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Sancroft was raised to this perilous dig- ious desire to avert the evils, both civil nity at an hour of peculiar difficulty; and religious, likely to be entailed when the reigning Monarch was deeply, on the nation by the Duke's devoted and as it has since appeared, justly attachment to the. Romish faith, insuspected of attachment to the supersti- duced him to make an attempt at his tions of the Romish communion; and conversion. And having gained the the presumptive heir to the crown was King's permission, who suggested, that known to be a bigoted member of that the aged Bishop of Winchester, Dr. corrupt Church.
Morley, would be a proper person to It has been incontrovertibly proved, be associated with him on the occasion, that Charles II. was at this time, not he solicited and obtained from the Duke only himself in secret a member of the the favour of an audience for the purRomish Church, but that he was actu- pose. ally engaged in a plan to establish that Dr. D'Oyly now proceeds to relate religion in his kingdom. It is true,
that several instances of the zealous atten the whole of the immediate and press- tion to the various duties of his high ing danger was not then fully known; station, which the Archbishop seems and that the fears of the nation were uniformly to have displayed. more excited by the open apostacy of anxiously desirous to prevent the inJames, than by the more concealed, trusion of improper persons into holy and perhaps less sincere predilections orders; and to provide, as far as the of his royal brother. Charles had pro- circumstances of the Church permitted bably little serious intention of carrying it, that all who officiated in her sacred the nefarious design into effect, for ministry should be possessed of revewhich he consented to become the pen- nues sufficient, at least, for their decent sioned hireling of a foreign despot. His maintenance. With these views, he primary, perhaps his only object was issued judicious directions to his Sufthe acquisition of those sums which fragans, respecting testimonials to be were necessary for the support of his granted to candidates for holy orders; guilty pleasures, and to maintain the and, in a letter addressed to the Bishop herd of flatterers and profligates by of London in 1680, to be by him comwhom he was surrounded.
municated to the other Bishops, he But the Duke of York was in earnest earnestly recommended an immediate in the cause he had undertaken; and and effectual compliance with the act he was sure of the connivance and se- of the 29th Charles II. c. 8, by which cret countenance, if not of the open and it was enacted, that active assistance of the King. Few “ Under all renewals of leases of recsituations could be less enviable than tories or impropriate tithes, where an that of the primate; who had to main- augmented sum should be assigned for tain his ground, and support the cause the maintenance of the minister, such of the Church, against the example of augmentation should be perpetual.” a licentious court on the one hand, The measure which he thus pressed which threatened to sweep away the on others, he carefully pursued himself; very semblance of religion; and the in- and his biographer has recorded six defatigable hostility of the popish emis- instances, in which benefices in the gift saries on the other, who were striving of the See of Canterbury were augto build up their own bloody and into- meated by the liberality of the Archlerant superstition on its ruins. bishop. Nor was he wanting in vigour
One of the first undertakings in which and firmness, when it became necessary Archbishop Sancroft engaged after his to enforce the discipline of the Church. elevation, shewed, that discouraging as A remarkable example of this is menwere the prospects around him, he was tioned by the author, in the suspension not inclined to be an inactive observer of Dr. Thomas Wood, Bishop of Litchof the measures of the court; though, field and Coventry, from his Episcopal perhaps, it exhibited his Christian zeal functions, on account of his neglect of in a more conspicuous light than his his diocess, and other misdemeanors. knowledge of human nature. His anx- 66 About the end of the year 1684, a
communication was made to the Arch- deadly, implacable enemies, that omit bishop from Dr. Covel, then resident at no occasion on either side of ruining the Hague, as chaplain to the Princess and destroying one another. Since, of Orange, at the suggestion and insti- therefore, you have put me on the why gation of some persons there, recom- not; why do not they appoint the best mending an attempt at the formation and wisest men of both kingdoms, a of a public league for the defence of committee de finibus requirendis, in the the Protestant cause. Nothing more first place; and, in the next, to arbiis known respecting the particulars of trate all things in question between the plan, or the characters and motives them; and, in fine, to establish a firm, of the persons who were forward in holy, and inviolable league, offensive moving it, than is unfolded in the letter and defensive, betwixt them and their of the Archbishop to Dr. Covel, and kingdoms for ever? And, this being Dr. Covel's reply. The Archbishop's done, why should they not put over to letter exhibits a striking proof of that the other side, and persuade into this cautious wisdom, and sagacious insight blessed harmony, which one would into human characters, for which he think should not be difficult, those was so singularly distinguished; and mighty princes on the opposite shore, Dr. Covel's reply clearly shows, that with the rest all over Germany? And the view which the Archbishop took of when you see such a body of a league the motives which led to the communi- prepared, it will be more seasonable to cation was perfectly just."
