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Paoli appears to have been formed by ed, in 1760, of a few feluccus, under nature to attain the hearts and futfrages the command of Count Peres, who was or his countrymen, for his deportment henceforward designated under the pomwas grave and prudent, and his judy- pous title of High Admiral of Corlica, ment was matured by reflection rather In 1761, the doge and fenate of Gew than by age, while his patriotilin was im noa, perceiving the change lately effectquestioned, and his eloquence superior ed among the natives by the good conto that of any of his rivals. Ile was duct of one man, lent a deputation to a accordingly unanimously chosen gene- general conjulta, convoked at Vescotalissimo, in a full afsembly of the peo vato, for the express purpose of proporple, wheu he had but attained the 29th ing terins of accommodation ; but as year of his age. This joyful event was the pulle of liberty now beat high, it immediately announced, by ineans of a was unaninoully retolved never to make proclamation, “in the name of the fu- any peace with the enemy, unless on preme and general council of Corsica, the express condition of Corsica being adilrefled to the beloved people of that guaranteed in the full enjoyment of its nation,” dated from St. Antonio of the independence. A memoriat to the fame White House, July 15, 1755. It was effect was also addrelied, at the same there fiated, “ that having determined time, to all the fovereigns of Europe. on the election of one political and ge At length, in 1708, this petty and neral chief, the voices had been unani tyrannical republic, being now in despair mous in favour of Pasquale Paoli, a of ever bending the Corticans again to man whose virtues and abilities ren- its yoke, actually determined to dispole dered him particularly worthy. He had of the island to the best bidder. Acexpresied great reluciance," it was add- cordingly, the fovereiguty was transferred ed, “ to accept of the command, but to France (at leait, so far as such a transhad at length been prevailed upon to fer can be etieemed legal), for the fum take upon himself the government; in of forty millions of livres, a large porthe conduct of which he was to be af- tion of which was however deducted as fitied by two counsellors of fate, and an antecedent debt. one of the most reputable persons from But laoli, although greatly alarmed, each district, all of whom were to be was not utterly ditinayed by this ceflion, changed once a month."
On the contrary,
aroused and prePaoli was accordingly entrusted with pared the spirit of his followers for a the fole management of public atlairs, freth contention, and animated them to both civil and military, and soon obtain: perfevere, with additional zeul, in the ed such an ascendancy over the miuds defence of their liberties and indepenof the people, that they implicitly af- dence against all opposers. He, at the Sented to every thing proposed in his fame time, folemnly promised never to
As his *patrimony was extremely abandon the cause, but either to triflender, it became absolutely necellary umph or fall at the head of his countrythat he should obtain a fettled revenue. men ! liis expences were accordingly provided
This heroic resolution, coupled with for, by ireans of an annual trax, called the justice of the cause in which be bad Il pane del generale."
embarked, obtained for him the cfeem The fituation of the island, in respect and regard of every lover of lumanity to its internal government, being very throughout Europe. He had already unpromiling, this chief new-modelled added to his reputation, by driving the the laws, discouraged allaslinations, im- Genoese from the open country, firutting ported arins, and established the appear- them up in the maritime towns, and be ance, if lint reality, of subordination. Geging the city of St. Fiorenzo; wluch In addition to all this, he inttituted he was only prevented from taking polschools, erected an university at Corte, session of by the ignorance of his coun, and actually laid the foundation of a tryineu in respect to the attack of formaritime power; or, at least, what was tified places, as well as the total want of considered as fuch in that part of the cannon of every defcription, without Mediterranean, although it only contiit- which it was utterly imposible to ako
au imprellion ou a town defended ac* It consisted folely, as has been considera cording to the modern rules of war. ly taid, of a house and garden at Reitino, the · Birt the fituation of these brure if. place of his birth.
