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He had here much interesting conver- lee to dissuade him from fighting, sation with the Chiefs, which he has He laughed at me, and said it was very detailed in his journal. Of the fertility hard to comply with my wishes.” and extent of this district, Mr. Mars- Shunghee and Korrokorro were each

anxious to have a settlement in his own 66 Tiami is a very rich part of the district. Mr. Marsden' says, that when country; and only wants a population Korrokorro learned that Kiddeekiddee, to improve its natural soil, which, at in Shunghee's territory, had been fixed present, is burdened with luxurious on as the site for the new settlementweeds, with pines, and other timber of “He was much affected; and said various kinds. The Chiefs informed that Shunghee would now cut him and us, that they had a large number of peo- his people off. We replied, that Shung, ple, one day's journey further, who were hee had promised us that he would cultivating a rich soil with sweet and leave off fighting, if we would settle in common potatoes. I should estimate his district; and would reside himself the extent of their territory, from what with the Europeans. Korrokorro reI walked over, and what they pointed plied, that Shunghee would make fair to as belonging to them, at not less promises, but we could not see into his than fifty miles.”

heart: and gave us to understand that On the 23d of October, Mr. Marsden he would not believe a word that he returned to Rangheehoo; from which said, however fairly he might speak; place he embarked for Port-Jackson, and recited instances how Shunghee on the Ith of November.

had taken advantage of himself and Contrast of the Chiefs Shunghee and that what he had done formerly, he was

others in former times; and contended Korrokorro.

capable of doing again. Shunghee has the principal power on the northern and western sides of the

Pride of the Chiefs. Bay of Islands : on the eastern side, On his journey to the Gambier, Mr. and in the islands which lie in that Marsden writes quarter, Korrokorro, the brother of

rays of the sun, from under Tooi, has the chief power; and is, the edge of a cloud, gilded the side of a more directly than any other Chief, the distant hill. A New-Zealander, who rival of Shunghee in weight and influ- was walking by me, called

my attention

to the spot where the sun shone, and Of Shunghee, Mr. Marsden says- asked me if I saw it: on my answer.

“ He is a man of the mildest manners ing in the affirmative, he said, “That and disposition, and appears to possess is the Whydua,' or spirit, of Shunga very superior mind."

hee's father.' Our personal knowledge, however, « The Chiefs of New

Zealand are of this Chief, prevents us from wonder- full of pride : many of them assume to ing that every thing should be perverted themselves the attributes of the Deity, , in him, as late intelligence shows that while living; and are called gods by it has been by a ferocious superstition. their people. The natives will occa

Of Korrokorro, Mr. Marsden writes: sionally call Shunghee a god, when he

“Korrokorro is a very brave and approaches them, in the following sensible man. I have seen no Chief terms— Hairemi, hairemi, Atua! who has his people under subjection and Come hither, come hither, thou God !! good order as he: yet he is tired of This paying of divine honours to the war, and wishes that there was no Chiefs, fills their minds with the most fighting at New-Zealand; and we have proud and profane notions of their own reason to believe that he will prevent dignity and consequence.

When they war as much as he can."

die, their posterity deify their departed In this respect he is directly opposed spirits, and offer up their prayers to to Shunghee, of whom Mr. Marsden them. The New Zealander here comsays

pared the departed spirit of Shunghee's “I used every argument with Shung father to the glory of the sun-clearly

66 The


evincing the veneration paid by them to the head of a warrior, when killed in to the manes of their ancestors, and the battle, if he is properly tattooed. His dominion which the prince of this world head is taken to the conqueror, and exercises over their minds."

preserved, as the spoils of war, with Tattooing indicative of Rank. respect-as a standard, when taken " Tooi informed us, that Korrokorro victor. ,

from a regiment, is respected by the wished him to be tattooed. We told

“ It is gratifying to the vanquished to him that it was a very foolish and ridi- know that the heads of their Chiefs are culous custom; and, as he had seen so

preserved by the enemy; for, when the much of civilized life, he should now

conqueror wishes to make peace, he lay aside the barbarous customs of his takes the heads of the Chiefs along with country, and adopt those of civilized him, and exhibits them to their

tribe. nations. Tooi replied, that he wished If the tribe are desirous of putting an to do so himself; but his brother urged end to the contest, they cry aloud at the him to be tattooed, as otherwise he sight of the heads of their Chiefs, and could not support his rank and charac- all hostilities terminate: this is the sigter as a gentleman among his country- nal that the conqueror will grant them men, and they would consider him ti- any terms which they may require. mid and effeminate."

