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fpondent on the same important subjeđ, propriety, however beautiful. To this in your last number, afforded me great objection Fenelon has very properly anpleasure; and I trust the friends of hu- iwered, that Homer did not create the manity will pay all proper attention to gods whom he has introduced in his the encouraging arguments he suggests. poem, but has described them as he Tis even to be lamented, that since the found them. His mythology was, no above letters appeared in your excellent doubt, the mythology of Greece, and he Miscellany, this country, and mankind only followed the traditions of his counin general, have loit the most dillin- try. The era of the Trojan war apguished champion of civil and religious proached the age of the gods and demiliberty, and by consequence of humanity, gods. Several of the heroes concerned winch latter ages bas produced. But, in that war were reputed to he the chil. furely, bis mantle is left behind, and dren of these gods. Of course, the trahas inspired his friends with some portion ditionary tales relating to them were of his humane benevolent spirit. Those blended with the fables of the deities. who wish to abolish the flave-trade, will, These popular legends Homer adopted ; even for contiliency's fake, will to pre- and in his bands they produce a fine efpent all wanton acts of cruelty towards fect. His lytiemn of machinery, often the brute creation. Their work will be lofty and magnificent, is always iprightly only half done and imperfect, if this is and amusing. It adds contiderably to omitted.

the vumber of his pertonages; and the The present time is peculiarly favour- very circuinstance with which he is reable for such humane efforts. A new proached of having given to his divine parliament will foon meet, in the election characters a mixture of human frailtics, of which (according to your statement, by rendering them as interesting to the p. 387,) the friends of liberty, aud of reader as the human actors, increales course of humanity, have molt laudably the interest of the poem. His battles, and successfully exerted themselves. his councils, and his descriptions, are Surely then a new parliament, and in diversified by the frequent intervention their frit fellions too, will not refuse to of the gods; and the alternate tranfie pals a law so congenial to the very first tions from earth to heaven, and from requirements of our holy religion, and heaven to earth, give relief to the mind the want of which is alluredly a national in such a continued scene of blood and disgrace!

slaughter. I ain, Sir, your's, &c.

If the mythology of Horner was not Nov. 7, 1806.

Senex: invented by him, the use he has inade of

it is entirely his own. But though he LYCEUM OF ANCIENT LITERA- general, with admirable art and judge

has employed bis celettial machinery, in TURE.-No, IV.

ment, yet in fomnc inliances it cannot be

denied that he has transgrefled the wellUNDER o femewhead noelice relice known rule of Horace : gods of Homer, or his machinery. This, Nec Deus interfit, nisi dignus vindice nodus

Inciderit. as we have already oblerved, is conlidered the inust difficult part of the epic. The gods are introduced upon the stage In the Iliad it forms a very contiderable more frequently than is neceflary, and part of the poem, and for this reason are often employed in offices too frivoHomer is become the tandard of poetic lous and below the dignity of their natheology. It is evident, that this ma ture. To exemplify this observntion by chinery was not invented by him. It is, one instance: it appears to be no very therefore, with great injustice, that he honourable function for Minerva, to be has been accused of having debased the come the charioteer of Diomed; but religion of his country, by representing when he is defcribed as afluening the its deities under the most difyraceful co- rcins, ind plying the lash, ber divinity lours, and subject to all the infirmities is absolutely degraded. There are occa and pallions of the human race. This fionally trifling, and even ridiculous, alhas been urged against him by La Motte, tercations among the gods, particularly & cold declamatory writer, who, without the quarrel between Jupiter and Jono. one poctical spark in his own compofition, It mutt also be admitted, that notwithwas unwilling to praise it in others, and standing the credulity of the Greeks, and eager to condemn crery deviation from the exteutive licence of fiction which

1

TIE ILIAD.

their

their mythology allowed, and of which from nature, giving a plain rehearsal of Homer has sų largely availed hintelf

