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what is denominated moderate Cal- | 1702, was not Hopkinsian Calvinvinism; that this sunk down into ism. a compound of Antimonianism In 1744, the Rev. Thomas and Arminianism, and that this Prince, minister of Boston, pubgave place to Arianism and Socin- lished an account of the revival of ianism.

religion, which had taken place The following extracts will show there, in the three or four precedwhat kind of Calvinism prevailed ing years. From this account, we in Cotton Mather's day. He learn one or two important facts. quotes with disapprobation the He came to Boston in 1717; at well known Richard Baxter, as which time both Increase and Cotsaying, with reference to some in ton Mather, were still living, and his time, “ They feign Christ to there were siś other Congregahave made such an exchange with tional ministers besides himself, the elect, as that having taken all making nine in all, in that town; their sins, he has given them all and, as he says, “all most happily his righteousness ; not only the agreeing in the doctrines of grace, fruit of it, but the thing in itself. that is, in such views as Cotton They forge a law, that God never Mather has expressed above. Of made, that saith, thou or thy sure course, Hopkinsian sentiments did ty shall obey perfectly, or die.- not then prevail And at the pubThey infer, that Christ was made lication of his work in 1744, he the legal representative person of says, “As to the doctrinal prinevery one of the elect, taken sin- ciples of those who continue in gularly; so that what he did for our congregations, and have been them, God reputeth them to have the subjects of the late revival, done by him. Hereby, they false they are the same as they have ly make the person of the Media - been all along instructed in." tor to be the legal person of the From comparing these declarasinner." On these quotations | tions with the above extract from from Mr. Baxter, Cotton Mather Cotton Mather, relative to Mr. remarks as follows:—-" These Baxter's views, I should conclude, things, which our churches with that the prevailing opinion was, ainazement behold Mr. Baxter that Christ died for the elect onthus calling fictions, falsehoods, ly, and that he made such an exforgeries, were defended by Mr. change with them as to take all Norton; nor do our churches at their sins, and give them all his

hiš this day consider them as any oth righteousness; that Christ satisfied er than glorious truths of the gos- the law bý obeying its précept in pel; which, as they were main- their place, and then by suffering tained by Mr. Norton, so two di- its proper penalty, being literally vines, well known in both Eng-punished in their stead. Whether lands, Nathaniel and Increase Ma- these views of atonement and justher, and a third, a worthy minis- tification are correct or not, they ter of the gospel, Mr. Samuel are certainly not the views of Willard, now living in the same Hopkinsian Calvinists. house from whence Mr. Norton Another important fact which is went into that house not made to be gathered from Mr. Prince's with hands, have, in their printed history, is this: It was not then labours, most accurately express- | the practice for churches to examed them and confirmed them." ine applicants for admission as to

Thus we see, that the Calvin- | their Christian experience, and to ism which prevailed in Boston in' make that a condition of admission.

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Speaking of the year 1735, he says, those admitted to his church, By “The general decay of piety far the greater part have since give seemed to increase among us in in hopeful signs of saving converBoston. And for the congregation sion." I preach to, though for several From these extracts it appears, years some few offered themselves that though Mr. Tennent thought to our communion, yet but few a change of heart necessary to came to me in concern about their

qualify an applicant for admission souls before.” Again, speaking to the communion of the church, of the time of the great earthquake, it was not the prevailing opinion he says, “Though people were in Boston. If any thought it their then generally frighted, and many duty to come, and expressed their awakened to such a sense of their desire to enjoy the privilege, they duty as to offer themselves to our were admitted, though they excommunion; yet very few came to hibited no signs of a saving conme then under deep convictions of version. Hopkinsians have always their unconverted and lost condi- opposed this las practice in the adtion. Nor did those who came to ; mission of members, as they have me then, come so much with the done the lax practice of baptizing inquiry, what shall we do to be according to the half way covesaved? as to signify that they had nant. President Edwards such a sense of their duty to come dismissed from his people in to the Lord's table, that they dare Northampton, in 1750, on this not stay away any longer.” Speak- very account. The Council say, ing of Mr. Tennent's preaching, in “ Finding the sentiments of the 1741, he says, “Mr. Tennent be- Pastor and church concerning the ing so exceedingly strict in cau- qualifications necessary for full tioning people from running into communion, to be diametrically churches, taking the sacred cove opposite to each other; the Pastor nant, and receiving the Lord's sup- insisting upon it as necessary to per, the seal thereof, until they the admission of members to full had saving grace, that divers communion, that they should make brought to a very hopeful disposi- a profession of sanctifying grace; tion, were through fear and dark whereas the brethren are of opinness kept from coming into full ion that the Lord's supper is a communion. So far did Mr. Ten- converting ordinance, and consenent's awakening ministry shake quently, that persons, if they their hopes and hinder them, that have a competency of knowledge those whom I apprehended to be and are of a blameless life, may thirsty, and thought myself oblig- be admitted to the Lord's table; ed to encourage, I found the im- although they make no such propressions of his preaching had dis- fession.” Mr. Stoddard, the couraged. As to my own opinion, predecessor of Mr. Edwards, had it seems to me, that where there is been of the same opinion with the a thirst for Christ and his spiritu- church; and from several passages al benefits, that thirst is raised by in the writings of President Edthe Spirit of Christ; and in raising wards, it is evident that such had such a thirst, he qualifies for them, been the prevailing opinion and shows his readiness to satiate it, practice in New-England for many invites, requires, and gives suffic-years. ient grounds for coming to him, at President Edwards in his Narthese pipes of living waters.And rative of surprising conversions,

