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for the exhibition of lights is erected— mendous coast; paint to your imaginaIt was raised with the benevolent inten- tions, the crew of helpleis seamen ünking tion of securing the property of indivi- among the overwhelining billows, and duals, and of preserving human life, froin railing their supplicating voices, in vain, the calamities of shipwreck.
for aid !--reflect on the inexpressible To the honour of the Elder Brethren agony of their tender connexions, deof the Trinity-house, Deptford Strond, prived in one fad moment of all that is London, it mult be observed, that with ettcemed dear in lite, and left perhaps laudable zeal they have patronized the detolate and forlorn, in a fiate of helj undertaking, and completed the build- less indigence, to mourn the loss of a ing in a stile fuperior to every other of husband, a father, or a fon! These are the same class in the United Kingdom- not visionary ideas: they are scenes, an eminent display of taste and judgment. alas! which have too trequeutly been The grandeur of its situation on this ele- realized. With such imprellions on your vated promontory is unequalled the minds, you must alluredly acknowledge sublimity of the prospect inuit excite the the utility of a delign calculated, under Admiration of every beholder--the valt Providence, to prevent confequences fo fweep of the northern ocean fills the eye wounding to the tender fenfibilities of with its immeasurable expanse, and ex- human nature. llad this building been hibits a scene which infpires exalted erected at a more early periud, the late ideas. Innumerable fleets laden with lots of his Majetty's ihip the Nautilus, the produce of the coal-mines, and rich Captain Gunter, from the Baltic, and trading vellels from Scotland, daily pass several of the veilels under her convoy, in view; thips freighted with naval stores with many valuable lives, might, in all and valuable inerchandize, from Archi- huinan probability, have been preventangel, from Norway, the ports of the ed. Baltic, and Holland, and others from From the exbibition of these brilliant the whale-fisheries, direct their courses lights, innuinerable will be the advanto this diftinguilhed promontory. Scenes tages to navigation. I will detail the of this kind are characteristic of national molt prominent :-The light of them grandeur: the bold enterprile and mer- will difpel the gloom which frequently cantile spirit of Britain attonith the seizes the boldest and moil skiltil world; the magnitude of her commerce navigator, in a critical iponent; and covers the sea with her feets; ber flag direct him, when surrounded by the waves triumphant in every quarter of the obscurity of a winter's night, to avoid globe; the unrivalled fkill, industry, ho- the dangers of this projecting coult. nourable conduct, and opulence of the They will guide the tempelt-beaten macountry, are the folid balis of its itabi- riner to the Huinber, or to a file anlity. Surely, fuch important intereits chorage in Bridlington-bay, funed for its merit a fedulous attention to their le- convenience and security. Ditluling their çurity:
friendly lustre afar, they will haine as While view with complacency the leading itars to enable lluips in a large multitude of thips floating on the ex- offing to atcertain their situations with tended ocean, mould you at the faine accuracy, and to take a new departure ; moment take into contideration the im- and also warn ochers contending with mente value of their cargoes, and the ealteru gales, to keep at a proper difmpany thousands of seamen by which tance from the dangers of a lee-fhore. they are navigated, you would then be To the fibermen, who are frequently ex. able to form fome judyment of the ex- poted to great perils on the unliable tenlive advantages which must relult element, they will be eminently ufetul from the execution of a plan to highly in the night : they will guide them to the uleful and beneficent If, prompted by proper tishing grounds, and dire&t tinm, curiosity, you have ever furveyed the on their return to the fore, to a place formidable rocks which line the adjacent of fatety. Numerous have been the dif fore, and have oblerved the foaming aliers of this industrious race of men at waves of the stormy ocean dathing with bamborouch. I un pertinacled that irretiltihle fury against the perpendicular fuany of you, who are now prelent, buvo clitis, the light alone must have filled you witnelled the painful leend of the whole with aliunilhment and dread! -Figure village in anourning: the lamentations of then to yourselves the melancholy scene the disconfolate widow and mazher mat at fuine unfortunate veel enveloped ju have picrced your souls. mi night darkness, driven by tie tonte With inexprelible anguith, I hare fern peft, and suddenly ftranded on the tre- the tears of the belpleis orphan fluw for
