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the course of the second season obtained a serviceable supply. They had a dog, which now and then caught a pig; and the eggs of the albatross, which were stored at the proper season, with potatoes, formed a substitute for bread, and the skins of the seals for clothes. They built a house of stone, still remaining on the island, which was strong enough to withstand the storms of winter, and they might have been comparatively happy, but that they were cut off from their relations and friends.
To add to the misfortunes of Capt. Barnard in being separated from his wife and children, his companions, over whom he exercised no authority, but merely dictated what he considered was for their mutual advantage, became impatient even of this mild controul, took an opportunity to steal the boat, and he was left on the island alone. Being thus abandoned, he spent the time in preparing clothes from the skin of the seals, and in collecting food for winter. Once or twice a day, he used to ascend a hill, from which there was a wide prospect of the ocean, to see if any vessel approached; but always returned disappointed and forlorn :-no ship was to be observed! The four sailors, in the meanwhile, having experienced their own inability to provide properly for themselves, returned to him after an absence of some months. He still found much difficulty in preserving peace among his companions ; indeed one of them had planned his death ; but, fortunately, it was discovered in time to be prevented. He placed this man alone, with some provisions, on a small island in Quaker Harbour ; and, in the course of three weeks, so great a change was made in his mind, that when Capt. Barnard took him off, he was worn down with reflection on his crimes, and became truly penitent..
They were now attentive to the advice of their commander. In this way they continued to live, occasionally visiting the neighbouring island in search of provisions, till the end of two years, when they were taken off by an English whaler, bound
for the Pacific. Capt. Barnard informed Capt. Weddell, that a British man-of-war had been sent expressly from Rio Janeiro to take them off, but by some accident the vessel, though at the Islands, did not fall in with them a.
The peopling of PITCAIRN'S ISLANDS has excited much interest in Europe, and in all the British Asiatic settlements. Captain Bligh having sailed, in 1790, in order to plant the bread-fruit tree in one of the South Sea islands, his crew mutinied, and putting him in a boat, they sailed for Otaheite, where each sailor took a wife. With these women, and six Otaheitan men-servants, the mutineers again set sail; and after passing a Lagoon island, which they called Vivini, and where they procured birds' eggs and cocoa nuts, they ran their ship ashore on Pitcairn's Island, situate 25 degrees 2 seconds south latitude, and 130 degrees west longitude.
Finding the island small, having but one mountain, and that adapted for cultivation, they put up temporary houses, made of the leaves of the tea-tree, until they were able to cover them with palms. In this island they found yams, taro, plantains, the bread-fruit tree, and ante, of which they made cloth. They climbed the precipices, and procured eggs and birds in abundance : they made.small canoes, and fished ; and they distilled spirits from the roots of tea. In this manner the whole party lived four years : during which time there were born to them several sons and daughters. But a jealousy arising between the English and their Otaheitan servants, the latter revolted, and murdered all the former, except one, —Adam Smith ;—whom they severely wounded with a pistol-ball. The women, upon losing their husbands, to whom they had become exceedingly attached, rose in the night, and, stealing silently to the place where their countrymen lay, murdered them. By this act there remained upon the island only
a I find this account in my portfolio ; but whether I merely extracted or compiled it from Captain Weddell's account, I do not remember.
one Englishman (Smith), the Otaheitan women, and the children.
Thus left to their own exertions, Smith and the women applied themselves to tilling the ground; in which they cultivated plantains, nuts, bananas, yams, and cocoas. Their animals consisted of pigs and fowls ; but having no boilers, they dressed their food after the manner of Otaheite. They made cloth, and clothed themselves also like the Otaheitans. Thus situated, they were at length discovered by an American captain, who chanced to sail that way. At this time the children had grown to be men and women; and the population amounted to thirty-nine." They looked upon Smith as their patriarch; they spoke English ; and they were brought up under his tuition, in a moral and religious manner.
Some time after they were discovered, their population increased considerably; they parted with their still, and obtained a boat. Their ceremonies of marriage, baptism, and funerals, were plain and simple ; none of them learnt to read; but great strictness was observed in respect to religious duty. Many ships afterwards visited them : and in September, 1819, a subscription was entered into, at Calcutta, to supply them with ploughs and other useful articles. These were sent by Captain Henderson, who undertook to land them in the Hercules, on his voyage to Chili. In 1819, not a quarrel had taken place among the inhabitants for eighteen years!