inquire, and more easy to find, who The Archbishop's letter will be read shall be the head. Tke ambassador with considerable interest. It shows, answered not my question, nor was I that he had not been an inattentive ob- any further troubled with his." server of the characters of those, with The prospects of the friends of the whom his elevated station had obliged Church of England, at the commencehim, now for six years, in a certain ment of the new reign, were gloomy and degree to associate; and it proves that discouraging. When then the king, he was well aware of the utter hope- contrary to all expectation, in his first lessness of any such project, under ek- speech to the Privy Council, expressed isting circumstances, as he was urged in strong and unequivocal terms his grato recommend. The following anec- cious intentions of favouring and supdote, which he relates of himself in this porting the established religion, the letter, may be amusing to our readers; heads of the Church hastened to return and it affords an instance, that the their humble thanks for his Majesty's Archbishop was by no means deficient goodness; feeling it doubtless to be their in that readiness and self-command interest, as well as their duty, to place which it is so requisite for persons in the royal promises publicly upon rehigh stations to possess.
cord, and thus, as far as was in their 5 And now, upon this occasion, let power, ensure their fulfilment. me tell you an adventure which befel But, whatever may have been the same some years since. There came to tisfaction excited by the unlooked for dine with me a foreign ambassador declarations of James, in favour of the from one of the northern crowns, who, Church, it was soon removed by his acafter dinner, threw this blunt and ab- tions. The tendency of these could not rupt question at me; Why do you not be mistaken; and when he was seen persuade the King to put himself at the surrounded by Popish counsellors, and head of the Protestant league against pursuing measures which, while they France?' I answered him, as was meet, raised the hopes, and awakened the arwith questions: and why do not you, rogance of the Roman Catholic priestin order hereto, persuade your King, hood, foreboded approaching and speefrom whom it should begin, forthwith dy ruin to the Protestant establishment, to adjust all differences with his neigh- the eyes of all reflecting men weré bouring kings? They are brethren of opened; and the clergy, as it became the same confession, worship, and dis- them, were the first to see, and seeing, cipline; nearest neighbours, yet most boldly to repel the danger. The eagers ness with which the Papists endeavour. court of King's Bench, and been admited to propagate their tenets, was met by ted to enter into their own personal ren a corresponding activity on their part; cognizances, to appear on the day of and while the press teemed with learned trial, were liberated; and on the 29th and judicious treatises, in which the of June, three weeks from the date of great principles of the Reformation their commitment, they were brought were ably defended; the errors of the to trial, and acquitted. From the com Roman Catholic faith were so clearly gratulatory letters received by the archpointed out from the pulpit, as to op- bishop, on this happy result of the per pose powerful obstacles to the advance secution which he had so firmly endure ment of the King's designs.
ed, Dr. D’Oyly has given several intere The steady and spirited refusal of the esting extracts. The following may, clergy to read the declaration for liberty perhaps, be thought particularly worthy of conscience, the temperate but effece of notice, as it proves the interest which tual resistance made by the bishops, the Presbyterians of Scotland took in their imprisonment, trial, and final tri- the stand made by the English bishops umph, are related at some length: and against the encroachments of Popery. Dr.D'Oyly, by introducing from manu- « May it please your Grace, seripts of the archbishop's, various de- 6. It will doubtless be strange news tails of the circumstances which took to hear that the bishops of England are place during the audience granted to in great veneration among the Presbythe bishops by the King, and when they terians of Scotland; and I am glad that were subsequently under examination reason has retained so much of its old before the Council, has made this, per- empire amongst men. But I hope it haps, the most interesting portion of his will be no news to your Grace, to hear volumes.
