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—The living God; who is the Saviour of all men, especially of those that believe.

THERE are two points of doctrine here plainly asserted by St. Paul, which I shall endeavor to explain and to apply: one, that God is the Saviour of all men; another, that he is peculiarly the Saviour of the faithful. For the first,

God in many respects may truly be conceived and called • the Saviour of all men;’ for the word ‘save' doth in a large acception denote the conferring any kind of good; as implying a removal of need, or indigence. Whence God “ is the Saviour of all men,” as the universal preserver and upholder of all things in their being and natural state, as it is in the psalm : • Thou, Lord, savest man and beast,” or, as the general benefactor, who “ is good to all, and whose mercies are over all his ... works;’ who “maketh his sun to rise on the good and bad, rains on the just and unjust, is kind and benign even to the ungrateful and evil:' or, as the common assistant, protector, and deliverer of all men, who in need or distress have recourse unto him for succor and relief, according to what is said in the psalms; “ The Lord is a refuge for the oppressed, a refuge in times of trouble.” The Lord is nigh unto all them that call on him.’ “They cried unto the Lord in their trouble, and he saved them out of their distresses.’

In these kinds of senses, especially respecting natural and temporal good, it is manifest that “God is the Saviour of all men.” But that he is in this place termed such in a highersense, with regard to mercies and blessings of a more excellent kind, and greater consequence, (to mercies and blessings of a spiritual nature, and relating to the eternal state of men,) may from several considerations appear. 1. For that according to apostolical use, the words “Saviour,” “save,’ ‘salvation,' are wont to bear an evangelical sense, relating to the benefits by our Lord Jesus Christ procured, purchased, and dispensed, concerning the future state of men. 2. For that questionless St. Paul doth here intend God to be Saviour of the faithful in this higher sense, and consequently he means him in the same sense (although not in the same degree and measure, or not altogether to the same effects and purposes) a “Saviour of all men.” 3. Because it is plain that in other places of Scripture, like and parallel to this, such a sense is designed. As where, in this very epistle, we are enjoined “to pray for all men,” for this reason; ‘For,’ saith St. Paul, “this is good and acceptable before God our Saviour, who would have all men to be saved, and to come to the knowlege (or acknowlegement) of the truth;’ where corp husov, the ‘Saviour of us,’ seems to denote the Saviour of us as men, (that interpretation best suiting with the argument St. Paul useth,) however it is expressed that God is, according to desire or intention, the Saviour of all men, in reference to their spiritual and eternal advantage; as willing that all men should embrace the gospel; which is farther most evidently confirmed by the words immediately following: ‘For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.” 4. Because, according to the tenor of Scripture, and the analogy of Christian doctrine, St. Paul's assertion thus interpreted is true, as our subsequent discourse may declare. 5. I might add, that ‘the living God’ in our text may very well be understood and expounded to be our Lord Jesus himself; not only as partaking of the divine nature, but as exhibited in the gospel, the word incarnate, who as such may seem commonly by St. Paul to be styled, “God our Saviour;' ‘God

