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member of the body to stand aloof from the others, has taught them by no means to “ have the same care one for another !!"
The last bond of primitive union was the occasional consultation of different churches by representatives convened in a council or synod. This means of prolonging unity among Christians was for several reasons not very frequently resorted to in the apostolic age. The continual journies of the apostles tended in a measure to answer the same purpose. How often councils for mutual consultation were held, prior to that at Rome, mentioned by Eusebius, we know not; but the principle being sanctioned by the apostolic example, Acts xv., the church should apply it just as extensively as is found to promote the spirit of union, brotherly love and order among Christians. As however neither Christ nor his apostles have appointed such bodies as courts of judicature or appeal; it is probable, that whatever business of this kind is referred to the more extensive judicatories, their decisions should be regarded mainly as advisory, and should have no other force than results from the evidence alleged in support of the opinion given. The danger of such General Synods, Assemblies, or Conventions, arises not so much from the number of churches represented in them, as from the great number of the delegates, from the degree of power conferred on them by the elementary members of Christ's body, the individual churches; and from the amount of actual business which is transferred from the churches in their elementary capacity, to these judicatories. If the delegation be small, so that the whole body will not be unwieldly; if the business transacted be not such as properly belongs to the individual churches; if it relate only to the general interests of the church; and if the powers of the body be only advisory; this principle of mutual consultation might to a certain extent be safely employed.
In view of these facts and principles, the writer regarded with high approbation the proposition for a re-organization of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church by making it an Advisory Council. That measure, which was proposed in the Biblical Repertory of 1832, was by uncontradicted fame attributed to the Rev. Dr. Alexander, and contains a distinguished specimen of practical wisdom, and enlarged views of the principles of our holy religion, in their application to ecclesiasiical jurisprudence. On precisely the same general principles, the General Synod of the Lutheran Church in this country was
founded seventeen years ago, and of its salutary and safe practical operation, scarcely a dissenting voice is heard among the enlightened friends of evangelical piety among us.
We have tbus endeavored faithfully to exbibit the features ybich constituted the unity of the primitive church. Let us DOW pursue the subject further, deduce the principles furnished by these facts, and finally develope a plan to restore the unity of the body of Christ on the same apostolic principles, which constituted it in the primitive ages; a consummation which ought to be devoutly wished for by every disciple of that Savjour who so earnestly prayed for the union of his followers; an object so dear to the heart of the nobleminded Calvin, that to acomplish it he says: “ As to myself, were I likely to be of er; serrice, I would not hesitate, were it necessary, for such e purpose, to cross ten seas” (Quantum ad me attinet, siquis mei izzus fore videbitur, ne decem quidem maria, si opus sit, ob eam rem trajicere pigeat. Calvin's Epist. p. 61).
The HEBREW Tenses.
wers of Ewald's Syntar, in the second (abridged) edition of his Hebrew Grammar, Trosietice of Fresh
Huit respects the we of the Tenses in Hebrew, with remarks on the same, by M.
11He apparently unlimited metes and bounds of the Hebrew tenses, as employed in the Old Testament Scriptures, have are rise to many curious, and to some not uninteresting theo
relation to this subject. Long has this usage been the
og block of grammarians, and particularly of those who were nclined to maintain, that every thing in language is man
p h the most perfect regularity and uniformity. That te Future tense in Hebrew should ever be employed as the on historic Aorist in narrations of events that occurred in So while the Praeterite has far more than an equal share ung things yet to come, is a phenomenon which at
ular in many respects, and which would (as it has and conjectures.
) naturally give rise to many and diverse theories
in designating things yet to come, least is singular in many respects, as ætually done) naturally give rise to
It is not my present purpose to enter into the history or the examination of these at large. It would require somewhat of a volume for either; and my apprehension is, that such a volume would not find a very numerous class of readers ; certainly not in our country. Most of the theories which have been broached, have indeed been ephemeral. They have appeared and disappeared with the authors of their existence. And one good reason for this has been, that most of the authors of such theories have been men of very limited acquisitions in the Hebrew language, and therefore could not have much weight in the scale of Hebrew literature, nor extend their influence very far.
At present, however, we find the matter in circumstances which are quite different. Ewald is unquestionably among the first Hebrew scholars now upon the stage of action. He has great talents for linguistic acquisition ; nor is he by any means wanting in the power of philosophical speculation on the nature and attributes of language. That he is free from all embarassments on the ground of precedents, is sufficiently manisest, in every step of his progress, to please the most independent class of critics, who hold least of all to authority in these matters. In my own view, this independency is excessive in Ewald. It seems to me to have become even a morbid feeling, and to have urged him on to make the differences between himself and other grammarians as numerous and as large as possible.