, he quotes Mr. Webb, as saying of I speaking of the year 1734, ob

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serves, “ about this time began the published in 1749, says, “ A congreat noise that was in this part of siderable part of the religious apthe country about Arminianism, pearances that were six or seven which seemed to appear with a very years ago, especially towards the threatening aspect upon the inter- latter part of that extraordinary est of religion here. The friends season, was doubtless of the same of vital piety trembled for fear of sort with the religion of the Septhe issue. Many who looked up- aratists; but not all.This was on themselves as in a Christless his deliberate opinion, after he had condition, seemed to be awakened takes time for mature reflection by it, with fear that God was about and full examination. And he to withdraw from the land, and considered this false religion as that we should be given up to singularly adapted to promote the heterodoxy, and corrupt princi- progress of error. He complains ples.”

much of a prevailing disposition to This shows that Arminianism confound true and false religion was then making an alarming pro- together, and says, “it is attended gress in New England,

with very many most dismal conIn 1740, and several succeeding sequences; multitudes of souls are years, there was a great religious fatally deluded about themselves, excitement, under the preaching and their own state; and thus are of Whitefield and others. But so eternally undone. Some of the great had been the declension and most dangerous and pernicious enso extensive the progress of error, emies of religion in the world, that the work was wholly opposed (though called bright Christians,) by great numbers of ministers and are encouraged and honoured, who churches. And though there was, ought to be discountenanced and no doubt, a great revival of true shunned by every body; and prejreligion, yet there was also, in the udices are begotten and confirmed opinion of Edwards, Brainerd, in vast multitudes, against every and other judicious eye witnesses, thing in which the power and esa great deal of false religion too. sence of Godliness consists; and Antinomian views of doctrine and in the end, Deism and Atheism experience were embraced and are promoted.Brainerd speaks encouraged by many; such as that often, in his writings, of the presaving faith consists in an individ- valence of such notions in many ual's believing that Christ died parts, and especially mentions for bim in particular; that this is his feeling himself called upon to made known to bim by some extra- bear his dying testimony against ordinary discovery, vision, dream, such errors in Boston, where a or revelation, or mysterious im- distinguished individual not nampression upon his mind, which ed, had openly appeared as their was called the direct witness of public and strenuous defender.-the Spirit, upon which the individ - Before passing from this part of ual begins to love God, because the subject, let it be carefully obhe supposes God loves him and in- served, that these remarks of tends to save him. Such notions President Edwards respecting the of religion appear to have been extensive prevalence of false religembraced by the Separatists, ac- ion, and its tendency to promote companied with much reliance up- the spread of error, were 'made on sudden impulses of the feelings, some years ofter the great revival and other supposed revelations. when the permanent effects had Edwards, in his life of Brainerd, I begun to develop themselves.



Again: The practice of licensing | selves, the fair, specious disguiscs men to preach the gospel, without they are wont to put on, by wbich a particular examination into their they deceive others, to maintain religious experience and belief, their own credit, and get themwhich has so much favoured the selves into others' confidence and progress of error in later years, improvement, and secure and esappears to have been begun, even tablish their own interest, until then; as well as the practice of they see a .convenient opportunisoftening down the truth to suit ty to begin more openly to broach the taste of opposers;-both which and propagate their corrupt tenpractices, Hopkinsians have al.

