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world. For one thing it has more friends. Only a handful of the larger powers stood sponsor for it at its birth. It was eyed with suspicion by the smaller nations. Today these smaller nations are its warmest supporters, and fifty-one countries are now enrolled under its standard, representing more than four-fifths of the world's population, and nearly three-fourths of its area. The list of absentees among the supporters of the League is more easily called than the roll of its membership: Abyssinia, Afghanistan, Ecuador, Germany, Hungary,
Hungary Iceland, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, and the United States.
The League of Nations has established an international health organization which has brought together the brains and resources of the entire world in a fight on disease.
Another campaign organized by the League has to do with the international commerce in opium and its derivatives. Here again, a special branch of the League was created, called the opium commission, including in its membership among others a Japanese, a Chinese, a Siamese, an Indian and an American.
The international traffic in women and girls is another great problem which the League has taken up.
Week by week the League is extending its work along these general humanitarian lines, using its machinery to meet those human needs which overflow national boundaries. If in these uncontroversial matters the nations of the world can develop the technique of common action and acquire the habit of co-operation, surely when the great test comes, and another 1914 throws down its ugly challenge to mankind, there will be a better chance for sanity and self-control and a larger hope of escape from a world wreck of untold proportions.
Federal Council of Churches, 1922:
We believe that the Government of the United States should associate itself promptly with the other nations of the world to establish permanent institutions for the formulation of international law, for the effective operation of the International Court of Justice and of boards of arbitration and conciliation, for the assurance to law-abiding and peace-loving nations of security from attack and spoliation by any lawless and aggressive nation, and for
the provision of fair treatment and equal economic opportunity to all
Dr. William Austin Smith, Editor of The Churchman, N. Y., 1922 (since deceased):
Can anyone doubt that God wills we should cleanse this world of war? We shall never abolish war by gradual improvement and the slow processes of redemption of human nature. Duelling was not abolished by converting duelists. Duelling was abolished by a fiat of the Christian conscience. If we wait to abolish war till all men love one another, we shall wait until Judgment Day. Some generation has got to stop the thing short. Why not ours?
Hon. John H. Clarke, Ex-Justice U. S. Supreme Court, Oct. 11, 1922: Our religion, our great commerce, our warships hurrying even now to the eastern waters, our manifest destiny-all make us a world power, whether we wish it or not, and it is futile for us to escape its responsibilities and to live the decaying life of a hermit nation.
Dr. Sidney L. Gulick, in The Christian Crusade for a Warless World, 19222 :
PEACE BETWEEN NATIONS, AS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, IS THE OUTCOME OF JUSTICE; JUSTICE IS ATTAINED THROUGH LAW; LAW IS ESTABLISHED BY AN ORGANIZED AND AN ORDERLY SOCIETY. A PROPERLY ORGANIZED SOCIETY OF NATIONS, THEREFORE, IS ESSENTIAL TO A WARLESS WORLD. Such A SOCIETY MUST INCLUDE ALL THE IMPORTANT NATIONS; OTHERWISE ITS OPERATIONS WILL NOT BE UNIVERSAL NOR ITS BENEFITS WORLDWIDE.
2 This is undoubtedly the best handbook for peace crusaders, and should be sent to thousands of libraries, and tens of thousands who could use its facts effectively with voice and pen. It represents not the author only but the Federal Council of Churches, which is the real leader of the peace crusade in the United States, but should be enabled, by increased financial support, not only to send out more literature for leaders but also flaming orators to reach the rank and file. Speakers have been more influential than literature in all previous crusades. Such speakers as Wm. J. Bryan, Robert Speer, Bishop James A. Cannon and John H. Clarke should be called to tour the land proclaiming the first message of Christianity, still unfulfilled, "PEACE ON Earth.” Macmillan, N. Y. Paper 75c., cloth $1. Prof. Gulick said in 1908, in “Introduction to Crafts' Internationalism": Nationalistic Patriotism fears the coming Internationalism. This fear is born, however, of misunderstanding. The rich treasures gained through centuries of even milleniums of independent national evolutions will not be destroyed by international life. Each nation will contribute what it has of intrinsic worth to the life of the whole, and each will receive from all.
X. EDUCATE THE YOUNG FOR WORLD
(World Brotherhood Circle, Concluded)
The international ideal of the enemies of war is a family of nations, and the family circle is therefore the very place where that ideal should be vividly and diligently presented. And in the United States it is a natural step to show that our States are a peaceful family, with a Supreme Court to settle their quarrels peacefully; and it is another step to show that all nations should be another big family with a world court.