that no man was more concerned in the The events which followed are well safety of your consciences and persons known. TheKing, blinded by his bigot- than, may it please your Grace, your ry, and hurried on by the impetuosity Grace's most humble servant, of his temper, could neither perceive,
GEO. MACKENZJE." nor stop to inquire into the probable “ Nothing indeed," continues Dr. consequences of further outraging the D'Oyly, “could exceed the enthusiastic feelings of the nation, which were so reverence and admiration with which strongly interested in favour of the pe- . the seven prelates were at this time titioning prelates. The archbishop, and viewed by the whole nation. They were the rest of his brethren who had sub- hailed as the great champions of the lia scribed the petition, were summoned berties of their country. Their portraits before the Privy Council; and, after an were seen in every shop, and eagerly examination, in which the temper and bought up; medals were struck to comfirmness of the prelates appear to have memorate the great occasion of their occasioned great perplexity to their ac- trial and deliverance; they were com, cusers, they were committed to the pared to the seven golden candlesticks, tower; where their imprisonment was and were called the seven stars of the cheered by the reflection that they had Protestant Church. Every thing conconscientiously discharged their duty; spired to show how strongly the publie and alleviated by the universal sympa.. feeling was now excited by the intemthy of the nation, and the attentions of perate and illegal measures of James, 6C persons
of all ranks, who, from the and gave no doubtful presage of the ima highest to the lowest, flocked thither in portant change which was at hand. crowds, to proffer their services, to con- “ It is scarcely possible to conceive a dole with them in their sufferings, to ex- more imprudent or impolitic measure press their gratitude and admiration, than this of bringing the bishops to a and to exhort
them to firm perseverance public trial.' It contributed, there can in the course they had so nobly begun.” be little doubt, more than any other After an interval of seven days, the bi- single event, to produce the revolution shops having pleaded not guilty to the that ensued, by inflaming to an extraor, Information before the judges in the dinary degree the ferment in the publie
mind against the arbitrary proceedingssary to belong to a Church where the of James. The personal virtues and ministry is obtained by regular succeswoffending demeanour of the prelates, sion; but esteem it a consideration of the respectful terms in which their peti- but little moment whether the princition was drawn up, viewed in compari- ple of the ministry is parity or imparis son with the harshness and indignity ty.* Others again add to these quali, with which they were treated, contribut- fications, the doctrine that imparity is ed no less than the popularity of the the proper constitution of the ministry, cause itself, to excite most strongly the that the three orders of Bishops, Priests, public feeling in their favour. Even had and Deacons, are of apostolical appointthe court party succeeded in procuring ment, and that we have no good reason the conviction of the bishops,they would for deviating from their practice. And, undoubtedly have lost more by the in- lastly, the Church of Rome adds to all creased ferment in the publie mind,than these the supremacy and infallibility of they would have gained by the triumph the Pope, with a vast number of other of suceess. But, as the matter really doctrines and rites. Now, among such ended, covering the promoters of the various and discordant opinions, there prosecution with disappointment, and must be error some where. They canaffording the warmest exultation to the not all be right, for they are each one accused, it gave confidence and bold- hostile to all the others. It is absurd Dess to the opponents of the government to pretend that we can all be in unity measures, and carried the tide of popu- where our belief is so materially differlar feeling with them, in a manner ent. How can the advocate of im. which could not afterwards be resist- parity, who assigns to the Bishop the ed." (To be continued.)
sole right of ordaining, of conferring the ministerial commission, be in unity
with the friend of parity, who robs For the Christian Journal.
the priesthood of its first and high No. II.
est offieer, and reduces the three orChristian Unity.
ders to one? How also can the Pror PERHAPS po doctrine of our religion testant be at unity with the Papist? is less understood than that of unity. The Protestant believes that Christ is Some persons who claim to themselves the Head of the Church, and that the the character of Christians, when ex- supremacy of the Pope is a false doce plaining such passages of Scripture as
trine. The Protestant believes that this, " keep the unity of the Spirit in the Scriptures contain all things necesthe bond of peace,” confine unity to
sary to salvation--the Papist says no, belief in the Christian religion, and obe
but tradition must be added to Scrip dience to the moral law; rejecting al- ture.
