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diameter, and two feet deep. They are always full of a very falt water, but never ran over. Dip out as much as you pleate, there is no apparent diminution; the deficiency is inftantly fupplied and about ten feet lower down the hill, there ides a fpring of pure and fresh water. When thefe regions become peopled, the trantportation of this rock-falt will be perfectly eafy, by means of the Arkanfas. Experience has proved it to be prefer able to every other kind in curing proviLions.

St. Louis of the Illinois,
March 1805.

For the Monthly Magazine. OBSERVATIONS on the STRATAGEMS, &c. of APES and MONKIES, in a WILD STATE, and in CAPTIVITY.

form of thefe animals, and of their exterual and internal organization, which in many refpects present a striking and hamitrating refemblance to thofe of men, their playfulness, their frolics, and gambols, have in all ages attracted the notice of mankind. Some naturalifts have afferted, that they are capable of reafonte and reflecting; and that they are guided by an inftinétive fagacity much isperior to that of the brute creation in general. They are, however, certainly destitute of every effential faculty of man: incapable as well of thought as of fpeech, there is an immenfe interval betwixt the creature formed in mind after the image of God, and these mere brutes, bearing fome rude traits of the elemental parts of the human frame.

Every one will acknowledge that, in general, both apes and monkies are excethively ugly. Their limbs are pecularly ftrong; and they have great delight in breaking, tearing in pieces, or itealing whatever comes in their way. In all their operations and manoeuvres, their agility is attonithing. Whenever any thing offends or throws them into a paffion, they indicate their rage by chattering violently with their teeth. Many of them, if beaten, will figh, groan, and weep, like children; but most of them, on thefe occafions, utter dreadful thrieks of diftrefs. They inake fuch ridiculous grimaces, place themselves in fuch strange and whimlical attitudes, and in other respects conduct themselves fo fingularly, that few perfons, even of those who moft dilike them, can on thefe occafions refrain from failing, and nearly all must be ninafed by them.

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It is faid, that there are fome races of monkies which keep up a certain difcipline among themfelves. Though ac tive in the highest degree in pillaging plantations and cultivated grounds, they feldom go on important expeditions for this purpofe but in numerous troops. If they meditate an attack (for inftauce) on a melon bed, a large party of them enters the garden. The animals range themfelves, if poffible, under a hedge or fence, at fome diftance from each other, and throw the melons, from hand to hand, with aftonishing rapidity. The line they form ufually terminates in a mountain or foreft, and all their operations are executed during the most profound filence.

Water tells us, that when he was on flore in the island of Gorgonia, he ob

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gered fpecies) come down, at low water, to the rocks of the fea coaft, for the purpose of devouring oyiters. They got at the food contained within the hells, by placing one oyfter on a ftone, and beating it in pieces with another. The malbrouk of Bengal (Simia Faunus of Linnæus) is reported to do the fame.

Many of thefe animals, and particu larly the preacher, and four-fingered monkies (Śimia beelzebul and Simia panifcus of Linnæus), have fometimes dreadful contentions, in which great numbers on both fides are frequently flain. They employ weapons in their combats; and often arm themfelves with tones and pieces of wood, which they throw with fure aim, and aftonishing violence, at each other. They have, on thefe occafions, neither deferters nor ftragglers; for in times of danger they never forfake each other. They run along the plains, and even leap from tree to tree, with furprizing rapidity.

The inflincts and fagacity of thefe animals are, in many inftances, fuch as not to be injured or diminished even by captivity. In fome houfes we fee the wunderu (Simia Silenus of Linnæus), a cunning and audacious monkey, much inclined to ridicule and grimace. He may be taught to drefs and undrefs himfelf, to fpin, to poke the fire, to puth wheel-barrow, or play on a tambourine. He will wath earthen reffels or glaffes without breaking them, and carry light burthens from place to place, whenever he is ordered to do fo. A monkey of this fpecies has been obferved to turn a fpit with one hand, whilft with the other he held a piece of bread under the meat


to receive the gravy: it is perhaps needlefs to remark, that he immediately afterwards devoured it.

A wanderu was exhibited at Bourdeaux, in the year 1762, which by his actions excited much aftonishment in the fpectators. When mounted on an extended cord, he first firetched out each of his feet to have them chalked; then, taking in his hand a pole weighted at each end (fimilar to the balance employed by rope-dancers), he walked backward and forward, cut capers, and executed numerous other tricks, with infinitely greater eafe and celerity than the moft expert rope-dancer that had before been seen.

The monkies, however, that are train ed and educated by fome of the Indian buffoons, are reported to be by far the moft agile and adroit of all animals that are reared in captivity.