Since the above was written, they have quitted the island. A letter from Sydney, dated June 12, 1831, states, that the Surry had touched some time before at this island, and found the inhabitants living in an undisturbed security, and apparently blessed with every possible happiness. Capt. Beechey, also, gives, in his voyage to the Pacific, a very agreeable account of them. In August, 1831, however, an American
• Vol. i. p. 27, 4to.
newspaper informed us, that Captain Wilcox, of the whaling ship Maria Theresa, had arrived at Bedford, and stated, that while he was at Otaheite the English transport-ship, the Lucian, arrived there with all the inhabitants of Pitcairn's Island, for the purpose of settling them at Otaheite, on account of a scarcity of water.
In December, 1831, it was stated in an English newspaper, that they had been removed to Otaheite by his Majesty's ship the Comet; that they amounted to eighty-six persons; and that they appeared to be dissatisfied with the Otaheitans for being too dissolute. Is innocence never to have a resting-place a ?
a They have since returned to their own island. "At the time of Captain Beechey's visit, considerable apprehensions were entertained, that, by the rapid increase of the colony, the island might prove inadequate to the support of its inhabitants. It, therefore, appeared desirable to remove them to some other island, which offered a more certain prospect of support for their increasing numbers. Accordingly, an arrangement having been effected between the British Government and the authorities of Otaheite, for a grant of land for their use on that island, the Comet sloop, Captain Sandilands, arrived at Pitcairn's Island on the 28th of February, 1831, and offered to take on board any of the inhabitants who were desirous of removing to Otaheite. On the 7th of March, the whole colony had accepted the offer, and, with their little property, sailed for that island. Their reception was cordial and friendly, and they were located on a rich tract of land ; but the experiment did not succeed. The manners of the Otabeitans were so different from their own, and the dissolute conduct of some so disgusted them, that they were unhappy; they were also attacked with diseases new to them, and seventeen of their number died. They requested to be allowed to return, and were, accordingly, put on board an American vessel, and taken back to their native island. Subsequent accounts state, that their transient stay at Otaheite was by no means favourable to their morals; it had unsettled them, and some had addicted themselves to drunkenness, and others to bad vices. In addition to this, John Buffet, and two other Englishmen of dissolute habits, had married native women, and settled on the island, and their influence had tended greatly to demoralise the colony. The latter, however, had been brought to a sense of their duty by the timely arrival of a respectable gentleman, named Joshua Hill, who, at the age of seventy years, had left England to settle amongst them, as their pastor and preceptor. At his suggestion they destroyed their stills, established a temperance society, and returned in some measure to their former state of order and moral discipline. They are happy at having got back; and the three Englishmen who had done so much harm by their immoral example, agreed to leave
COLONIES. The manner in which cities have been founded, and states organised, is another interesting subject for remark. Colonies have been formed, as checks on conquered countries; as media of extending particular branches of commerce; or in order to discharge a superabundant population. Some by persons, labouring under civil or military inconveniences ; others by martyrs in the cause of their faith. Some derived their origin from contagious disorders, ambition of chiefs, vows, or commands of oracles. The Greeks established theirs for all of these causes ; but chiefly in order to relieve their cities from a redundancy of inhabitants. The Tartars, Huns, Goths, and Vandals, emigrated with similar views ; the Romans formed colonies as checks on the countries they had conquered; the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French, and English, chiefly for the purposes of commerce. • The most celebrated of colonial establishments in ancient times, were those of the Italians in Sicily, before Christ 1294; of Evander, who led a colony of Greeks into Italy in 1243; of the Phænicians to Carthage, 1235; of the Ionian colonies in 1044; of the Messenians to Rhegium in 723; and of the Athenians to Byzantium in 670. Miletus, the Athens of Ionia, sent many colonies along the shores of the Euxine, Propontis, and Hellespont. The Cretans, previous to the time of Agamemnon, had made settlements on many coasts of Europe and Asia : while the Samians sent a colony even to Upper Egypt. Samos itself, after many revolu-tions, was colonized by the Athenians, and partitioned into two thousand parts; one part being apportioned to one colonist.
the island. The latest return made their numbers seventy-nine; and a closer examination of the island has proved that it is capable of supporting one thousand persons ; so that no apprehensions of an overgrown population need be entertained for many years to come."