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watch for poultry, the wolf for sheep, etc. It is natural for some birds to migrate, for some to burrow and for some to swim upon the water. Sensation, passion, habit ; sometimes one, sormetimes more, or the whole are the cause.

Besides these, there is another kind of instinct, if it is instinct, which is allied to reason, if it is not reason, when a horse upon canning where two or more roads centre, almost invariably takes that which will bring him to his home the quickest, the existence of a greater or less degree of reason must be supposed to actuate the animal. If a dog untold strives to protect a child from the danger which threatens it, it carries the idea that this creature has a portion of that faculty which is called reason. When a fox crosses and recrosses its track in order to puzzle the dog which is in pursuit of it, it shows that it has something of trat ingredient which were it in man would be called reason. I bare known a horse, when leading him, stop as suddenly for me to replace my portmanteau which had fallen from it, as though it had been man. I have known a dog, when a person had been making preparation to kill him, act as shy and endeavor to keep itself out of the way, almost as much as though it had been man. I have known a fox, while crossing a pond upon the ice, after coming to a weak place, feel as carefully as 2 person would feel if he were examining it, and instead of stepping upon it as it had done before, lie down and roll, to avec breaking through. A thousand such things might be Dezi.uned to show that brutes, if they have not reason, have something so nearly allied to it, that it scarcely deserves a separale name. The wisdom of the bee to construct its curiouslywrought checker-work for a depository for its honey, appears like reason, and it is probably reason combined with that partucular propensity which causes the hen to sit whole weeks with the prospect in view of at a proper time beholding its infant progeny. The elephant, the beaver, the ant and many other creatures, are possessed of what, if it were beheld in the huIran species, would be called reason. That it is reason we will not pretend to decide, but should be glad to know in what respect it differs from reason. Some of the more unusual phenonena of instinctive action ought perhaps to be mentioned, but we know of none but what would come under one of the hour heads of instinctive impulse which have been noticed. There is a species of animals which at a particular period collect vast bodies, and after making all needful preparation start for

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a given point, and whatever the impediments may be, continue the resposta same course without turning to the right or to the left, until they 7. V:41 arrive at the place of their destination or perish in the attempt. o go good This, from being uncommon, may appear irregular and perhaps case to some inexplicable, but if due inquiries were made about it, it will would doubtless meet with an easy explanation. We have in the not yet learned all the attributes of the animal world. There are animals that have less senses than man, and there may be those that have more. If we knew what these were, we should not perhaps ascribe so much mystery to instinct

TINCT should not exhibit it in such a light as to confound the wisdom of the wise. More might be said upon this subject, and more probably ought to be said, to evolve our theory from the mists which encompass it, but as a denser mist might place itself in its stead, we shall leave it where it is, hoping that if any light has 13 been elicited, abler pens will be induced to continue the subject ITT tre and disencumber it from every thing that is mysterious.

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FRATERNAL APPEAL TO THE AMERICAN CHURCHES, TOGETH

ER WITH A PLAN FOR CATHOLIC UNION ON APOSTOLIC
PRINCIPLES.*

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By 8. 8. Schmucker, D. D., Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology in the Theol.

Sem. of Gen. Synod of the Lutheran church, Gettysburg, Pa.
Πάτερ άγιε, τήρησαν αυτούς εν τω ονόματί σου, ούς δέδωκάς μου, ένα

Now év, xafws rusis.Jesus.
Eis Kúguos, pia niotis, šv Bóntloua.- Paul.

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When the sincere and unsophisticated Christian contemplates the the image of the church as delineated both in its theory and a

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* It is proper to inform the readers, that the whole of the following article, and the substance of that which (Providence permitting) will appear in the April number of the Repository, and will exhibit the details of the Plan of Union were written about a year ago, and there. fore prior to the excision of a portion of the Presbyterian church by the last General Assembly. This observation may be necessary to prevent

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practice by the Saviour and his apostles, he is charmed by the delightful spirit of unity and brotherly love by which it is characterized. When he hears the beloved disciple declare “ God is love, and they that dwell in love dwell in God :” and again, Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God, and every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God. He that loveth not, knoweth not God; for God is love :" and again, “ Beloved, if God so loved us, we ought also to love one another-If any man say I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar; for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen ? And this commandment have we from him, that he who loveth God, love his brother also.”—When the Christian listens to such declarations as these, and numerous others of similar import; when forgetting things as they exist around him, he brings his whole soul under the influence of this love to God and the brethren ; he perceives the moral beauty of these sentiments, and finds his heart vibrate in delightful unison with them. But when he awakes from this fascinating dream and beholds the body of Christ rent into different divisions, separately organized, professing different creeds, denouncing each other as in error, and often times, hating and being hated ; his spirit is grieved within him, and he asks how can these things be among brethren? In the sacred record he looks in vain for the sectarian parties which

the misapprehension of some remarks, which might otherwise naturally be regarded as allusions to more recent events.

