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are thus transported a. Cranes swallow them alive ; and void them alive b; and thus fish-ponds are frequently stocked in a manner very mysterious to their proprietors.
Ponds are often stocked with fish too by wild ducks, which, in their emigrations, carry impregnated spawn d.
The ostrich will eat wood, stones, glass, and pieces of iron ; and void them whole. The polypus frequently swallows a polypus; which afterwards issues from its body, perfect and uninjured. The ocythoe polypus takes up its residence in the shell of a nautilus; and in this manner is conveyed from one coast to another.
a The eel is seldom seen in the Danube; a very remarkable circumstance, since it is migratory, especially in tempestuous weather. Sir Everard Home says, he is firmly convinced that the eel is hermaphrodite, and impregnates itself.-See Davy's Life, p. 455, 4to.
o This is not more extraordinary than that worms should be capable of living not only in the intestines of the human body, but in those of quadrupeds, birds *, seals t, and fishes. The Acarus aquaticus deposits its eggs in the water-scorpion ; and the Pulex penetrans of South America inserts its eggs under the toe-nails of men and monkeys. The teeth of Laplanders I are corroded by worms; and a woman of Sweden ♡ once bred a quantity of flies in her nose.
c Colonel Sykes states, that in the ponds in the East Indies, which have become perfectly dry and the mud hard, the next rainy season will find them full of fish, although wholly unconnected with any stream or passage by which they can be connected. Mr. Yarrell, in his History of British Fishes, says, The solution appears to me to be this: the impregnated ova of the fish of one rainy season are left unhatched in the mud through the dry season, and from this low state of organization as ova the vitality is preserved, the occurrence and contact of the rain and the oxygen of the next season, when vivification takes place through their joint influence. If this solution of the problem be the true one, it points at once to what may be effected after a few experiments -namely, the artificial fecundation of the roe, the drying of that roe (or of other roe naturally impregnated) sufficiently to prevent decomposition, and its possible transportation to, and vivification in, distant countries.--Anon.
d In most instances, fishes lay the unimpregnated eggs; the male coming afterwards, and sprinkling them with his semen.-Vid. Blumenbach's Elem. Nat. Hist. 148.
* Grouse are troubled with the tape-worm. † Genus Eschinorhycnus.-Fremin ville, p. 6. Acerbi, ii. p. 290, 4to.
Memoirs of the Swedish Academy.
If some plants have riveted partialities to peculiar soils, some insects have equal partialities to particular plants. The cochineal is wedded, as it were, to the fig-tree; the aphis to beans, peas, and rose-trees ; the musk-beetle to willows; the papilio machaon to fennel ; the phalana grossulatriata to currant bushes; the phinx licustri to poplar, privet, and lilac leaves; and the sphinx atropos to jessamine and love-apple. There is a small red insect, too, which seems to be almost entirely devoted to the violet; and these emigrate with the plants, to which they are attached.
The tenthredo insects proceed from the galls of willow, beech, holly, hairy hawkweed, and ground ivy: while the leptura of Finland lies concealed in the corolla of the globeflower. The caterpillar, which changes to the phalæna tortix, and the hawkmoth, emigrate with the woodbine. The former curls itself up in its leaves; and the latter hovers over its blossoms of an evening, and extracts honey from the bottom of its nectarium.
Most shrubs and trees have particular species of the aphis attached to them: all varying in size, structure, and manners; and were we to enumerate the whole, we should enumerate almost every species of tree and shrub now in existence. .
Some insects emigrate with the atmosphere: for the atmosphere is not only a temporary receptacle for many small . aquatic and terrestrial seeds ; but for the eggs of insects, and
imperceptible animalcules, which, having surfaces resembling feathers, are easily wafted. Saussure saw two butterflies on Mont Blanc ; and a lady-bird once flew against my face on the circular balustrade of St. Paul's cathedral.
Many insects, and even birds, are doubtless carried through the air by trade winds. Others float upon the ocean; are picked up by marine birds ; and afterwards discharged, entire, on the islands upon which they rest: as some birds do fish. It is curious here to remark, that the heat and strength of pepper are qualified, and even thought to be much better, from passing through the body of a toucan.