But if the tribe are determined to reManner of performing the Operation. new the contest, and risk the issue of “ In walking through the village of another battle, they do not cry.

66 Thus the head of a Chief may be Rangheehoo, one morning, I observed Towhee tattooing the son of the late considered as the standard of the tribe Tippahee. The operation was very

to which he belongs, and the signal of painful

. It was performed with a small peace or war. chisel, made of the wing-bone of a

“ If the conqueror never intends to pigeon, or wild fowl. This chisel was

make peace, he will dispose of the about a quarter of an inch broad; and heads of those Chiefs whom he kills in was fixed in a handle, four inches long, battle, to ships, or to any persons who so as to form an acute angle at the

will buy them. Sometimes they are head; something like a little pick,

with purchased by the friends of the vanone end. With this chisel he cut all the quished, and returned to their surviving straight and spiral lines, by striking the relations; who hold them in the highhead with a stick about one foot long, est veneration, and indulge their natural in the same manner as a farrier opens feelings, by reviewing them, and weepthe vein of a horse with the fleam. One ing over them. end of this stick was cut flat like a

When a Chief is killed in a regular knife, to scrape off the blood as it gushed battle, the victors cry aloud as soon as from the cuts. The chisel appeared to he falls, Throw us the man,' if he falls pass through the skin at every stroke, within the lines of his own party. If and cut it as a carver cuts a piece of the party, whose Chief is dead, are inwood. The chisel was constantly dipt with the command. As soon as the

timidated, they immediately comply in a liquid made from a particular

tree; victim is received, his head is immeand afterward mixed with water; communicates the blackness, or, as they diately cut off; and a proclamation iscall it, the “amoko.' Iobserved proud- sued for all the Chiefs to attend, who flesh rising in some parts which had belong to the victorious party, to assist been cut almost a month before. The in performing the accustomed religious operation is so painful, that the whole ceremony, in order to ascertain by autattooing cannot be borne at one time; gury, whether their god will prosper and it appears to be several years be them in the present battle. If the Priest, fore the Chiefs are perfectly tattooed." after the performance of the ceremony,

says that their god is propitious, they Sanguinary Superstitions of the

are inspired with fresh courage to atNatives.

tack the enemy; but, if the Priest re"In time of war,great honour is paid turns answer, that their god will not be propitious, they quit the field of battle

"When a Chief of the enemy's party in sullen silence. The head already in is killed, his body is immediately de possession is preserved for the Chief manded by the assailants; and, as bem on whose account the war was under-fore stated, if the party attacked are taken, as a satisfaction for the injury intimidated, it is directly delivered up. which he, or some one of his tribe, had If the Chief was a married man, his received from the enemy.

wife is then called for; and she is also “When the war is over, and the delivered into the hands of the enemy. head properly cured, it is sent round to She is taken away with the body of her all the Chiet's friends, as a gratification husband, and is killed. If she loved to them, and to show them that justice her husband, she voluntarily resigns had been obtained from the offending herself and her children; and desires party.

the victors to do to her and her children “ With respect to the body of the as they had done to her husband. If Chief, it is cut up into small portions, the party refuse to give up the Chief's and dressed for those who were in the wife, they are immediately attacked by battle, under the immediate direction of the enemy; who will not give up the the Chief who retains the head : and, contest till they obtain her, or are overif he wishes to gratify any of his friends powered. who were not present, small portions “When they have got possession of are reserved for them; on the receipt a Chief and his wife, after the woman of which they give thanks to their god is killed, their bodies are placed in orfor the victory obtained over the ene- der before the Chiefs. The Areekee, my. If the filesh should be so putrid, or High Priest, then calls out to the from the length of time before it is re- Chiefs to dress the body of the man for ceived, that it cannot be eaten, a sub- his god; and the Priestess, who is also stitute is eaten instead.