an indulgent parent, who perished in flire; William Sheppard, of Frome in the merciets wave:-while I retain the Somersethire ; Daniel Lloyd, of Uley faculty of memory, the fad imprellion in Gloucelterthire; John Jones, of Bradwill never be erased; and at this moment ford in Wiltshire; Abraham Lloyd Edit is diliicult to reitrain my emotions: , ridge, of Chippenham in Wiltshire; but the conlideration that my humble Jolin Wanley, of London; Henry Dyer, exertions have been instrumental in pro- of Wotton upon Edge in GlouceiterDoting a defign to prevent those cala- Ahire; George Wanfey, of Warminiter mities in future, will be a fource of fa- in Wiltshire ; Richard Bowsher, of Bath; tisfaction to me to the reinotest period of Thomas Joyce, of Freshford in Somerlife. This description of an undertaking settire; John Wallington, of Stinchlo conducive to the security of navigation, combe in Gloucesterthire ; John Vizard, will not, I tratt, be deemed too highly of Dursley in Gloucellerthure; John coloured the facts are incontrovertible, King, of Frethford in Somerfetthire; the utility is indisputable. So long as John Maitland, Esq. of Balinghall-street; this noble edifice fhall stand unshaken on and Charles Brooke, Eig. M.P. also of its firm foundation, and lift its afpiring Balinghall-ftreet, London. Nurmit to the view of the adıniring spec The following were the principal facts tator, it will remain a conspicuous ino- ascertained by the tettiinony of thele witdanent of the humanity and munificence netles, of the British nation, unparelleled by 1. Apprentices.--By the ancient law, any other of the maritime ftates on the (a fystem gradually formed between the face of the globe.
reigns of Edward III. and George II.) May the kind Providence of Almighty no person ought to be employed in the God favour this and every other effort of woollen manufacture, without having national utility with fuccess, and crown ferved an apprenticelhip of seven years : with glory the ardent courage and deter- but this law has gone into difule, hy the mined resolution of our matchless fca- changes and improvements in the manumen, in the defence of their native facture. The majority of the weavers land. While affheted Europe mourns now employed in Gloucesterdhire, Wilther desolated provinces and fubjugated fhite, and Somersetihire, have become fate, may this United Kingdom, firm in fuch without having been apprentices. loyalty, in patriotism, and every exalted The art of weaving may be competently virtue, oppose an insurmountable barrier learned within twelve months. It is now to the impeluqus torrent which threatens practised by women, as well as by men; to overwhelm the earth. May Britain and children begin to learn it from the ever continue in the envied possession of age of five or fix years. The springthe empire of the main ; and, litting her looms, which, with great advantage to unclouded hend with distinguillied luftre the manufacture, have become general, amid the glooi which, at this awful would be rendered at once useless, if the crils, overfladows the world, exhibit to old law of apprenticeship Nould be now tefponding nations a briglet example of enforced. The wiple manufacture and glory — invincible on every holtile flaock, trade would be brought to a stop. It unshaken as the rocks which guard her would be impotlible to antwer, on the fen-giri thore.
'fudden, any extraordinary demand; nor
could the manufacture be extended into For the Monthly Magazine. villages, for the convenience of falls of AASTRICT of EVIDENCE given before water to work the mills, as it has lately
COMMITTEE of the House of commons, been. Of the cloth-workers, still fewer relative to the use of NACHINERY, than of the weavers have served apprenthe closion of PERSONs not huving ticeships. The use of the spring-fhuttle forced APPRENTICESHIPS, the Assem- has proved of advantage chiefly to the
age of the weavers in lurge ManU- working weaver. In consequence of its FACTORIES and the MAINTENANCE of being adopted, one weaver executes
OLD Lws of REGULATION in the what was before the work of two, and Pooltex MANUFACT CRES in the receives the wages of two. None of the COCITIES SOMERSET, WILTS, und wenvers or cloth-workers that served reLOUCESTIR
gular apprenticeships of feren years, as evidence was receivel in the have been left without employment in mar 1898
I consequence of persons being einployed phustemen examined were, Ed- who have not ferved npprenticeships. Phuppard, of Uley in Gloucetter Yet combinations of the wenvers and
cloth-workers, inftructed by regular ap- mellower, and more uniform, than that prenticeships, have been formed to pro- which is dreileri with the band. Clothes, Iccute thole who were not to bred to the unfalcable as being diete with the butiness. The poor's rites have not bind, tind purchaters atier they are pro been enhanced in confequence of tlic dreifed in the gig-mill. Bfore the use employment of unapprenuced weavers, of the giy-mill was adopted in Wilts and cioclo-workers, and dyers.