ture. The Protestant rejects the doc. most every thing in the Church, consi- trine of transubstantiation--the Papist dered as an external and visible saci- believes it. How again can those who ety.* Others go a step farther, and add believe that the Church is a visible soto the requisites just named, the prin- ciety, and that a ministry and sacra, ciple, that the Church on earth is 'a vi- ments are essential to its existence, be gible society, comprising all those who at unity with those who reject them, possess a living faith in Christ, have and pretend to spiritualize every ordireceived the ordinance of baptism, par- nance of Christianity? In matters like take of the sacrament, and have attach- these, to differ must destroy unity. ed themselves to the ministry of some
The external ordinances and rites of particular pastor; but consider it a mat- religion may be said to be the members ter of indifference where the pastor pro
of the body of Christ; and if we cut cured his ministerial character. Others off one of the members, the rest suffer go still farther, and consider it neces- with it; there becomes a schism in the in you all.”
body. • The Quakers. | The Independents and Congregation. Presbyterians and others. aliats.
To ascertain wherein the unity of his divinity, the existence and agency the Church consists, and wherein it of the Holy Spirit, justification by does not; in other words, what doc- faith, the resurrection of the dead, and trines are necessary to be believed, and a future state of rewards and punishwhat rites practised, in order that we ments. That these doctrines are bemay keep the unity of the Spirit in the lieved by almost all those who call bond of peace; and what doctrines we themselves Christians, is evident to may reject, in what practices we may any one but slightly acquainted with differ, without destroying unity; must the history of the Christian world. It always be the earnest desire of the se- is likewise evident from this fact, that rious and reflecting mind. To state very many confine the doctrine of unity the truth on these points, is the object to these points. The greatest latitudiof the following remarks.
narians, (with the exception of SociniThat we are bound to preserve unity, ans, whom I shall not rank with Christhat is, to be in communion with the tians,) those who extend farthest the true Church, must be evident to any pale of the Church, insist that belief in one attentively reading the Scriptures. these doctrines is essential to constiThe Church is emphatically styled one. tute us members of Christ's Church. It is said to be the body of Christ. That these doctrines were likewise uniAnd, says the apostle, “there is one versally received in the earliest ages of body.” Again, there is one spiri the Church, must be evident to any one even as ye are called in one hope of acquainted with the history of Christiyour calling; one Lord, one faith, one anity. Now, what was received in the , baptism, one God and Father of all, three first centuries of the Christian who is above all, and through all, and æra, at all times, in all places, and by
Froin all these expres- all persons, semper, ubique, et ab omsions, we infer that the true Church is nibus, it has been demonstrated must one, and let us remember that these are be the doctrine of the Church, and the arguments which the apostle ad- therefore essential to its unity. duces to show that we should preserve Again, the unity of the Church deunity; for they immediately follow the mands that all its members receive the command to keep the unity of the ordinance of baptism, and that children Spirit in the bond of peace.”* Again, and infants, as well as adults, be adthe apostle tells us, that by one Spirit mitted to this holy rite. That baptism we are all baptized into one body.t is essential to an union with the visible Therefore, the Church being one, union Church of Christ, is a doctrine almost and communion with it is a duty. The universally admitted by those who lay apostle also exhorts his brethren to claim to the Christian character. The avoid divisions and contentions. “I doctrine is likewise supported by the beseech you, brethren, by the name of universal practice of the Church for our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak many centuries, and by a vast majority the same thing, and that there be no di- of the Christian world at all times. But visions among you, but that ye be a difference of opinion has arisen on the perfectly joined in the same mind.”I propriety of admitting infants to this In another place he tells them, that ordinance. One sect contends, that as there should be 6 no schism in the infants are not capable of repentance body."
and faith, and as there is no express Wherein then does Christian unity command in Scripture to baptize them, consist?
they ought therefore to be excluded It consists, 1st. In the belief of those from the ordinance. To this we reply, doctrines that have been ally re that as it was the practice of the Jewish ceived by Christians at all times and in Church to admit infants to circumciall places. Such are the depravity of sion, and as there is no express comhuman nature, the atonement by Christ, mand given by the Apostles, at the time
when they were ingrafting the Christian * Ephes. vi. 3. + 1 Eor. xii. 13. upon the Jewish Church, and abolish#1 Cor. i. 10.
ing many ceremonies and practices of