, what passed, or was supposed to pals, in there are some incidents in the Iliad ra- conversation between the pertons of ther too marvellous even for the poei's whom the author treats. In progress of own age, and which have too ludicrous time, when the art of writing was more an etfect for the gravity of the epopæa. studied, it was thought more elegant to It may be fufficient to mention the mira- compress the substance of conversation culous gift of speech conferred on the into ihort distinct narrative, made by the horses of Achilles. Perhaps the undis poet or historian in his own perfon, and ticguishing admirers of Homer will fa- to reserve direct fpceches for folemn octisty theintelves by refolving the whole cafions only. The speechies of Homer into a fupernataral incident, and justity are however, upon the whole, characit by a miracle of a fimilar nature re- teristic and lively; and to them we owe, corded in the facred writings. But the in a great ineasure, that admirable difcauses of fuch a phenomenon were by play which he has given of human nanu eneans bimilar, nor can we admit it in ture. But it is in the descriptive parts the former case as a fulficient reason for of his narrative that he more particularly breaking through the order of nature, excels. They are sometimes representaand encroaching upon the prerogative of tions of such scenes as we ourselves may the hoinan (pecies. The pailage in the have beheld. At others, they are mere21st book, where the river Scamander by fictitious, but always plealing. The attacks Achilles, and threatens to over- defcription of the light ariling from the whelm him with his waves, till Vulcan, fires of the Grecian camp, in the eighth at the instigation of Juno, comes down book, beginning with this line, from heaven to chafife the infolence of Scamander, whole waters he fcorches 25 d'éro ty ougaros asza $2009 au 5£)£.my, and dries up with fire, is another inci- exhibits as beautiful and exquisite a night dent equally ludicrous, as exceeding the scene as is to be met with in ancient or utmost boundary of fiction. But these modern poetry. The celebrated tranflaextravagancies must be attributed to that tion, or rather iinitation, of Pope is too wildness and irregularity of imagination well known to be transcribed, but it vics which have diftinguilhed every great genius with the Griginal in fplendour of diction from Homer to Shakespeare, and deferve

Of fictitious

and poetical ornament, the fame epithet of splendida peccata feenery there is a ftriking fpecimen in which the ancient Fathers of the Chriftian the faine book, in the sublime and picchurch beltowed on the virtues of the turesque description of the almighty heathen. Indeed, most of the faults of thunderer fcaling the heavens, darting Homer must be ascribed to this exube through the skies with the rapidity of raace of fracy, and may be compared lightning, and seating himself at lalt on to the apoftate angels in Milton, who, bis throne io awful majefiy, while the though with "faded Splendour wan," heavens and the earth tremble under his till exhibited “ excess of glory. obfcur feet. There is also a remarkable examed.

Under the third and last head in which ple of vivacity and ftrength of descripwe are to consider the Iliad, we mult tion in the lamentations of Achilles,

when brooding over the injory done him notice the narration, the inagery, and by Agamemnon in depriving him

of his the sentiments. In his narrative of fair captivo. Indignation, grief, and events, we have already remarked that disdain rend his heart, which feenis ready Homer is concife, fpirited, and rapid. In his speeches he must be admitted to to burse with the conflict of impetuous be tedious. But they should be conti paßions,

-αντας Αχιλλεύς. δερο και Μουνίng from the characters, as Δακρυσας έπαρών αφερτζετο νοσφι λιαςθεις perfect or defective in proportion as they sq axos nekiãs, desav an d'R TOTOY,

gree or dilngree with the inanners of nota de pentei pian ancato Xtigas ogtyvus thole who auer them. There is much a

Lib. i. 1. 348. more di logue in Homer than in Virgil. Not to his loss the great Achilles bore; WME Virgil informs un of by two words But fad, retiring to the founding fhore,

Arration, Homer brings about by a O'er the broad margin of the deep he hung, och Sacha fyle as this is the most That kindred deep from whence his mother end matters fom of writing, and sprung ;

therefore andoubtedly have been there, bathed in tears of anger and disdain, mot ancient. It is copying directly. Thus loud lamented to the formy main, TALT Dd. No. 155.

Св.

les yeux,

The imagery of Homer is, in general, the image exquisitely tender, and gives grand, awful, and beautiful. It may it a peculiar propriety. perbaps be urged, that the timilies occur It is also in sentiment that Homer has too often, and sometimes interrup! the principally excelled. This remark, oricourse of his narration. He was so na- ginally made by Longinus, is verified by turally poetical, that he saw all the fen- a variety of pañages in the Iliad. An timents and actions of men through the example of fublimity of sentiment oc, mirror of fome corresponding image. curs in the 17th book, in the abrupt and His mind, teeming with poetical allu- striking prayer of Ajax, when the Grefious, poileiled a greater elevation than cian army is enveloped in sudden and delicacy, and was more capable of abun- impenetrable darkness : dance chan choice. He is to prolífic in

Ζευ πατερ, αλλα συ ευσαι υπ'ηερος ύμας Αχαιων, images, that he may be said to have fup- Tornoo 321&pav, des d'opBadjectiv sdfs Sai plied every poet wlio has fucceeded him. Εν δε φαιει και ολεσσον, επει να τοι ευαδιν ούτως. ile has more daring figures, and more