landers with foon altered for the worse,
as *M. de Marbeuf, an officer of con- ing a word, while he looked at me with Kiderable talents, had landed with fix a itedfalt, keen, and penetrating eye, as Inatallions, in 1764. But yet Paoli was if he searched my very soul. still considered, by all parties, as the le “This interview was for a while very gitimate chief, and it was not until fome severe upon me. I was very much retime after that a vew war, and that too lieved when his relerve wore off, and he with such a powerful inonarchy as France, began to speak more. I then ventured became inevitable.
to address bin with this compiiment to Meanwhile, the people of England, the Corlicans: 'Sir, I am upon my always impressed with noble ideas in be- travels, and have lately vifited Roine. half of freedom, began to conceive a I am come from seeing the ruins of one high notion of the inhabitants of Cor- brave and free people: 1 now fee the fica, and to feel a generous with to serve rise of another." them. This pallion was not a little in This event, trifling as it may appear, flamed by the writings of a young tended not a little, in consequence of Soutchman, who had been induced to the policy of Paoli, to raise him in the vifit that itland in 1765, without any estimation of his own countryinen, and other introduction than a letter from the even of the ueighbouring itates. Bofcelebrated author of the Social Con- well was imrnediately lodged in the house
of Signor Colonna, the lord of the maBy this means he obtained an intro- nor, and yilted by all the nobility; and duction to Paoli, whom he describes as whenever he chose to survey the country, follows: I found him alone, and was was attended by a party of soldiers. struck with his appearance. He is tall, “One day,” says he, when I rode out, Prony, and well made; of a fair com- I was mounted on Paoli's own horse, pleron, a sensible, free, and open coun- with rich furniture of crimson velvet, tenance, and a inanly and open carriage. with broad gold lace, and had my guards He was then in his fortieth year. lle marching along with me. 'I allowed mywas dressed in green and gold. He used felf to indulge a momentary pride in the to wear the common Corlican habit; but parade, as I was curious to experience un the arrival of the French he thought what could really be the pleasure of state a little external elegance might be of and distinction, with which mankind are ufe, to make the government appear in a fo ftrangely intoxicated.” It was easy more respectable light.
to countenance, or even to originate, " He alked me, what were my com- the report that a gentleman, whofe zeal mands for him? I presented him a let alone carried him into the wilds of Corter from Count Rivarola; and when he fica, had been sent thither on a secret had read it, I dhewed him my letter from million; and the Ambafciadore InRoallean. He was polite, but yery refery- glese." by means of the Avignon Gazetre, d. I had itood in the presence of many was soon introduced to the notice of ali • prince, but I never had such a trial as the people of Europe. in the presence of Paoli. I have al Wbile Paoli was thus flattering the ready said, that he is a great physiogno- vanity of his countrymen, and confolie mit In consequence of his being in dating his own power, the conquest of contigoal danger from treachery and the whole island seems to have been mee aislination, he has formed a habit of ditated by the court of France. Louis findioully obferving every new face. For XV. an indolent and voluptuous prince, ta minutes we walked backwards and addicted to the loosest pleasures, and res forwards through the room, hardly fay- gulated by the will of his miltresses and
his ministers, was prevailed upon to
make the attempt in 1768. M. de Chaude Marbotif was much beloved by velin, one of his favourites, and the fa
It was he, indeed, who pro- » ther of that ambasador whom we have family of Bonaparte ; and being secu at our own court, as the represen
attached, as has been faid, to his tative of Louis XVI., was accordingly dan leave for him, during the nominated to the command of the expee XV to be sent to l'Ecole Mi
dition. Barwell, son of Lord
The army destined for the acquisition the lorde af feflions of the poor, barren, and desolute isand
to have been the of-Corlica, was cuinposed of fixteen bat wind to have and tallions and two legions, amounting ia
all to about 5000 men, Thele were HA No. 154.