Somertet, much of the cloth made in II. The wearers are averse from being those counties was font into Gloucetteralleinbler to work together in lurge 117 Dhire le mill-dreiled. nufulories. The manufacturers have to I'roin the mid-nill, the cloth is put into induceinents to incline thein is oneinble the hands of the thesian, or into heartheir workmen to labour together, but ing machinery, to be tinilhed tir the tliat they may have to work performed inarket. 'The thearmen in Wilubire requicher, and with leis embezzlemen of juled, for a long time, to work atter the the yarn. The wearers are arcile troin gig-mill. They have been lince ineluced, this, because they do not line to work m general, to return to their mafiers. ander too rigorous an interion of their Incotequence of the rists of the weare einployers. Great quouitics of yam ers, cloth-workers, and ihearmen, beare embezzled while it is in the hands of caule machinery was introduced, the the "cavers. The wearers are, alo, principal part of the Wiltshire cloid-workaccafionied to ishe in works from duttr. ing branchi was transtirredd, in 1802, to ent en ployers, and in keep it much to London, Bath, and other plares. long belde vein unexecuted : a practice It is imposible now for the manufacwhich would be checked by bringing turers to and fale for cloths made of the them to work together under the en exact length, brendil, and uright preployer's eye: Hiilin thele last thirty fcribed in the old ftatutes. The diverity years, Spanish wool las risen in price of the markets now requires a variety acol. per cent.; thic waves to clothi- of fabrics unhnown when the old statuteworkers, 1001. per cont.; the price of law was framed, 1 The fineft and thiuthe manutaciured cloth, only 30l. per neil cloths are made for the Turkey
trarie; 2, ladies' cloths are in the next III. Iachinery and Regulations.- degree tlíicker; 3, the next in thickness The new nuachinery, &c. employed in are made for the Welt India trade; 4, the woollen manufacture, is contrary to the next are for the Rullia trade; 5, futhe regulations of the ancient law, vét pertine cluths are thicker still; 0, the indifpenfably requilite to the prosperity of thickest of all are double-milled fuperthe trade.
tines, and a species of narrow-cloths By the use of the spring-Shuttle, much named ruttcens. The statutes which formore cloth thau formerly is now made. bid the exportation of cloths tacked and The amual manufacture of fupertine prefied, and clothis unbarbed or unfhorn, broad-cloth, in the town of Chippenham, camot now be enforced without renderis now twice as much as it was at the ing the manufacturer unable to fupply his diltance of twenty-five years since. foreign orders.
The gig-inill, probibited by two fta The ute of the hot-> rejs, prohibited tutes of the neigo us' Edward II., is ufed by the old lans, has become general, and in the operations called the rouing and could not be now discontinued without the drelling of cloth. It renders the ruin to certain branches of the mandexpence less, by one halt, was if the facture, fame work were performed with the Certnin prohibited ink clients are now band only. It does not sletch out the used with advantaye in the tailing, from cloth to more than one-fo: entieth part of the improveidents in the cheatry of that which was his tirit lenkel when it dyeing. came out of the loom, li hus becu uled, Sjranijh wou! bas been introduced into timne out of wind, in Gloucetiert. ire; the manufacturr since the enarıment of and is now employed ali, in the counties the fututes, and licts occalined great of Wilts and sonerler. The cloth is changes in it, which are molt beneficial, Dot found to thrink inore from the ute but wluch the Itarutes could not anisa of this machine, this if it were drealud pate and provide for. will the band only. Clothis dreiled in Lamb's wool, of which the use is forthe giu-mill are preferred, boil in the bidden in the fautes, bas, by the imwie and the foreign markets, a: foper, provenenis 10 Machinery, and the prima
gress of Lill in manufacture, become a writer of our own, have not only affertvaluable material in the fabrication of ed that no such poet as Homer ever certain cloths.
