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foot in hexameters than the spondee. But Holyday, without considering that he wrote with the disadvantage of four fyllables lefs in every verse, endeavours to make one of his lines to comprehend the fense of one of Juvenal's. According to the falfity of the proposition was the success. He was forced to crowd his verse with ill-founding monosyllables, of which our barbarous language af. fords him a wild plenty ; and by that means he arrived at his pedantic end, which was to make a li, teral translation. His verfes have nothing of verse in them, but only the worst part of it—the rhyme; and that, into the bargain, is far from good. But, which is more intolerable, by cramming his illchosen, and worse-founding monosyllables so close together, the very fenfe which he endeavours to explain, is become more obscure than that of his author ; so that Holyday himself cannot be understood, without as large a commentary as that which he makes on his two authors. For my own part, I can make a shift to find the meaning of Juvenal without his notes: but his tranfation is more difficult than his author. And I find beauties in the Latin to recompense my pains; but, in Holyday and Stapylton, my ears, in the first place, are mortally offended; and then their sense is fo perplexed, that I return to the original, as the more pleasing talk, as well as the more easy.

This must be said for our translation, that, if we give not the whole sense of Juvenal, yet we give the most considerable part of it: we give it, in ge. neral, so clearly, that few notes are sufficient to make us intelligible. We make our author at least appear in a poetic dress. We have actually made him more founding, and more elegant, than he was before in English ; and have endeavoured to make him 1peak that kind of English, which he would have spoken had he lived in England, and had written to this age.

If sometimes any of us (and it is but feldom) make him express the customs and manners of our native country rather than of Rome, it is, either when there was some kind of analogy betwixt their customs and ours, or when, to make him more easy to vulgar understandings, we give him those manners which are familiar to

But I defend not this innovation, it is enough if I can excuse it. For, to speak sincerely, the manners of nations and ages are not to be confounded; we should either make them English, or leave them Roman. If this can neither be defended nor excused, let it be pardoned at least, because it is acknowledged ; and so much the more easily, as being a fault which is never committed without some pleasure to the reader.

us.

Thus, my lord, having troubled you with a tedipus visit, the best manners will be shewn in the leaft

ceremony. I will flip away while your back is turned, and while you are otherwise employed; with great confusion for having entertained you so long with this discourse, and for having no other recompence to make you, than the worthy labours of my fellow-undertakers in this work, and the

thankful acknowledgments, prayers, and perpetual good wishes, of,

My LORD,

Your Lordship's

Most obliged, most humble,

And most obedient servant,

JOHN DRYDEN.

August 18, 1692

THE

FIRST SATIRE

OF

JUVENAL.

THE ARGUMENT.

The poet gives us first a kind of humourous reason

for his writing : That being provoked by hearing so many ill poets rehearse their works, he does himSelf justice on them, by giving them as bad as they bring. But since no man will rank himself with ill writers, 'tis easy to conclude, that if such wretches could draw an audience, he thought it no hard matter to excel them, and gain a greater esteem with the public. Next he informs us more openly, why he rather addicts himself to Satire, than any other kind of poetry. And here he difcovers that it is not so much his indignation to ill poets, as to ill men, which has prompted him to write. He therefore gives us a summary and general view of the vices and follies reigning in his time. So that this first satire is the natural ground-work of all the rest. Herein he confines himself to no one subject, but strikes indifferently at all men in his way: in every following satire he has chosen fome particular moral which he would inculcate ; and lashes fome particular rice or folly, (an art with which our lampooners are not much acquainted.) But our poet being desirous to reform his own age, and not daring to attempt it by an overt act of naming living persons, inveighs only against those who were infamous in the times immediately preceding his, whereby he not only gives a fair warning to great men, that their memory lies at the mercy of future poets and historians, but also with a finer stroke of his pen, brands even the living, and perfonates them under dead

men's names. I have acoided, as much as I could posibly the bor

rowed learning of marginal notes and illustrations, and for that reason have translated this fatire fomewhat largely. And freely own (if it be a fault) that I have likewise omitted most of the proper names, because I thought they would not much edify the reader. To conclude, if in two or three places I have deserted all the commentators, it is because they first deserted my author, or at least have left him in so much obscurity, that too mich

room is left for guefling. STILL shall I hear, and never quit the score, Stunn'd with hoarse Codrus' Theseid, o'er and

o'er ?

Ver. 1. Still jhall I hear,] It is not without caution, and a fear of reprehenfion, that I venture to mention what may appear too personal, that when I first had the bonour of preliding at Winchester school, I found the youths of the upper class were in the habit of trequently repeating, without book, the Satires of Juvenal. I foon perceived, that from the multiplicity of al,

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