be fupported by a squadron, conhiting of General. He was a singular man, who two tail of the line, two frigates, fix united the most exemplary deference to arned brigantines, a number of trans- the fuperftitions of the church, with a ports, &c. It was evidently the interest patsionate attachment to the profeffion of of the English nation to bave prevented arms, and led the life of a monk, when this acquitition on the part of France : be did not act in the capacity of a warbut a jecret understanding appears at rior. Perceiving that a contiderable borty that time to have sublisted between the of French troops, with the usual audacity two courts, and a spirit of conipliance of that nation, had penetrated into the actually evinced itself on this occafion Pieva, or district of Calinca, be called on that cannot be accounted for on any ho- the natives to rise in a body; and having sourable principle. Lord Chatham did aftembled four or five thousand of them, not at that huniliating period prelide in he attacked the enemy, forced the post of the councils of the nation; yet we have La Penta, obliged the foe to recross the always understood, that the late Mar- river, and actually drove them before him quis of Lansdowne (then Earl of Shel- to Notre Dame dell'Orto. But this was burne) objected to the tameness with not all, tor no sooner had his fuccets been which such an insult was borne, and that made generally knowi), than the detached he actually resigned the important office camp of St. Nicholas was attacked by then held by hin, in confequence of it. multitudes of armed men, and General
Be this as it may, a furious war en Graudinaison, who commanded there, sued between France and Corsica; in was obliged to fall back to Olcttà. The which numbers, military science, money, town of Borgo was the next object, on and discipline, were on one tide; and on which the conquerors fixed their attenthe other, an almost unarmed multi- tion; and although utterly unacquainted tude, enthusiasm, bravery, and a good with both the art and the means of atcaule.
tacking fortified itations, they found As the Corsicans were unprovided with means to penetrate into the place, and artillery, and even with bayonets, and make a lodgement there. combatted individually rather than in Oon this, M. de Chauvelin, resolved to regular masses, it would have been high- advance in perfon, with the main body of ly impolitic for them to have encountered the army, while Paoli, being encouraged the French in the plain, and thus placed by the recent conduct of his troups, dethe fate of their country on the illue of termined to give bim batue. An action a pitched battle. On the contrary, it accordingly took place on the 5th of was their interest to prolong the war, in September, 1763; for the French laving order to give time for the intervention advanced in three separate columus, of the neutral powers. Paoli, therefore, hoping, by means of a combined morepotted his troops on the heights of Neb- ment, to carry every thing before them, bio, de la Croce, and St. Antonio, where the Corlieans, as usual, placed themfelves they remained firm; hoping, in a moun- in ambush, and, as they fired with all the tainous warfare, to be able to contend certainty of American riflemen, they of with less inequality than in the low coun- course made a great laughter. Of three try. They were obliged, however, after hundred of the garrison of Borgo, who repeated charges, to retire before the fallied out during the fight, one man only veteran troops of France, who acted in returned alive; and that place was ac. coucert, and poffefled a variety of ad- cordingly obliged to surrender next day. vantages.
After this, the French General retired On this, the islanders withdrew behind firft to Bafiia, and then to Versailles, the Guolo, but not until they had already chagrined to behold fome of the best exhibited such a specimen of their bravery, troops of France circumvented, defeated, that, inttead of pursuing the enemy, and killed, by a body of mountaineers, Chauvelin found it absolutely neceflary headed by a General, who was acqunin. to draw reinforcements from his own ted with the theory of war alone, audi iad coast.