exifted, but have even denied the ocUnder the ancient laws, there are in- currence of any such event as the taking fpectors to exaunine the cloths, and re- of Troy. But the attempt to establith port at the quarter-lellions whether they fo fancitul an hypothelis, contradicted by be made according to the statute-regu- the whole body of ancient literature, lations. These perfons now take their can be considered only as the chimera of fees; but yielding to the progrets of the men who, dildaining to follow the tract manufacture, no longer litt upon the pursued by to many other writers, have rigorous performance of their duty. Hought for novelty in the wildett para. Their office appears to be quite unne- doxes and in the Inofelt conjectures. It ceffary,
is too late for all the ciforts of modern The quantity of capital in the woollen scepticilin to throw doubts upon a tranftende and manufacture in the West of action corroborated by the testimony of England, has been prodigioolly augment- every claliic author, and which is in no one ed ince machinery came to be einployed. of the ancient writings either expressly The consequence of its employment has denied or even incidentally questioned. tms been to increase the quantity of the That we are indebted for many of the manufacture, not at all to throw the incidents the poem folely to the ir workmen of any cials out of bread. vention of the poet, is beyond dispute; The Spaniards, having oil
, soap, and but it may be contidered as equally cerwool, one-third or one-lialf cheaper than tain, that the fubject was not invented thele articles can be parchased in Eng- by him, but is the representation of a land, tnight rival us in the woollen ma- real fact which took place long before butarcture if they could procure our ma- his time. chuery.
S.T. The Iliad is unquestionably the noblest
monument of buinan genius ever exhi- . For the Monthly Magazine.
bited to the world, and has been trans
mitted to us with the juiteil admiration, TUE LYC.EUM OF ANCIENT
through every age. But when we comLITERATURE.-No. III.
mence its perufal, we thould previously Iue ILIAD.
consider that we are about to read the NUCH
, we have of Iloner: fuch are the except the Bible. It is highly neceffary faint thindows which antiquity reflect at that we fould keep this in mind, or we this distance of time. But if we recall cannot enter into the spirit, nor taste the the mind from this dark view of his ftory, composition, of the poem. The reader and is it all at once on the poems he matt not expect to find the correćtness bas left os, our pity is turned into wone 'and elegance of the Augustan age. He der. We forget tie rude draught of his mult diveft himself of all modern ideas person and fortune, to contemplate the of refinement, and fuffer himself to be tohler image of his soul. T'he blind transported in imagination 3000 years fongiter immediately vanithes, and in his back in the hiftory of mankind. He room we are prefented with the father will fee, admirable representations of and prince of rere, the preacher of wil characters and manners, but filt retainduu und virtue, the founder of arts and ing a tincture of the fivage ftate; moral fciences, the great matter of civil life, ideas, as yet imperfectly formed; bodily anal the counsellor of kings. These were strength prized as a principai endowthe titles which the ancients conferred ment; paflions uot curbed by the reon luin, in their enthulinfic admiration straints of a more advanced state of loof the greatness of his thoughts, the tor ciety; untoumon beauty of language, rent of his words, the charms of his sometimes employed on very trivial tubGetings, stid the utility of his precepts. jects; and a motey allemblage of porThe Ilind, the first and molt contider- traits varioully drawn, but each repre
Dan of Honer, is founded on the fenting, in the truett colours, the virtues Bomonible war of Troy, occasioned by or the imperfections of the humaa the fodtudion of Llelen, carried on with mind. wheruate luccelles and misfortunes, and the opening of the Iliad certainly
Iemanated til after a close and vi- does not puffels that dignity which a no porean finges of ten years. Some critics dern espects in a grent epic poem. It and lower ngad, and x very ingenious begins with bo higher subject than the