As a disciple of the common Saviour, the writer feels a sincere desire for the prosperity of every protestant fundamentally orthodox denomination, and for another “ blessed Reformation” in the entire Romish church itself. As such, he feels it his privilege and duty to address a few ideas to his Protestant brethren generally, on the relations which do or ought to subsist between the different portions of Christ's kingdom. And he would respectfully and affectionately request them to test the sentiments advanced, not by their ecclesiastical standards, which are the work of uninspired though good men, but by the " law and the testimony,” by the inspired rule of God's holy word. Let them solemnly inquire whether the Protestant churches organized and operating on the principles, fully developed in the next Number, would not approximate much nearer to the apostolic church, than they now do ; whether they could not act much more efficiently and barmoniously in advancing the triumphs of the cross in the heathen and the papal world ; and whether we might not even hope again to see the days, when surrounding observers will exclaim: " See how these Christians love one another ?”

now constitute all that is seen of the church of the Redeemer ; he finds nothing there of Lutherans, of Presbyterians, of Methodists, of Episcopalians, of Baptists. But he sees that when the formation of such parties was attempted at Corinth, Paul deemed it necessary to write them a long letter, and besought them by the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, to have no divisions among them. The Christian is therefore constrained to mourn over the desolations of Zion and to meet the solemn inquiry, cannot a balm be found for the ulcerous divisions which deface the body of Christ ?

Many such hearts there happily are at the present day, which are relenting from the rigor of party organization and sectarian asperity. The love of Christ, that sacred flame which warms them, and bids them strive together for the conversion of a world, also melts down the walls of partition, which might well enough keep Jews asunder from Gentiles, but was never permitted to sever one Jew from another, and much less ought now to separate a Christian from his brother. Many are pondering these things in their hearts, and asking ought brethren to be thus estranged ? ought Ephraim thus to envy Judah, and Judah to vex Ephraim ? Their number too is multiplying. Brotherly love and christian liberality are on the whole progressive, and tender increasing facilities, whilst they urge the imperious obligation of this inquiry upon every enlightened and sanctified intellect. Happily many of the ablest heads and noblest hearts in Christendom feel called to review the ground, which the Protestant churches have been led to assume partly by option, partly by inconsideration, and partly by the coërcion of circumstances. The successful prosecution of this inquiry demands the casting off of the prejudices of education and long established habits, a recurrence to the elementary principles of Christianity, of christian doctrine, of christian government, of christian duty: and the men, be they ministers or be they laymen, who would regard this subject with indifference, or dismiss it with a sneer, may well inquire whether the love of Christ dwells in them. In this great concern not self-interest, but the interest of the Redeemer's kingdom, should be the motive of our actions ; not victory, but truth should be our aim.

In this incipient stage of our discussion, we would premise a few principles, or draw a few lines, by which the general course of our investigation may be recognized and the results in some degree be anticipated at which we shall arrive. It is admitted,

a) As one house cannot contain all the Christians in the world, or in a particular country, there must necessarily be different houses of worship.

b) As all Christians in a particular country cannot be incorporated into one congregation to enjoy the ordinances of the gospel, and to execute the duties of mutual edification, supervision and discipline; there must be different congregations, as there were in the days of the apostles; whatever may be the proper principle for their construction, and the proper bond for their union with each other.

c) We premise as a point conceded, that all the several dedominations termed orthodox, which are but clusters of such different congregations, are parts of the true visible church of Christ; because, in the conscientious judgment of all enlightened Christians, they hold the essentials of the gospel scheme of faith and practice ; and secondly, because the Saviour himself has acknowledged them as such by the seal of his grace and Spirit. “When James, Cephas and John perceived the grace that was given to me," says Paul, to the Galatians,* " they gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship.” And where is the bigot, who at the present day, would claim his to be the only true church, and thus repudiate all others as synagogues of Satan?

d) As these denominations hold dissentient views on some nonessential points, it is demonstrable that all except one of them must entertain some error. For of two contrary opinions only one can be true. But the pretension that any one sect is right in all things, and all others in error so far as they diverge from this one, is highly improbable in itself, is forbidden by christian humility, by a knowledge of human nature, and by the amount of talent, learning and piety in all the several churches. Hence some error, in all probability, is an attribute of each sect.

e) Finally, we premise that ministers and laymen, though pious, are fallible, are sanctified but in part and liable to temp. tation from secular motives and feelings, even in things pertaining to the Redeemer's kingdom. Hence they are all under obligation to review their course of thought and action, and ought to be willing, for the glory of their God and Saviour, to retrace and amend whatever may be found amiss. This ob

• Chap. 2: 9. Vol. XI. No. 29.

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