acrer, until now, beheld an engagerneut, In the course of a short period, the tide The conclusion of the campaign of 1768, of war turned against the invaders; and so disgraceful to the French army, and to the Corsicane, (who bud hitherto acted on honourable to its enemies, afforded a far the defentve) at length became the af- opportunity for the interventing of the falants. Many orlicris diftinguified naritime powers. But as M. de Choiseul, theintelves on this necation, particularly at that time minister to Louis XV. was Clemente Pauli, the older brother of the but too well acquainted with the dispr
lition of the Britilla cabinet, which could “Paoli," says he, in another place, alme have animated the allied courts into has rendered his name illustrious, in action, he determined to fend powerful confequence of the vigour with which he reinforcements to Cortica. These con- fupported the cause of public liberty fified of twenty battalions, two legions, among the Corsicans; but in truth, it was and twelve hundred mules; and the com a little at the expence of their individual mand of the whole was entrusted to the freedom. In the course of this war, he Count de Vaux
displayed great genius, and a noble conThis officer unfortunately happened fiftency; had be been endowed with minot only to be brave and active, but allo litary talents, had he known how to have to poffefs a' mind well acquainted with instructed his countrymeu iu that fpecies all the resources of war, lle himself was of hoftility best suited to the natural beut faniliar with the fecise of action, and of their genius, he would have dettroyed well aware of all the faults committed by our little arıny in 1768, and done us much his predecessor, who had only scaped more harm than we experienced in 1769." from disgrace, and even frow punishment, This celebrated chief had the good by the personal attachigent and regard fortune to escape during the general conof the monarch, in whole debaucheries fufion, with the loss of his library and his he had for many years participated. baggage. Having with fome difficulty
The new coinmander in chief, fearing affembled a few of his faithful followers, above all things left the war thould be among whom was his own brother, be protracteil, determined to divide his army repaired to the fea-lide, and being acinto two columns, of about twelve bat- companied by these on board an armed talions each, and by one grand move- veffel, bearing the English flag, which had went put an end to the contest, by the been provided for his reception, he was complete fubjugation of the whole itland landed in Italy. of Curtica. Paoli, from this moment, After remaining a fhort time at Legfortfaw that his country must not only be born, he repaired to England, where he sterrun, bat conquered. He, however, had inany friends and admirers. Indeed, defended the bridge of Guolo, and the it was but a few days before his final revillage of Valle, with a confiderable de treat, that he had received a liberal fubgree of obstinacy; after which, he retired fcription, from a number of private indiwith about 6x thousand men to the topviduals, for the express purpose of en of a mountam, furmounted with a Tur- abling him to continue the war against Ein mosque, originally built by the Sara- France.* cem, and fince converted into a christian Immediately on his arrival, the patriots, charclı, dedicated to St. Peter. As this at the eastern extremity of the metrocommanded the four adjacent valleys, polis transinitted a formal invitation to and was considered as the laft and chief the General, to repair to the city, where defence of the island, every thing dem an entertainment had been provided for pemiled on keeping possession of it. But hiin. Alderman Beckford, Mrs. Macauthe Conicans were equally overpowered lay, Alderman Fecothick, and a number by numbers and by kill, and fifteen of his friends and admirers were all prehundred of them having been nearly cut fent on this occasion, and expećted his o, in an attempt against the French appearance with impatience : but the umy at Ponte Nuovo, the final subjuga- "General having received an intimation tigo of the natives was now unhappily from the patriots of the west end of the socumplidied.
town, that his presence would give offence Dunquries, who served on this occa to the court, he felt himself luddenly infitner, ith the rank of Adjutant-General, disposed, and sent his secretary with an. Therd enough, in the Memoirs of his excuse. Life, to pay the highest compliments
Meanwhite Paoli was presented to the Corlicans and their chief. His Majesty, at St. James's, and most ed to the funner, he observes as graciously received. He was at the fame
time gratified with a pension f for himself, is alloniliing that this handful of while a liberal provision was made for his det, dettiaute of artillery, fortifica- brother Signor Clemente Paoli, and also
bine and money, should have had not boy doning two campaigns,
The Aldermen Beckford and Fecothick, had to other enetnies to together with Samael Vaughan, efq. were File liberty doubles the the trustees.