difpute between two chieftains, respect. with him the palm of judgment and taste, ing a female blare. A priest of Apollo he is bere without a rival. It runs through implores Agamemnon to restore his all the poem, and wheiber in the choice daughter, who, in the plunder of a city, of incidents, of descriptions, or of had fallen to that king's share of booty. images, is equally remarkalıle. The proHe is refused. Apollo, at the requelt of digious number of events described, of his priest, lends a plague into the camp delineations of characters divine and huof the Greeks. The augur, when con man; the infinite variety by which they sulted, answers that there is no way of are all distinguished; the different coappealing the God, but by resto the fair lours in wbich they are characterittically captive virgin to the arms of her parent. drawn,--display aŭ almost boundless in Agamemnon is enraged at this answer; vention. In order to give an air of dige declares that he prefers this llave to his nity and importance to the table, he has wite Clyteinettra ; but fince he must re fo constructed it as to interest the Gods store her in order to fave bis army, intists themselves, not only in the general caupon haring another to fupply her place, taftrophie, but in every particular inciand demands Briseis, the Nave of Achilles. dent that inight either barien or retard The young warrior, as might be expect- it. It is adinirably invented to make ed, is incensed at this demand; re- the calamities which Agamemnon and proaches the king of kings with rapacity the Greeks futicred, the elect of Thetis and intolence; and, after beltowing on importunate address to Japiter, in wbuch him many injurious appellations, he fo- Me implores vengeance on the Grecian lemnly swears that, if thus treated, he army, that their leader might be fentible will withdraw his troops, and no longer of his injustice to her fon Achilles, in aflilt the Grecians against the Trojans. depriving him of his fair captive, by Ile accordingly leaves the camp. His feeling the want of his atliftance againit mother, the Goddess Thetis, interests the Trojans. The deluding phantom Jupiter in his cause, who, to revenge fent by Jupiter to the tent of Atrides, in the wrongs which Achilles has suffered, order to perfuade that monarch to give adopts his relentnient, and inflicts on battle to the enemy, deceiving him with the Greeks many and tedious calamities, the vain hope of ending all lis labours until Achilles is pacified, and a recon and dangers by one effort, which thould ciliation effected between bin and Agn- accomplish the entire destruction of Troy, memnun. Such is the batis on which is a beautiful machine, and introduced the action is founded; such the jpecioja with fingular propriety. The interpolimiracula of this extraordinary poera. tion of l'enus to rescue her fon from the
From this Iketch it is feen, that Ho- danger of impending death, is alto highmer did not take for his subject the whole ly invented.' The episode of Glaucus Trojan war, but selected the molt inte- and Diomed, in the listh book, makes resting part of it, the quarrel between an agreeable paute in the narration; but the two principal personages. Such a that of Hector and Audromache is, of fubject was, no doubt, bappily chosen. all others, the most deeply interesting. The liege of Troy formed a lplendid and But this episode is more properly clafied dignified event, which had engaged the under Homer's talent in exciting the attention of many ages, and was worthy pallions, and is only mentioned in this to be commemorated by the verse of place as a finely imagined incident. We Homer. A confederacy of the monarchs may add, the firatagem of Juno's hors of Greece to revenge the violation of rowing the girdle of Veuus tu revive the hofpicality committed by Paris, and to tenderness of Jupiter; and the art with vindicate the injured honour of Mene- which the lulls him to fleep, that Neplaus, combined at once a grandeur and tune in the mean time may aslist the a moral in the action, eininently calcu- Greeks,-as esquinte fictions of a nufi lated to excite the admiration and in- creative imagination. The embally to prove the manners of his cotemporaries. Achilles, the intlexibility of that hero, We Diall coniider the poem under three and the final extinction of liis rcfentient kea:is, with repert to the invention it against Agamemnon, fo paturally effected displays, its characters, and the narratiou by the death of Patroclus, by which or iiyle.
alone a reconciliation could huve been The great merit of inexhaustible in- produced coaliticntly with his character: vention has been unirersally allowed to these are a few of thule beautiful and Homer; and though Virgiliony dispute well-iuvented incidents which compofe