We must teach the children in home and school and church that "peace hath her victories not less renowned than war.” The International Congress of Public School Teachers, held in Europe in 1905, with representatives from eighteen nations, passed resolutions to the effect that the principles of peace should permeate all teaching, and that the history of the wars of conquest should be supplanted by the history of the great constructive workers of the world. The tragic events of the decade following that good advice have underscored it in blood and fire.
In many a boy's life the brutal war spirit is first kindled by the histories he studies in which wars are given a space and emphasis out of proportion to their real importance. Investigations of grammar grade histories made by the Ainerican Peace Society some years since showed that the percentage of space given to battles steadily decreased from an average of 39.6 in the books issued 1843-1885 down to an average of 24.7 for histories issued 1900-1906.
But battles have still too large a space and specially too large an emphasis. Rev. Walter Walsh in a leaflet on "The Moral Damage of War to the School Child," says:
"Hideous as is the bodily slaughter of your young manhood demanded by the military Moloch upon the field of battle, more abominable still is the sacrifice of the soul of childhood in the schoolroom. Indeed, it is the demoralization of the scholar that makes possible the destruction of the soldier and the devastation of the field. Therefore the wounds of battle can be staunched only in the schoolroom.
“In his mysterious ‘Dream Fugue,' which, like the vision of a later Ezekiel, ecstatically pictures the thunderous announcement of the victory of Waterloo, the rapt De Quincey perceives a baby in the path, threatened by the furious Jehu who shakes the earth in his zeal to break the news of battle, and the terrified seer cries aloud, ‘O baby, shalt thou be the ransom for Waterloo ? Must we, that carry tidings of great joy to every people, be messengers of ruin to thee ?'
"We know that the vision was a reality. The soul of the child is the price we pay for our Waterloo.
"Children will begin to understand that they are not expected to apply to international relationships, or to periods of war, the ethical principles they have been taught in the Sunday School, the moral instruction class, the young citizen class, and the home. They will know that these principles relate only to personal affairs and to times of peace. They will recognize that the arts of war—'legitimate warfare' is the phrase—include all the mean, false, cowardly and unchivalrous actions they have been taught to despise in their own behalf, such as strategems, ambushes, spying, eavesdropping, hitting from behind or when a fellow is down, lying, forging letters, telegrams, signals to mislead the enemy, following up a beaten enemy and hammering at him with cavalry and
1 It will help to make it felt that all the families of the earth are one big family to start scrap book for pictures of children of all races. A child's heart will go out to them as all his little brothers and sisters. “Big Brothers,” too, may be aroused by such a picture to abolish war lest thousands of these children be orphaned.
artillery so as to annihilate him; insisting upon the severest possible terms of surrender, or refusing all offers of surrender with the order, 'Take no prisoners.
“Who can wonder if they not unseldom conclude that all they wrote in their copy-books is open to the same repudiation; that chastity, justice, truth-speaking, magnanimity, commercial integrity, a fair day's work for a fair day's wage, are equally, under special conditions, subject to suspension or repeal? Who can blame them that, being taught that it is permissible to suspend the Decalogue for their country's sake, they afterwards repeal the Ten Commandments for their own ? As a matter of fact, is it not certain that projection of the fighting ethic into the domestic and industrial realm is the principal cause of poverty, injustice, disorder and the hindrance of the general elevation and advance of civilized affairs?
“The governments that own both the army and the school, find free, universal, tax-supported education a new opportunity for developing their military resources. Hence the encouragement given to rifle brigades, shooting clubs, cadet corps, and military drill of various kinds. The school room is a recruiting ground for the army.
“The purification of public ethics, the sweetening of international ethics, must proceed from the schoolroom. If, as has been said, the battles of England were won in the playground of Eton, the war against war will be won in the schoolrooms of America.
Rather, let us say, WORLD PEACE SHALL BE WON IN THE SCHOOLROOMS OF THE WORLD.
General Gorgas a Glorious Conquerer of Disease
By way of illustrating the suggestion that “the history of wars of conquest should be supplanted by the history of the great constructive workers of the world,” we submit a brief epitome, mostly from the Rockefeller Institute Report of 1920, of the wonderful conquests of disease by General Wm. Crawford Gorgas, who was Surgeon General of the United States Army, but fought diseases