an Areekee, gives the command to the “They not only eat the flesh of the wives of the Chiefs to dress the woman Chiefs, but are wont to take their for her god. The bodies are then bones, and distribute them among their placed on the fires, and roasted by the friends, who make whistles of some of Chiefs and their wives; none of the them, and fish-hooks of others. These

common people being allowed to touch they value and preserve with care, as them, as they are tabooed. memorials of the death of their enemies. “When the bodies are dressed, the

“It is also customary with them, for Areekees take each a piece of the flesh, a man, when he kills another in battle, in a small basket, which they hang on to taste the blood of the slain. Heima. two sticks stuck in the ground, as food gines that he shall then be safe from the for their gods, (to whom they are gowrath of the god of him that is fallen; ing to offer up their prayers, and whomi believing, that, from the moment he they are about to consult relative to the tastes the blood of the man whom he present contest,) in order that their has killed, the dead man becomes a gods may partake first of the sacrifices. part of himself, and places him under 6 While these services are performthe protection of the Atua, or god, of ing, all the Chiefs sit, in profound the departed spirit.

silence, in a circle, round the bodies, 6 Mr. Kendall informed me, that, on with their faces covered with their one occasion, Shunghee ate the left eye hands or mats, as they are not permite of a great Chief whom he killed in ted to look on these mysteries; while battle at Shukeangha. The New-Zea- the Areekees are praying, and picking landers believe that the left eye, some small pieces of the flesh from their satime after death, ascends to the heavens, crifices, which they eat at the same and becomes a star in the firmament. time. These consecrated bodies are Shunghee ate the Chief's left eye from only to be eaten by the Areekees. present revenge; and under the idea of 6 When all the sacred services are increasing his own future glory and completed, the Areekees return the anbrightness when his own left eye should swer of their gods to their prayers and become a star.

offerings. If their prayers and offerings VOL. VI.


are accepted, the battle is immediately ami on this subject, Mr. Marsden says: renewed, (as before mentioned) and ail “They first alleged, that it originated in common feed upon the after-slain. from the largest fishes of the sea eating They eat the slain, not so much for other fishes, and of some even eating food, as for mental gratification; and to their own kind—that large fishes eat display, publicly, to the enemy, their small ones---small fishes eat insects bitter revenge.

dogs will eat men, and men will eat dogs, Wishing to know if the Areekees and dogs devour one another--the birds prayed secretly to their gods, at the of the air also devour one anothertime of performing the above ceremo- and one god will devour another god. nies, I asked them the question: to I should not have understood how the which they replied, No; but publicly, gods could eat one another, if Shungand with an audible voice, that all might hee had not before informed me, that, hear what was prayed for unless the when he was to the southward, and had Areekees disapproved of their proceed- killed a number of people, he was afraid ings : in that case, their prayers were that their god would kill him in retalianot heard.

tion, esteeming himself a god; but he “The New-Zealanders are not only caught their god, being a reptile, and afraid of being killed in battle, if they eat part of it, and reserved the other enter on war without permission of part' for his friends, as it was sacredt their god; but they are also afraid of food; and, by this neans, he rested saspiritual consequences that they will tistięd that they were all secure from either be afterward killed by the anger his resentment.” of their own god, or that of their enemy. “They fully believe that a Priest has

Retaliation the Substitute for Lau. power to take away their lives by in- “ As these people have no regular cantation or charm; and attribute many established government, it appears that of their deaths to this cause.

all crimes are punished, either by an “In the village of Tippoonah, I ob appeal to the sword, or by plundering served the heads of eleven Chiefs stuck the offender of his little property, and up on poles, as trophies of victory. I laying waste his potatoe-grounds." learned that they were part of those Mr. Marsden relates the following whom Shunghee brought with him from instance, among various others, of this his last expedition to the southward. spirit of retaliation : He had cured them all. Their counte- “ The people of a village between nances were very natural, excepting Whangarooa and the North-Cape had their lips and teeth, which had all a taken the bones of the father of Shung. ghastly grin, as if they had been fixed hee's wife from the sepulchre, and had by the last agonies of death.

