He coasted its shores for two hundred miles ; but was unable to discover whether it was an island or a continent d. · He called it New Shetland. There were no inhabitants ; the land, for the most part, was covered with snow; pines, and other arctic plants, were occasionally seen ; and there were vast numbers of seals and whales.
The coast of Patagonia, in the south part of the American continent, is wild and horrific. But “hares, deer, wild fowl,
Thomson, Spring, 501. b Paterson's Travels in Africa, 4to. p. 34, 1790. * Camöens, Lusiad ---Mickle. Since discovered to be an archipelago.
and ostriches,” says a friend, writing from Bahia de Fodos Sontes, “are seen in every direction. Horned cattle abound in the vast plains, affording food to tigers and lions; though the latter are smaller in size, and less fierce than those of Africa. The Patagonians are the finest race of men in the world; having regular features, and admirably proportioned limbs. The Spaniards having introduced horses into this country, the various tribes eat horse flesh, and lead a wandering life, like Tartars a.”
New Holland is equal, in circumference, to three-fourths of Europe ; and it is curious to remark, that it contains only two rivers of great volume b. The harbours of Derwent and Port-Jackson, however, are nearly equal to those of Trincomallee, and Rio Janeiro. These settlements are the cradles, as it were, of a mighty empire. Not many years since, the whole continent was unknown to every other part of the world. It had neither swine, cattle, sheep, nor horses; potatoes were unknown; and wheat, barley, and oats, were foreign to the soil. Near these settlements are found copper, alum, potter's clay, coal, slate, lime, and fossil salt ; with white, yellow, and brilliant topazes. In the sea of the same continent, embracing also Van Dieman's Land, are found vast multitudes of sea-elephants, seals, herrings, pilchards, and whalese; with skates, having heads like sharks. As to black petrels, they are so exceedingly multitudinous, that 150,000,000 “ have been seen flying in the air in one day. On the shores are seen kangaroos, having bags under their bellies for the security of their young. There, also, are seen white and mountain eagles ; cassowa
a The Patagonians head their arrows with flints. Some system-builder may, perhaps, hereafter arise, who will trace their origin, in consequence, to Persia : for arrows of this kind were used by the Persians in their wars with Greece. Many of them have been turned up by the plough, the spade, and the harrow, on the field of Marathon.
b A. D. 1817.
d Captain Flinders.