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fishes ;, and on the side of the Altissimo marks of fishes in calcareous stone. The walls of Megara were formed of stones containing cockle-shells, dug. out of a neighbouring quarry. Entire skeletons of animals, supposed by some to be whales, have been dug up in Tuscany, Bologna, Piedmont, and Placentia, out of strata of blue marl. Indeed so many of these fossil remains have been found in the Superiore Valdarno, that Targione is said to have called it “ the Cemetry of Elephants.” In this district also have been discovered bones of rhinoceroses, and hippopotami ; as well as near Leghorn, Viterbo, Verona, Rome, Naples, and in Calabria. They lie, for the most part, not more than a few feet below the surface; but in one instance, near Rome, those of the elephant lie imbedded twenty feet deep in volcanic tufo. Some of those, found so near the surface of the earth, may, however, have been buried by the Romans, who were accustomed to collect great numbers of Asiatic and African animals for their savage exhibitions. .

Those dug up in Valdarno Superiore and near Placentia were incrusted with oyster-shells'; which

1 Immense beds of bones have also been found, betweeu the mouths of the Lena and Indigerka, of mammoths, buffaloes, and rhinoceroses.A vast multitude are also seen in the caverns of the German mountains. These mountains form a chain, two hundred leagues in extent. The cave most rich in remains is that of Gayleureuth, in Franconia. Most of the bones are in a shattered state ; and exbibit the anatomy of a bear, the species of which is no longer known. None of them exhibit any resemblances of marine formatious.

2 For a descriptive catalogue of the fossil shells of the Sub-Apennines, side Bracchi's Conchiologia Fossile Sub-Apenniva con osservagioni Geoloche sugli Appenuini sul Suolo adjacente. Vol, ii,

adhered so closely to them, that to break the bones was to break the oyster-shells at the same time. But it is probable, that as these bones are found among marine shells, they are really not the bones of elephants, but of some marine animals resembling their anatomy.

It is to be observed, that the fossil shells, found near Paris, are, for the most part, totally distinct from those of the Sub-Apennines.

The ruins of Agrigentum stand upon a mountain composed of a concretion of sea-shells, as hard as marble ;-and a stratum of bones has been found in Istria and Ossaro, under rocks of marble, forty feet in thickness. Marble itself, also, has been found in Egypt, Italy, and Scotland, in which sea shells are compactly indurated in the quarry. Elephants' teeth, too, have been dug out of a marble quarry in Saxony: they are preserved in the Royal Museum of Copenhagen. It is possible that these marbles were once of a soft nature, like mud; and that they have become hard by the retirement of the water.

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Tournefort believes, that the Black Sea has been separated from the Mediterranean. Herodotus and Diodorus, the Sicilian, state it as their opinion, that Egypt, particularly the Delta, formed once a part of the same sea. Many changes are recorded along the coasts of Greece'; while in 1446 the sea broke in at Dort, in Holland, and destroyed upwards of one hundred thousand persons.' Oxyrinchus, near the Lybian range of mountains, was swallowed by the sands of the Desert: while part of the deserts in the neighbourhood of the Caspian once formed a subportion of the ocean itself.

1 Relation du Voyage au Levant, tom. i. p. 80; ii.p. 63-4.--The an. cients even insisted, that the Mediterranean itself is but of comparatively recent formation :--That there was a time, when the whole space, it now occupies, was dry land; and that it was formed by the Atlantic rushing in between the opposite promontories of Ceuta and Gibraltar.. 1 See particularly Voyage Pittoresque de la Grèce;- also a remark of Galbauo; Hist. Mar. Disc. p. 13.

The inhabitants of Cashmere have a tradition, that the whole of their country was once a vast lake. Abbé Fortis supposes, that Spain was once joined to Africa. The space between the shore of Kamschatka and the neighbouring islands was probably once dry land. Indeed the Kurili and the Aleuthian Islands, with the whole Northern Archipelago, with the islands of Corea, may be esteemed as so many vast mountains, whose bases are imbedded beneath the ocean. The Phillipine Islands once formed a continent; their seas are shallow :“And that some capes of North West America, on the contrary, were once islands, there are many presumptive proofs.

America and Africa may even have formed one vast continent, notwithstanding the Atlantic flows between them. The sailors of Columbo, when they beheld the collection of weeds, four hundred leagues to the west of the Canary Islands, believed the land to have sunk.-It is not impossible, but that it may

have done so; for the rocks of the Congo are primitive, and resemble those on the opposite shores :and Sienite at the falls of the Yellala, being covered by a thin black crust with a shining surface, composed of oxides and manganese, like the effects of the waters of the Oroonoko, Konig? conjectures, that the mountains of the Congo and the Loango were primevally connected with those of Rio and Pernambuco. .

Whether America is really separated from Asia, or whether the two continents actually join, has not yet been acertained' (1820).-But an union would be no more extraordinary, than that subsisting between Asia and Africa, at the isthmus of Suez. The points, which mark the two hemispheres, are flat ; and the sea more inclined to shallowness than depth. Volcanic matter has been found on the shores of Behring's Straits : and it has, therefore, been reasonably conjectured, that if the two continents do not connect at present, they may have done. so formerly. Earthquakes are frequent in Kamschatka ; and some vast visitation of that nature may have rent asunder the isthmus that united themi s u

Sea shells are witnessed on Perdu, more than ten thousand feet above the waters of the ocean. Among the mountains of Castravan are seen great varieties of fishes; on the summit of one of the mountains of Arsagar are seen the bivalve shells of the Caspian”;

· Letter to Barrow, Nov. 5, 1817. · The Caspian loses by evaporation the quantity of water, it receives from the rivers, that flow into it.--Between this sea and the Black Sea,

and rings for cables are still observed in the rocks near Sevastopole in Tartary; where the inhabitants insist the sea once flowed. Thus, while fossil shells have been discovered in the quarries of Flanders, and among the Alps behind Genoa, the Pyrenees, the Caucasus, Athos, Lebanon, Ararat, the Riphæan Ridge, the steep mountains of New Ireland, the Andes, and the Cordilleras, present strata, either of shells, sea-weeds, or skeletons of fishes, amphibia, and other animals, not only at their feet, but in their girdles, and near their very summits. Indeed, multitudinous are the evidences, in almost all parts of the globe, that what is now dry land, quarry, rock, and mountain, have, at some distant period of time, been in a state of liquidity.

X. From these phenomena it would appear, that all systems, founded upon the doctrine of universal formations, must be wrong at the root. For it is evident, that all the instances, hitherto adduced, refer only to particular districts: and they all seem, most forcibly, to oppose the idea, that any formation circumvoluted the globe. But it may be remarked, that

the Caucasus rises like an iminense wall; yet M. Olivier imagines the two seas once to have communicated towards the north of the Caucasus.Pallas inclines to the same opinion ; and M. Dureau de la Malle has also shewn the probability of its having once had a communication with the lake of Ural.--Tournefort has suggested a probability, that the Euxine and the Mediterranean were separated at the time of Deucalion's Deluge.

i Herodotus, Euterpe. xii.
2 Labillardiere, Voy. iu Search of La Perouse, vol. i. p. 258.

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