+ Twelve hundred pounds per unaum.
for his nephew Signor Barbaggio, the lat- thus enabled to reinstate himself, in all ter of whom, had accompanied him to his former power and authority, Soon England, while the former relided in after this, he embarked for Corlica, Italy.
where he was received with an extraors From this time forward, the Ex-Gene, dinary degree of attachment and respect. ral remained chiefly in London, leading In consequence of this, he was elecied the quiet life of a private gentleman, mayor of Baltia, commander in chief of keeping an hospitable table, a carriage, the national guard, and prelident of the and every thing appertaining to a man of department; in fine, he foou acquired fortune. Having been waited upon, foon more authority in the island, than before after his arrival, by Mr. Boswell, the lat- its fubjugation by the French, ter presented Dr. Johnson to him, on the Notwithstanding this
, he appears to 10th of October, 1769. “ " They inet with have been still ambitious of its entire inà mạnly ease," says Mr. B.*' mutually dependence, and an epoch soon arrived, conscious of their own abilities, and of when he imagined that so desirable an the abilities of cach other. The General event might be effected with impunity. spoke Italian, and Dr. Johnson, Englishı, This was the execution of Louis XVI, and understood one another very well, which divided the French nation into two with a little aid of interpretation from partics, rendered a civil war exceedingly me, in which I compared myself to an probable, and animated the enemies of isthinus, that joins two great Continents." the new republic with new hopes.
During the space of twenty-three years, The Convention having been inforned Paoli enjoyed an honourable and fecure of his secret practices, inmediately issued afyluin in Great Britain, where he of orders to Paoli, to repair to their bar, and course expected to end his days. But defend himself against the accusations of the extraordinary events of the French his enemies: but he pleaded his age and Revolution at length induced bin to em- infirmities, with a view of gaining time, bark anew in the storms of civil ftrite. and assured that allembly, he would never
No sooner had the Constituting Affem- be found defective in respect to his duty. bly proclaimed liberty to the nation, than To a second decree, more peremptory the fate of Corsica appeared to be me- than the first, he replied in a different horated, and a people fo long oppressed, manuer, and with more frankness; after received a glimpie of freedom. On per- whici he repaired to Corte, the ancient ceiving that his native country had be- capital, situate in the centre of the illand, come one of the departments of France, where, surrounded by his friends and adher ancient chief transmitted a letter to herents, he laughed at the proclamation liis fellow-citizens, in which he expreffed which had been issued, declaring him a his congratulations on this event, but la- traitor, and setting a price on his head. mented at the same time that he could On this occasion, however, a number not rejoin them consistently with his gra- of the most powerful families in Corlica titude and attachunent to the British declared against him; and Saliceti, Arena, nation,
Gentili, Casa Bianca, together with many Notwithstanding this, he took leave of of those who had sworn fidelity to the his friends here, and repaired to Paris in new constitution, and like himself fub1792; having been well received by the fcribed the civic oath, publicly declared, party then in power, he pronounced a that they could not allift in subverting ipeech at the bar of the affeinbly, in which those regulations, in favour of which they be observed, “ that after a painful exile had taken fo folemn a vow, in the face of of more than twenty years, he now re Heaven and of mankind. joiced to behold his country reliored to On the other hand, the wholc body of cre poffetlion of her rights and pri- the clergy, disgusted at the late reforms, sileges, by the generolity of the French which had deprived thein of a large pormilion." ble, at the same time, exprefled tion of their revenues, lided with their an. to readiness “ to contribute, as much as cient clief'; and to these adhered all is was in his power, to the happiness of such as were eminently devoted to the bis fellow-citizens."
church of Rome, a numerous and powerThele sentiments being, highly popular class of men, who alluned to themat that period, experienced general ap- felves the appellation of the sucred band. plane; and Puoli having taken the onth But as l'aoli' knew from long experience, of fidelity, in the face of the oation, was that it was impollible to relift the power
of France, alone and unsupported, he *Lie or Samuel Johnson, L.L.D, vol, ii p. To determined to call in the allittuce of