Some of the apes, fuch as the oran otans, the patas, and the dog-faced apes, are faid always to place a centinel on the top of a tree, or on fome other clevated fituation, to keep watch when the reft are either about to fleep or to engage in any marauding expedition, The motions or the cry of this animal are a fignal of danger, and immediately the whole troop fcampers off with the utmoft rapidity. It has been afferted, but few perfons will be inclined to credit the affertion, that the centinels are often punished with death for neglecting their duty.

The Europeans at the Cape of Good Hope fometimes catch young apes by ftratagem, or by previoufly killing their dam, and bring them up with care for the purpofe of rendering them afterwards ferviceable. When they have attained their growth, they are taught to guard the house of their owner, during the night, and on all occafions of his abfence. This they do with great fidelity; but as they increase in age, their mifchievous propenfities develope them felves, and they oftentimes become extremely ill-tempered and ferocious. Thefe apes, which are of the urfine fpecies, are fo much inclined to imitation, that they feldom fee any thing done without attempting to do the fame. Some of them are very flubborn and perverfe; but many are readily fufceptible of edu cation, learning, without difficulty, almoft every thing that is taught them.

Condamnine and Bouger law, in Peru, fome domefticated monkies of large uze,

which had been admitted into the apartments of the academicians, during the time they were employed in making obfervations in the mountains. Thefe animals greatly excited the aftonishment of the academicians, by afterwards, of their own accord, going through a feries of imitations. They planted the fignals, ran to the pendulum, and then immediately to the table, as if for the purpofe of committing to paper the obiervations they had made. They occafionally pointed the telescopes towards the heavens, as if to view the planets or stars, and performed numerous other feats of a fimilar nature.

The whimsical occurrence which took place before the troops of Alexander the Great, is too fingular and too amusing to be paffed over in filence. The foldiers under command of this monarch always marched in order of battle. They happened one night to encamp on a mountain, that was inhabited by a numerous tribe of monkies. On the following morning, they faw at a diftance what appeared to be an immenfe body of troops approaching them, as if with the intention of coming to an engagement. The commanders, as well as the foldiers, were in the utmoft aftonishment. Having entirely fubdued the prince of the country, they could not conceive from whence this new force could have come; they had not previously been informed of any thing of the kind. The alarm was immediately given, and in a fhort time the whole Macedonian army was drawn up in battle-array, to combat with this unexpected enemy. The prince of the country, who was a prifoner in the camp, was interrogated refpecting it. He was furprised to be informed of fuch a force in the neighbourhood, and requefted permiffion to behold it himself. He fmiled at the mistake; and the Macedonians were not a little chagrined that they fhould have been fuch fools as to take a troop of thefe imitative animals for a band of armed men.

All the apes and monkics are reported to entertain a natural averfion and antipathy to the crocodile. It is faid, that fome of them will even faint at feeing or fmelling the ikin of one of thefe frightful reptiles.

The animals of that subdivision of the tribe denominated japajous have long tails, which they can coil up, and employ (in fome refpects, but particularly in defcending trees,) as a hand. By means


of their tails, they are alfo able to fwing themfolves backward and førward amongit the branches of trees.

Monkies are feldom known to produce young ones, except in hot climates. The Barbary apes, however, (Simia inuus of Linngus), which are found wild at Gibraltar, bring young ones in great abundance amongit the inacceffible precipices of the rock. A female of this fpecies has also been known to produce offspring in a ftate of captivity, at one of the hotels in Paris. A ftriated monkey (Samia jacchus) brought forth young ones in the houfe of a merchant at Libon, and another in that of a lady in Paris.

Female monkies generally carry their young ones nearly in the fame manner as negreffes do their children. The little animals cling to the back of their dam by their hind feet, and embrace the neck with their paws. When the females fuckle them, it is faid that they hold them in their arms, and prefent the teat as a woman would to a child.

Moakies ufually live in much more extenfive troops than apes. The troops of patus, or red monkies of Senegal, are reported to amount fometimes to as many as three or four thousand. Some naturalifts believe that they form a fort of republic, in which a great degree of fabordination is kept up; that they always travel in good order, conducted by chiefs, the ftrougett and most experienced animals of their troop; and that, on thefe occafions, fome of the largest monkies are likewife placed in the rear, the found of whofe voice immediately filences that of any of any of the others that happen to be too noify. The or derly and expert retreat of thefe creatores from danger, is an amusing fight to Europeans, unaccustomed to the native manners of fuch animals. The negroes believe them to be a vagabond race of men, who are too indolent to conftruct bubitations to live in, or to cultivate the ground for fubfiftence. They fometimes commut dreadful havoc in the fields and gardens of perfons who inhabit the countres where they abound.

The diferent fpecies of monkies are fehlom known to intermix or affociate together, but each tribe generally inhabits a different quarter. The negroes who have not been taught the ufe of fre-arms, are faid to kill them by fhooting them in the face with arrows. But often imppens, when the fopajous are fhot, that in the act of falling from the tree they feize hold of a branch with MONTHLY MAG. No. 154.

their tail, and, dying in this fituation, continue fufpended even for a long time after death. When a monkey of fome of the larger fpecies is wounded, the reft will frequently collect together, and with great fury purfue the hunters to their huts or lodgments.

