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providence respecting Pharaoh, there was a constant and rapid succession of events that tried him every moment from his birth to his death.

4. Under the trials of this life God formed Pharaoh's character, by his own voluntary agency, for his future state. God often declared to Moses and by Moses to Pharaoh what he would do to him and what his conduct should be. God had a fixed purpose and an efficient influence respecting Pharaoh's character and conduct. Under this divine purpose and agency Pharaoh voluntarily, though not independently, accomplished the purpose of God in the formation of his own moral character. Pharaoh chose and designed and accomplished in respect to himself, by his free, moral agency in the formation of his character, what God had determined and declared he would cause him to do.

5. God closed the existence of Pharaoh on earth by his own supreme agency. God often declared to Pharaoh that he would destroy him from the earth. And he appointed and prepared such arrangements for the accomplishment of this terrible declaration, as should render his agency in the destruction of Pharaoh as conspicuous as possible. According to his purpose and his word God finished Pharaoh's earthly existence by such an act of his power, as has been remembered and celebrated from that day until this time, on earth and in heaven.

6. At the close of his earthly existence God consigned Pharaoh to endless perdition. Under divine instructions, mercies and judgments he hardened his heart against God and was most evidently and rapidly forming himself into a vessel of wrath. The act of God in his removal from this world was in judgment and not in mercy. At his death, there is every reason to believe, from the character and conduct of Pharaoh and from the character and conduct and word of God, that he was consigned to endless torment and despair.

The account, which is given in the Bible respecting the conduct of God towards Pharaoh, it is believed, will fully and forever warrant the preceding statement. In view of the conduct of God towards himself, “ Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and Aaron and said unto them, I have sinned this time; the Lord is righteous; and I and my people are wicked.”

It may now be inquired,

II. Why Pharaoh justified the conduct of God against himself? When Moses and Aaron first went to Pharaoh and said, “ Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Let

my people go, Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the Lord, neither will I let Israel go." But, when Pharaoh spake the words of our text, he could not say, “ I know not the Lord.” For God had shown himself by his word, his conduct, his purpose and his object respecting him. Nor could Pharaoh be erroneous, or ignorant respecting himself. His attention was awakened, his conscience enlightened and his heart tried ; so that he knew and felt the truth respecting his own conduct. Why, then, did Pharaoh justify the conduct of God against himself? He was sensible of the truth in favor of God and against himself in the following respects.

1. He was sensible of the righteousness of God and of his own wickedness. He did not merely profess, but he knew from his own perceptions and sensations, that he was unrighteous in his feelings and actions towards God. And he was obliged to see, that the conduct of God was as plainly righteous, as his own conduct was unrighteous.

2. He was sensible of the divine benevolence and of his own malevolence. He was conscious of his own proud, selfish and malignant feelings and actions. And he saw abundant and decisive evidences and expressions of the divine benevolence, even in the objects, designs and acts of God towards himself.

3. He was sensible of the amiableness of the divine character and of his own hatefulness. He must have known that the moral perfection of God was the perfection of beauty; because it was as it ought to be. And he must have known, that his own conduct was what it ought not to be and was therefore entirely hateful.

4. He was sensible of the worthiness of God and of his own ill-desert. He must have known that God was worthy to be approved, praised and loved ; and that he deserved to be hated, condemned and punished.

5. He must have been sensible of the wisdom of God and of his own foolishness. The designs and conduct of God, he must have seen, were suited to the greatest and


best ends by the best means.

And he must have seen and felt, that his own designs and conduct turned all things against himself and must accomplish his own ruin.

6. He was sensible of the majesty of God and of his own meanness. The purposes, the instructions, the mercies and the judgments of God manifested the dignity of his nature and character; and showed Pharaoh that his own character was abominable and his condition most miserable.

7. Pharaoh was convinced of the sovereignty of God and of his own dependence. He must have seen and felt that God had all creatures and all worlds, all actions and all events, under his supreme government and agency; and that his own thoughts, feelings, designs and actions would only serve to exalt God and abase himself. Pharaoh had such a knowledge of God as showed him to himself and obliged him, by his own perceptions and convictions, to justify the divine conduct in his own destruction.

From the preceding statement may be offered the following observations.

1. There is no more reason to object against the purpose of God than against his conduct respecting the destruction of sinners. His conduct agrees with his purpose and proceeds from it. If the conduct of God ought to be approved, there can be no reason to condemn his purpose. God is as holy, wise and good in the formation of his purposes respecting sinners who perish, as he is in their accomplishment.

2. There is no good reason to oppose the Bible, because it teaches and shows the conduct of God respecting sinners that perish. Plain facts show that a part of mankind do persevere in wickedness and destroy themselves. And there is no light, nor comfort, nor relief respecting their character and condition, but from the object and purpose and conduct of God, as they are revealed in the Scriptures, on this most solemn and affecting subject.

3. Nothing can be gained by any attempt to oppose, deny, or conceal the conduct of God in the destruction of sinners. Such an attempt is to act against God in favor of sinners, when it does sinners no good; and when they

are obliged to judge and decide in favor of God against themselves. Such attempts turn men from light to darkness and from God to Satan.

4. God has the best reasons to be willing and desirous that every rational creature should understand his conduct respecting sinners who perish. By this conduct he shows himself as he is and as he will be forever; and most fully and clearly manifests his holiness and sovereignty. God is the same great and good and wise being in the perdition and in the salvation of sinners. By the perdition of sinners who perish, as well as by the salvation of sinners who are saved, God intends to manifest his perfections. He is as willing to be known in his justice, as in his grace and in his sovereignty, as in his holiness. He was willing Pharaoh should know what he designed and would perform in his destruction. God teaches and shows, by his word and con ict, that he “ has mercy on whom he will ; and that whom he will he hardens." And the apostle honestly and boldly demands “ What, if God, willing to show his wrath and make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction ; and that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy which he had afore prepared unto glory!"

5. The true and faithful friends of God will maintain his truth respecting sinners who perish. They have the word, the conduct, the purpose and glory of God to illustrate and defend the truth on this subject. They have the Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit, Moses and the prophets, the evangelists and the apostles, to justify their sentiments and encourage their exertions. They have the true church of God and his faithful servants in all ages, the songs of angels and the joys of saints in heaven, to animate their feeble spirits. They have the consciences and the confessions of devils and sinners in hell against themselves and in favor of God and his conduct in their destruction. They have the judgment and the confession of Pharaoh and of every other convicted sinner on earth to sanction and embolden a true and faithful account of the object, purpose and conduct of God in the reprobation and punishment of sinners. They will soon be present, with the assembled

sing the

universe, before the throne of final decision and eternal retribution, to hear the sentence that shall be passed upon the righteous, by which they will be raised to heaven and upon the wicked, by which they will be sent to hell. Then the true and faithful servants of God shall


of Moses the servant of God and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvelous are thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true thy ways, thou king of saints.” But the supreme and final Judge now says,

Whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed when he shall come in his own glory and his Father's and of the holy angels."


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