Labour to obtain a man ways opposed. The biographer who has an established character, of Edwards says of him, He as a person of serious religion and looked upon those, who calling fervent piety. The present time, themselves Calvinists, were for which is a time wherein religion is softening down the truth, that they in danger, by so many corruptions might conform it more to the taste in doctrine and practice, is, in a peof those who are most disposed to culiar manner, a day wherein such object against it, were really be ministers are necessary. Nothing traying the cause they pretended else but sincere piety of heart is to espouse; and were paving the at all to be depended on, at such a way not only to Arminianism, but time as this, as a security to a to Deism, In this view of things, young man, just coming into the he thought it of importance that world, from the prevailing infecministers should be very critical tion, and thoroughly to engage him in examining candidates for the in proper and successful endeav.. ministry, with respect to their ours to withstand and oppose the principles, as well as their relig- torrent of error, and prejudice ious dispositions and morals. -- against the high, mysterious, evanAnd on this account he inet with gelical doctrines of the religion of considerable difficulty and opposi- Jesus Christ, and their genuine tion, in some instances.” This effects in true experimental religunwillingness to examine or to be ion." In the same sermon, he examined, no doubt, then, as since, says, “ Another thing that vastly proceeded from a wish to keep in concerns the future prosperity of the dark, and to propagate error this town, is, that you should without detection. Edwards, in watch against the encroachment of his farewell serinon at Northamp- error; and particularly Arminianton, in 1750, advises his people, ism, and doctrines of like tenin choosing a successor, to take dency., You were, many of you, care, "s that he be a man of thor- as I well remember, much alarmed oughly sound principles in the with the apprehension of the danscheme of doctrine which he ger of the prevailing of these cormaintains; and says, “ This you rupt principles, pear sixteen years will stand in the greatest need of, ago But the danger then was especially, at such a day of cor- small in comparison of what apruption as this is. And in order pears now. These doctrines, at to obtain such a one, you had need this day, are much more prevalent to exercise extraordinary care and than they were then; the progress prudence. I know the danger.- they have made in the land, williI know the manner of many young

in ihese seven years, seems to have gentlemen of corrupt principles, been vastly greater than at any their ways of concealing them- / time in the like space before.

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“ Persons in a state of greatly prevail in this town, as unrenewed nature, inay perform they very lately have done in anoth- some things which are their duty, er large town I could name, for- or which, in some respects are merly greatly noted for religion, truly right.Of the commands and so for a long time, it will of the gospel, he says,

" these threaten the spiritual and eternal commands are designed to excite ruin of this people.” He does sinners to seek that grace which not name the town, but he un- may enable them to a saving comdoubtedly means Boston. These pliance; and not to put them upon seven years, within which error a vain and hopeless effort to behad so greatly prevailed, were the lieve of themselves."

" The pri last years of the great revival, mary intention of such directions and those immediately following is, that they should attend them The increase of true religion then, in the best manner they are able, had not promoted the cause of antecelently to true faith und hotruth, so much as the prevalence liness.” That God encourages

• of false religion had accelerated men to attend the means of grace the progress of error.

while unregenerate, that he has let Again: The University of Cam- them know that this is not only bridge has always been intimately the most likely, but the only way connected with Boston; and it is to obtain regeneration and salvareasonable to infer, that the pre- tion, it necessarily follows, that vailing sentiments of the one have such an attention is not in itself been those of the other. A late sinful, but right, and their duty." Southern traveller, was doubtless “ Many of the exercises of unrecorrect in saying, "Cambridge is generate persons under the gospel the strong hold of Unitarianism in are the effect of a divine influence this country."* Now, did Hop: upon their minds. Whenever men kinsian Calvinism precede, and under the gospel attend its exterlead the way to Unitarianism, in nal duties in a serious engaged that university? No: far from it. manner, they are inwardly noved The last Professor of Divinity to it by the Spirit of God. Dethere, that was called a Calvinist, praved nature, left to itsell, Dr. Tappa n, was so far from be- would never lead to these exing a Hopkinsian, that, in 1784, ercises ; they are therefore to he maintained an open and public | be ascribed to grace.

We controversy with Dr. Spring on the may, therefore, certainly conclude, doctrine of total depravity, and that such exercises are not in themthe doings of the unregenerate.- selves sinful, but right.” Dr. This was previous to his election Spring urged, that it is the sinner's as Professor, and probably con- immediate duty to repent. But tributed to that event. The ques- Dr. Tappan says, " Attending tion in debate was, as Dr. Tappan means while impenitent implies à states it, “ Is any thing required present delay of the end. Sinners of men, as duty, which does not cannot the same moment possess involve holy love?" He affirms the end, and barely use means to that there is, and Dr. Spring de-obtain it. Something is enjoined

on the sinner which is antecedent The following extracts from Dr. to repentance, and must be prevTappan will show how far he was ious to it.” “It is the sinner's from any thing like Hopkinsian- duty to consider his sad state, to

scek the grace of repentance, till * See page, 223, of this volume. Divine grace renews him.” Of


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