It was formerly fuppofed that man was the only animal which conld be infected by the fmall-pox and mealles; but it is now afcertained that monkies, kept in houfes where thefe complaints prevail, are alfo liable to receive the infection.

In the year 1767, the inhabitants of Saint Germain-en-Laie, near Paris, were witnels to a monkey's catching the fmallpox, by playing with children who were infected, and the animal bore the marks of it for a confiderable time afterwards. A circumftance nearly fimilar was obferved alfo at Paris. M. Paulet, a medical man of fome eminence, was called upon, in 1770, to attend a person who had the mealles. As the difeafe was contagious, he requested that every poffible precaution might be taken to prevent it from spreading; and particularly that a monkey, accustomed to play with the children of the houfe, fhould on no account have any communication with the invalid. The request was made too late. One of the fick perfon's fifters, and at the fame time alfo the monkey, which had been accustomed to fleep at the foot of her bed, was attacked by the difeafe. The monkey, in confequence, was treated in the fame manner as a human fubject. M. Paulet, on examining the fate of the animal's pulfe, found it fo quick that it was fearcely poffible to count the pulfations. In the axillary artery, thefe were much more fenfible than in any other; and he declared that, as nearly as he could count them, they were about five hundred in a minute. We ought to remark, that this monkey was of very low ftature, and that, in all animals, the shorter they are the quicker is their pulfe. Thefe facts, which are well authenticated, fufficiently prove (independently of others) that the small-pox and meailes are not difeafes entirely confined to the human fpecies; but that animals, as well as men, are liable to receive the infection from them. Namerous inftances have occurred of the fmall-pox being communicated to and from animals. Thofe from cattle are now well known. A fhepherd infected with the finall-pox has been known to communicate the difenfe to his theep, and thefe theep to thofe of another R


leaft in fome degree) in their habits of

flock. A horfe has been obferved to be covered with the puftules of the finall-life from thofe of the old world. The pox. Goats are fometimes attacked by it, and, when this is the cafe, great numbers generally perifh. (See Roder. à Caftro, lib. 4. de Meteor. Microc. cap. 6.) This dreadful contagion is likewife frequently known to extend to the flocks of rein deer in Lapland.

Great Author of Nature has alligned to them feveral characteristics that are peculiar to themselves: fuch, amongst others, are the fituation and feparation of the nafal orifices; and the prefence of two additional grinders in each jaw. We, likewife, are acquainted with no fpecies of monkey, belonging to the ancient world, that has a prebeufile tail, or the bony pouch obfervable in the throat of the preacher monkey and the arabata, (Simia beclacbul and Simia feniculus of Linnæus).

In fome countries monkies, even in their wild fitate,, are rendered ferviceable to mankind. It is faid, that in ditiricts where pepper and cocoa grow, the inhabitants, availing themfelves of the imitative faculties and the agility of the monkies, are able to procure an infinitely greater quantity of these articles than they could do by any other means. They mount fome of the loweft branches of the trees, break off the extremities where the fruit grows, and then defceud and carefully range them together on the

Such is a fuminary of the principal obfervations that have been tranfmitted to us by different travellers, refpecting the manners and habits of life of the animals which conftitute this interching tribe; and from what has been faid, it appears that they have a nearer alliance than any other quadruped (in the general conformation of their bodies) to the human race. They confequently have the art of imitating human actions better than any others, fince they are able to ufe their fore-feet as hands. From the general organization of the monkies, they are likewife capable of an education ncarer allied to that of man, than any other animal. Some naturalifts have at tributed infinitely too much fagacity to them, whilt others have certainly not allowed enough. The monkies feem_to_ground. do thofe things which mankind do before their reafon is matured by age; and in this refpect there is no other quadruped which bears any refemblance to them. Moft animals feem at times to be actuated by the fpirit of revenge: by the different means that are employed to gratify this paffion, we may in a meafure judge of the different degrees of their inftinct; and every one knows how greatly the monkey exceeds all other brates in its vindictive malice. There appears, in fome meafure, an analogy even betwixt the vices (if we may fo call them) of the monkies, and the difgufting brutality too often obfervable in the vicious and degraded part of mankind.

The animals of the monkey tribe differ very effentially from each other in their general manners and habits of life. The oran otun is fufceptible of more confiderable attainments than any of the others. The fort muzzled monkies, with long tails, fuch as the greater part of the guenons, Japujous, and fagoins, are for the mott part exceedingly tractable, and receive a certain degree of inftruction without much difficulty. But fome of the apes, and baboons, with long muzzles, are to favage and ferocious as to be in capable of any education whatever.