Bees were not - originally natives of New England. The first planters never saw any: but the English having introduced them to Boston, in 1670, they were carried over the Alleghany mountains by a violent hurricane :-hence their propagation on the western part of that continent; where they have multiplied beyond all power of calculation. There is no data to prove, that bees are known in the South Sea Islands ; but in Hammock, one of the Philippines, the chief subject for barter is bees' wax. Bees were introduced to New South Wales in 1809. Two hives were taken from England; but the bees were suffocated by the melting of the wax, in crossing the Line. Captain Wallis afterwards introduced four more hives in 1822, and the last time I heard of them, they were healthy and increasing. They were introduced into Cuba by some families, who, after the peace of Versailles, went from St. Augustine's, only since 1784: and yet in 1792, the settlers exported not less than 20,000 arrobs of wax. In 1796, there were 212 barrels of honey and 1854 arrobs of white wax exported from the Havannah a to Buenos Ayres.
In June 1728 a large flock of butterflies appeared in the Canton de Vaud, flying from north to south. The column was from 10 to 12 feet broad, and very thick. Their flight was low, rapid, and equal. They did not rest on the flowers ; but continued their flight. Their species was the belle-dame or thistle butterfly, the caterpillars of which never live in company.
We must not forget the emigrations of the locust. Their numbers and extents of flight are prodigious. Mr. Moor records a flight in India which extended 500 miles ; and Mr. Barrow describes one in Africa, which occupied an area of 2,000 miles a.
* Bees are domesticated in few parts of Asia. Those of the Indian Archi. pelago hoard but little honey: owing to the multitudes of flowers at almost all seasons of the year. But they make a great deal of wax, which the merchants export to China and Bengal. The Morea exports 14,000 ocques every year. (An ocque is three pounds two ounces French.)
The yellow butterfly, and the little black and white butterfly, came from China : the black species from the West Indies. About thirty-five years since, too, a mealy insect was introduced from America, which proved, for a time, extremely destructive to apple-trees. It propagated with great rapidity :—but by the skill and industry of our gardeners, it is now almost eradicated. In March, 1819, also, there appeared near Sydney, in New South Wales, a vast number of fullgrown caterpillars in one night during the rains. Most of them, however, disappeared on the next day; though no one could form the least probable conjecture, whence they came, or whither they went.
In some parts of Italy is seen the Menelaus butterfly of Surinam; and in others the cerulean serpent of the Indies. The tortoise of the Antilles is occasionally found on the shores of the Hebrides ; and the whale-tailed manati of the Aleutian Islands are not only known in Kamschatka, whither they are driven by storms, but in New Holland and Mindanao.
There are thousands of lizards among the ruins of Balbec; and though there are no venomous insects in the Madeiras, myriads of those reptiles are seen of a clear day, basking in the sun. These animals were, no doubt, in those islands previous to their separation from the African continent.
Insects and shell-fish there are, which emigrate with the plants, on which they feed, and whence they have their being.
Several species of the lepas cling to bamboo canes, and float to vast distances : when their shells are open, they look like full-blown flowers. The spotted toad-fish, which keeps among sea-weeds at the bottom of the water, has, no doubt, also wandered in this manner from China to the Brazils, where it is almost equally abundant.
: a In August 1748, many swarms of this insect were seen flying in different parts of London. They were supposed to have come from Poland and Hungary, .where flights of these insects had done great injury. They soon disappeared.
b Lophius histrio.
Pearls are discovered in several seas; and, being found in the shell of an oyster, no one has yet been able to explain the manner, in which it is formed. The following circumstance may, however, one day perhaps lead to some probable conjecture, in respect to it. At Sydney & a party, while at supper, on opening an oyster, beheld a fish of about two inches, curled up, in the bed of the late inhabitant of the shell. It sprang upon the table, and was preserved alive several hours. This fish, which was found to be cartilaginous, had, no doubt, destroyed the oyster. When placed between the sun and the eye it appeared perfectly transparent; and the body had stripes of brown and yellow, forming altogether a very beautiful little animal. That this fish, residing in a foreign shell, might, had the oyster been able to destroy it, instead of the fish destroying the oyster, have become a pearl, by some secret operation of Nature, is not probable ; but that some aqueous animal may intrude itself into the shell, and there crystallize, is not impossible. And here we may stop to observe some peculiarities of Nature in respect to fishes.
In the Lake Fakonie (Japan), which is surrounded by mountains, and was formed by an earthquake, are the salmon and the herring of the Baltic. In what manner could they possibly come there? In a stream", which empties itself into the Nile in the Aloa country, is a fish without scales. It is not seen in the Nile ; and yet a species of it is found in Asia Minor. The Caspian is insulated, as it were, in the bosom of a vast continent, and yet fishes are common to that sea and the Mediterranean. Seals, also, are in great numbers; and sturgeons are so plentiful, that they sell for 1,760,405 rubles every year. a Sydney Gazette, 1817.
bStroemings.—Kæmpfer. • c Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia, p. 498, 4to.