manifested in the flesh;’ ‘God, that purchased the church with his own blood;’ ‘Christ, who is over all, God blessed for evermore.” However it from the premises is sufficiently apparent that God's being “the Saviour of all men' doth relate unto our Saviour Jesus his undertakings and performances for the salvation of all men; since God in a sense evangelical is no otherwise said to save, than in concurrence with what Jesus did undertake and perform; than as designing, ordering, accepting, prosecuting, and accomplishing our Lord's performances; Jesus being the conduit through which all evangelical mercies and blessings are from God conveyed and dispensed to mankind. So that God being ‘the Saviour of mankind,” is either directly and immediately, or by equivalence and in consequence, the same with Jesus being ‘the Saviour of all men.” That our Lord Jesus is “ the Saviour of all men;’ or that the most signal of his saving performances do in their nature and their design respect all men, as meant for, as conducing and tending to all men's salvation, yea and as in their own nature (supposing men's due and possible concurrence with them) effectually productive of their salvation; that, I say, this ancient catholic point of doctrine (the which we profess to believe, when with the church we say in the Nicene Creed -‘Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven,' and the which particularly our church in its Catechism, in the Ministration of Baptism, and in the Communion, doth most evidently and expressly declare itself to embrace) is very true, many full and clear testimonies of Scripture do show, many reasons grounded on Scripture do prove; the which we shall first touch, and then further both illustrate and enforce the truth, by declaring on what accounts, or in what respects our Lord is the Saviour of all men; as also by an application to practice, declarative of its usefulness and subserviency to the purposes of piety. For immediate testimonies: 1. Jesus is called the Saviour of the world; who was sent and came into the world to save the world; whose chief performances were designed and directed to the salvation of the world; “We have heard and known,” said the men of Samaria, ‘that this is truly the Saviour of the world, the Christ.” “We have seen and testified,” saith St. John, “that the Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world,’ (that world, of which it is said, “He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.") And, “God sent his Son into the world, not to judge (or not to condemn) the world, but that the world by him should be saved,' (that world whereof a great part he in effect would both judge and condemn for unbelief and disobedience, he did come primarily on intent to save.) And “The bread which I shall give is,” saith he, “my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.’ And, ‘Behold,” said the Baptist, “the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sins of the world.’ And, “God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their offences,’ saith St. Paul, to the world,” which otherwise he expresseth by ris Trávra, ‘by him to reconcile all things unto himself.’ And, ‘He is a propitiation not only for our sins, but for the sins of the whole world,' (the whole world, in contradistinction from all Christians, to whom St. John speaketh in that place of his catholic epistle; that réguos 5Aos, of which he saith in that same epistle, kónnos 5Aos év ro, rovnpo Keira, “the whole world lieth in wickedness.’) In all which places that the world according to its ordinary acception (and as every man would take it at first hearing) doth signify the whole community of mankind, comprehending men of all sorts and qualities, good and bad, believers and infidels, (not in a new, unusual sense, any special restrained world of some persons, particularly regarded or qualified,) will, I suppose, easily appear to him, who shall

without prejudice or partiality attend to the common use there

of in Scripture, especially in St. John, who most frequently applieth it as to this, so to other cases or matters. 2. The object of our Saviour's undertakings and intentions is described by qualities and circumstances agreeing unto all men. All the sons of Adam are by disobedience in a lost condition, (lost in error and sin, lost in guilt and condemnation, lost in

trouble and misery;) and, “The Son of man,’ saith he him

self, ‘came to save, & Toxoxos, that which was lost,’ (or whatever was lost.) “All men have sinned,” saith St. Paul, “and are fallen short of the glory of God;’ and, ‘It is a faithful saying,” saith the same Apostle, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners.’ “God commended his love to us, that we being yet sinners Christ died for us.” All men naturally are weak and wicked; are in a state of alienation and enmity toward God: and, “Even when we were without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly :” “When we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son:’ “Christ once suffered for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous.” All men have souls and lives exposed to misery and ruin: and, “The Son of man,' so he assures us, ‘came not to destroy, but to save the souls (or lives) of men.” Those propositions in form, respecting an indefinite object, are according to vulgar use equipollent to those, wherein the object is expressed universally. However, 3. They are interpreted by others, expressed in terms as general and comprehensive as can be; such as these texts contain : “The living God, who is the Saviour of all men, especially of the faithful,” (of all men universally, not only of the faithful, though chiefly of them.) “God our Saviour would have all men to be saved;’ ‘He is the mediator of God and men, who gave himself a ransom for all men;’ ‘God hath shut up all men under sin, that he might have mercy on all.’ ‘The love of Christ constraineth us, judging this, that if one died for all, then are all dead; and he died for all, that they who live may not live to themselves, but to him that died for them, and rose again.’ ‘The saving grace of God hath appeared to all men,” (or the grace of God, which is saving to all men, hath appeared, éneptivni, xápts row 0eoû i awriptos rāow &v00%rous.) “He tasted death (trép ravros) for every man.’ ‘He is the true light, that enlighteneth every man coming into the world.” *Which propositions do sufficiently determine the extent of our Saviour's saving performances. 4. Farther yet, to exclude any limitation or diminution of these so general terms, (at least to exclude any limitation in regard to all the members of the visible church, which are or have been incorporated thereinto,) it is expressed that our Saviour's undertakings did respect even those, who (by their own default) might lose the benefit of them, and who in effect should not be saved. For, of those false teachers, who introduced ‘pernicious heresies,' it is said that “they denied the Lord who bought them.’ And St. Paul implies that by scan

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