The monkies of the new contineat, as might naturally be fuppofed, differ (at

The animals afterwards afcend the fame trees, ftrip the branches all the way to the top, and difpofe them in a fimilar manner. After the monkies have gone to reft, the Indians return and carry off the spoil.

In fome places, it is this inclination to imitate human actions which leads to their deftruction. The Indians carry in their bands veffels filled with water, and rub their faces with it, in the prefence of the monkies; then fubitituting a kind of glue inftead of water, leave the veffels behind them, and retire. The ob fervant creatures feize the veffels, and do the fame; when the glue, adhering ftrongly to their hair and eyelids, completely blinds them, and prevents every poffibility of their effecting an efcape.

In other places, the natives take to the habitations of the monkies a kind of boots, which they put on and pull off their legs feveral times fuccellively. Thefe are then rubbed over in the inûde with a ftrong glue; and when the monkeys attempt to do the fame, they are unable to difengage themfelves, and, confequently are caught without dificulty.

Sometimes the inhabitants carry in their hands a mirror, and appear to amufe themfelves by looking at it in different attitudes. In place of thefe they leave a kind of traps, not unlike



the glaffes in external appearance, which, when the animals take them up, ieize and fecure thera by the paws.

The inhabitants of St. Vinceut le Bune catch monkies in feveral kinds of traps and fhares. Sometimes, when they have caught the young ones, they put them into a cage, and appear to teaze and torment them, in order that they may likewife catch the parents.

The bunters of fome countries place near the haunts of monkies veffels containing strong and intoxicating liquors. The animals drink of them, and in a fhort time become fo drunk as to lie down on the spot and fall asleep.

Some of the Indians afcend to the fommits of the mountains in which the animals breed, and conftruct there a pile of wood, round the bafe of which they pread a quantity of maize. They place on the pile fome fubftance, which, on being expofed to heat, explodes with tremendous noife. This is contrived to explode during the time that the monkies ar employed in devouring the maize, and, in the terror and aftonifhment, the old animals fcamper off on all des with the utmoft rapidity, leaving their young ones a prey to the hunters.

of these animals. We are affured by Condamine, that in Cayenne the monkies are the kind of gaine that is more frequently purfued than any other; and that the Indians of the country bordering on the river of the Amazons are pe culiarly foud of their fleth. Their fat is cfteemed a fovereign remedy for fiffefs in the joints. In the Portuguefe fettlements in South America, powdered monkies' bones are confidered an excellent fudorific, and likewife as anti-venereal, In the gall-bladder of one or two of the doric and wanderu), a kind of gall-ftone Indian fpecies (but particularly of the is fometimes found. Thefe, fays Tavernier, the natives have been known to fell for as much as a hundred crowns each. They will not, in general, permit then to be exported out of their country as articles of commerce, but chiefly preferve them as an invaluable prefent to foreign amballadors residing amongst them. They are confidered to poflefs all the properties that have been attributed to the most precious of the bezoar ftones.

Chrift Church,
Feb. 1, 1807.



The dexterity of monkies is fuch, that, although burthened by their offspring clinging to their backs, they can leap from tree to tree, if the distance is not very great, and fecure their hold among the branches with the greatest certainty. When they perceive any perfon taking an at them, either with a gun or bow, they cry out and grind their teeth fome, in the plenitude of power, times in the most horrible manner. They are often able to avoid the arrows that are thot at them, and fometimes they even catch them in their hands. When any one of their community is thot, and falls to the ground, all the reft fet up a difinal and tremendous howl, which makes all the adjacent mountains and woods refound. If a monkey is wounded, and does not fall, it frequently happens that his companions will feize and carry it off far beyond the reach of their enemy and miferable is the fate of that hanter who is imprudent enough to venRare near their haunts during that fame day. When the animals re-afcend the trees, they each carry a tone in their hands, and generally another in their

this; and, in fuch cafe, thefe are thrown at their adverfary with a corpectuels of aim that is truly astonishing,

The inhabitants of feveral countries ders a means of fubfiftence from the fleth

enriched with the plunder of conquered provinces, and elated with pride, erected ftately pillars, ornamented with exquifite fculpture, to commemorate the achievements of her illuftrious citizens; but thofe fplendid embellishments were the oftentatious monuments of an unbounded ambition which grafped at univerfal dominion, and in the career of victory extended a wide fcene of ruin and defolation. Under the influence of a better principle, and for purposes infinitely more ufeful, this superb edifice

The height of the building from the bafis to the fummit is 85 feet, and from the level of the fea 250 feet -The lanthorn contains three frames, with feven large lamps and reflectors in each, making in the whole twenty-one. The lights revolve, and the motion is horizontal. One of the lights is all others; and in a clear night, they may red, to diftinguish Flamborough lights from be feen at the distance of thirty miles

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