On no subject, perhaps, has he gained more reputation for himself, than in the department of Hebrew Syntax. It has become fashionable among one class of Hebrew critics in Germany, to appeal almost exclusively to Ewald as authority ; and seldom do they mention other grammarians, unless it be in the way of a sneer, or in order to show some kind of contempt for them. One would think, from the tenor of what is said by them in relation to this subject, that all other Hebrew philologists now on the stage had already outlived their fame and their usefulness.
Having recently been engaged in publishing a new edition of my Hebrew Grammar, I went through a review of the Syntax in as thorough a manner as the haste with which it was printed permitted me to do. One duty which I prescribed to myself was, to read and compare Ewald's Syntax; specially that of the abridged edition of his Grammar, which contains a more orderly digest than the first edition, and thoughts more matured. In making this comparison I was much struck with that part of
his Syntax which has respect to the use of the Hebrew tenses. When I had completed my grammatical labour, and finished the printing of my book, I felt a strong desire to re-examine (more at leisure) the theory of Ewald on the subject of the Hebrev tenses. This I have done, and the following translation, with the remarks which are appended, is the result of my reexamination. I give them to the public, because the subject is ode of deep interest to every student of Hebrew grammar, and af much importance, to say the least, to Hebrew philology and enticism.
la introducing Prof. Ewald to speak for himself, I hope that I shall avoid the imputation of having misconstrued or misrepresented him. At least this cannot be charged upon me, unless 1 bare purposely mistranslated him. This I have not done; but I cannot assure the reader, that I have always translated him with Correctness. I can truly say, that I have done my best to accomplish this ; but, I must add, that after being for a quarter of a century somewhat acquainted with the German language, and ater having read more in it, during that period of time, than I have in my mother tongue, I am still unable in some cases to bod out the meaning of Prof. Ewald to my satisfaction. I can caly say, now and then, as Castalio says in his apologetic note bor a version of a passage more literal than he was accustomed w make: “ This I have translated literally, because I do not understand it.” Perhaps as to one or two passages in Ewald, Sone de who can better strip off the Umhüllung which this celebrated writer throws over all his speculations than I can do, might feel disposed to question, whether I bad gone so far as to give even a literal version. Be it so then ; “Si quis prospiout — vaticinetur.' He shall do so at least with my liberty, and will make-not my palinode, for that would imply that I al consciously done wrong, or at least through negligence dul, my acknowledgements that there are depths in Ewald, down mio which I have not had address or skill or strength enough to plange. . But some things which I think I do understand, I have called a question. Ewald's views and mine, therefore, are both bethe reader; and he has the opportunity of judging for him
This is all that justice and candour can demand ; and in e ding of this, I am satisfied that I have done my duty fairly. -M.$.
Syntax of the VERB, by Prof. Ewald. $ 470. Five forms of the Hebrew verb serve to designate time or tense; viz. the two Modes [Praeter and Future tense),* which at the same time also mark the distinction of Mode ; the same two Modes with Vav relative or conversive prefixed; and the Participle. The Hebrew employs these forms, not according to the method of distinguishing tenses in our languages, (to the spirit of which it is quite foreign), but still with a distinction so definite that they cannot be exchanged for each other, while they plainly mark the principal difference of the tenses.
[A] $ 471. The two Modes [Praeter and Future), considered merely in respect to their use as tenses, represent all action aoristically, i. e. without reference to any other action or time, They differ from each other in such a way, that the first Mode marks that which is completed, definite, and certain ; the second Mode that which is not completed, indefinite, and dependent on circumstances. Consequently they do not in themselves mark a time which is definite, but are capable of being applied to any portion of time, provided that the leading idea designated by them be retained.
$ 472. Hence the First Mode [Praeter) is employed, (1) To designate the past, when an action that has once taken place is simply presented, without any reference to any thing else; e. g. God 72, created the world;' mwyną, what hast thou done?
(2) To designate the present ; (a) When any particular action which has once taken place, may be again repeated ; e. g. 171.7! ya zin, the wicked man despises Jehovah, Ps. 10: 3. (6) When a state or condition began in some undefined past time, and one still sees the completion of it, [i. e. one sees that the same state or condition is still continued); e. g. 787, I Know; n , 1 remember, Num. 11:5; 3778, he loves ; *W, he hates ; 1&, he refuses, Ex. 10: 3 ; 0xm, he despises. Of course such a meaning [i. e. that of the present tense) is frequent in [the first mode of] intransitive Verbs. Different from
• The passages included in brackets, I have added for the sake of explanation. M. S.