made fish-hooks of them. Having sa“How painful must these exhibitions tisfied himself of the fact, Shunghee be to the wives, children, and subjects proceeded to the village where the peoof these departed Chiefs, who are pri- ple lived who had committed the sacrisoners of war, and labouring on the lege; and, going up within gun-shot of very spot, with these heads in full view! them, in the open day, informed them My mind was filled with horror and that he was come to punish them for disgust at the sight of this Golgotha: at spoiling the sepulchre where his wife's the same time I anticipated, with pleas- father's bones had been deposited, and ing sensations, that glorious period, for making his bones into fish-hooks.. when, through the influence of the Gos- They admitted his charge, and the pel, the voice of joy and melody would justice of his conduct: he then, without be heard in these habitations of dark- entering the village, fired upon them, ness and cruelty, where nothing now and killed five men; whereupon the reigns but savage joy on one hand, and party attacked, requested him to fire no weeping and mourning on the other." more; for the death of those who were

shot was a sufficient atonement for the Alleged Origin of eating Human Flesh. offence committed. Shunghee answer

Conversing with the Chiefs of Ti- ed that he was satisfied; and the busi

ness was thus decided, with the mutual Strength of Natural Affection in the consent of both parties.


Zealanders. “ The death of a Chief may be revenged by his children's children, if the Mr. Marsden gives an affecting actribe to which he belonged should ever count of the meeting of Tooi and his have strength to retaliate. Hence the sister, on one of Korrokorro's islands: foundation is continually laid for new " When we had reached the beach, acts of cruelty and blood, from genera- Tooi said one of his sisters was coming, tion to generation; as the remembrance whom he had not seen since his return; of these injuries seems never to be for- and earnestly requested me to get into gotten by them.?!

the canoe before she arrived, as he did

not wish to have his first meeting with Superstitious Fear of their Gods.

ber there. I begged him to wast for her, From Mr. Marsden's conversations as she was hastening down the hill, and with the Chiefs of Tiami, we extract not to regard me; but I could not presome passages on this subject : vail upon him: he leaped into the canoe,

“They said, if they did not pay very urging me to follow him. I delayed till particular attention to all that their she had reached the beach, when I stept Priests told them, they should dię. If in. Tooi ordered the canoe to put off: they went to battle, and neglected any but, at that moment, his sister sprung ceremony relative to their food, &c. and into the canoe, weeping aloud, and passa spear only touched them, they should

ed by me. She fell on her knees, and die immediately; but if they observed grasped Tooi's: he saluted her, when the ceremonies, and a spear should go she gave vent to her feelings in tears and through their bodies, they should not die. loud lamentations, which she continued I asked them, if a Chief had been spear- for about an hour. When we landed on ed through the heart, or the temples of Motoorooa, she still sat weeping for a the head, whether he would recover or long time. Tooi conducted hiinself with not, admitting he had been tabooed. great propriety; he suppressed all the They replied that he would not. I then wild feelings of an uncultivated mind, wanted to know of what use their taboo. and yet shewed all the soft and tender ing was, as Europeans recovered from feelings of nature toward his sister. I similar wounds with themselves with- could not but view his conduct with adout tabooing.

miration; and told him to indulge his “We told them, that Pomare, King of affection for his sister, without any reOtaheite, thought, some time ago, as spect to my being present. I saw that they did. He tabooed his houses and he was anxious, lest the warmth of his provisions, and was constantly under sister's affection, and the strong manner fear lest his god should kill him and in which she manifested it, should overe his people; but, since the Missionaries come his manly fortitude, and cause him have lived at Otaheite, and he and his toinitate her example; as he had done people had been taught the meaning of on a former occasion, when I first visitGod's Book, he had abolished all taboo- ed New Zealand." ing; and had eaten any proper food,

On leaving New

Zealand, Mr. Marsand had slept any where, like the Euro- den took some sons of Chiefs with him. peans; and was under no fear of being

Of the parting scene,

he killed by bis former gods. They were

« The Chiefs took leave of their sons, much surprised at this information, and with much firmness and dignity, in the inquired how long it was since Pomare cabin; while, on the deck, the mothers had ceased to taboo. We told them that and sisters of the boys were cutting it was more than three years ago șince themselves, after their manner, and Pomare had embraced our religion. mingling their blood with their tears. The Chiefs then replied, that if we Shunghee, the head Chief, párted with would send Missionaries to instruct his favourite son in the cabin, without a them, and to convince them that their tear: I afterwards heard him on deck religion was wrong, and to prevent their giving vent to his feelings, with the gods from killing them, they would loudest bursts of weeping. ” hink and act as we did.'

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