L. 645. ítriking metaphors, than any other. But

-Lowi of earth and air, it is wonderful with what propriety his O King ! O father! near my humble prayer ; espre:lions are always suited to his ideas. Dispel this cloud, the light of heaven reThey are never too big for the sense,

store ; but are great in proportion to the gran- Give me to see, and Ajax alks no more. deur of the sentiment. It is the fenti- If we must perith, we thy will obey; ment that fivells the diction, which rises But let us perith in the face of day. with it exact proportion. Such arc This pailuge, thus unnecessarily amthe arrow impatient to be on the wing, a plified by Pope, has been more briefly weapon thirsting to drink the blood of and more energetically rendered by Boithe enemy. These are what Aristotle leau. juftly calls living words. The most beaue Grand Dicu! chasse la nuit qui nous couVTC tifal figures are what we have already mentioned; the fires in the camp com- Et combats contre nous à la clarté des cieux, pared to the moon and stars by night; Paris going to battle, to the war-borse We have another instance of sublimity prancing to the river; the comparison of sentiment in the beginning of the of Achilles, in the 22d book, to the dog- 8th book, in the fpeech of Jupiter in the tar; and above all, the following beau- interior deities. The patrage is too long tiful fimile on the death of Euphorbus, for transcription ; but the reader is astoOιαν δε τρεφει εργος ανηρ εμθηλες ελαιης:

nished at the awful denunciations against Χωρω εν οιοπ ολα, όθ'άλις αναβεβρυχεν ύδωρ, the offenders, and the bold dehance Κολον τηλεθαν, το δε τε πνοιαι δονετσι wiuch he gives to the power of all the Παντοιων ανέμων, και τα βρυει ανθεϊ λευκαι gods combined against him. The idea ελθων δεξαπινης ανεμος, συν λαιλαπί πολλη, contained in the two following lines, is Βοθρα τ'εξεςρεψε, και εξεταννυσ' επι γαιη. one of the grandest that can be prefented

Lib, 17, 1. 53. to the huinan imagination: As the young olive, in some fylvan scene, Αλλ' ότε δη και εγω πρωφρων εθελοιμι ερυτσαι, , Crowu'd by freih fountains with eternal green, Auto *iv yain spusase', autri Ts Balass*. Lifts the gay head in fuowy flowrets fair,

-If I but stretch this hand, And plays and dances to the gentle air :

I beave the gous, the ocean, and the land. When lo! whirlwind from high beaven invades

It bears a strong resemblance to the reThe tender plant, and withers all its fhades:

presentation which is giren us in the It lies uprooted from its genial bed,

Sacred Writings of the power of Jehovah, A lovely ruin, now defaced and dead.

when he is laid “ to weigh the hills in It is impollible to select a finer image fcales, and the modutains in a balance, froin nature 10 represent the untimely and to take up the idles as a very livle death of a young warrior, celebrated for thing." There is a remarkable parity his beauty. Though Pope has in a great between paisages in Huner, and thote meafure preserved the delicacy and beau- in the Scriptures; and Duport, in trið ty of the original in his trantlation of Gnomologia Horerica, bas collected inthe above pallage, lic has omitted the numerable inftances of this fort. Ace fine circumsiance of a man rearing the cording to Gale, Huiner took many of wide-spreading olive with care in a foli- bis 6ctions from some reil Scripture trie Aary field, a circunkiauce which rendus ditions, which he gathered up wlulft he

was

was in Egypt, and which we may collect latitude, and profundity, and as an exi from his ityle and the affinity of many of cellent over-plus famous for height. It his expreffions with the Scripture lan was a maine poynt of wifedome to ground guage. Sir Walter Raleigh goes ftill far- ber upon Faith, for thee is the more ther, and afferts “ that it cannot be likely to stand sure: the great crosse in doubted but that Homer had read over the middle certainly hath bin, and is yet, all the books of Moses, as appears evie oininous to this churches relaration.' s dently from many places iwlen from Paul called the church the piilar of truth, thence word for word.”

and surely had they not beene found, they had fallen before this tine. The

bead of this church háth been twice For the Monthly Magazine. troubled with a burning fever, and so the LONDINIANA.

city, to keep it from a third danger, let NO, VIII.

it itand without a head. I can but adCRIPPLECATE.

mire the charity of former times, to 1480. TN this yeare Edmund Shaw, build fuch famous temples, when as

goldsmith, and mayor of Lon- these ages cannot find repaire to them don, newlie builded Creplegate from the but then the world was all church, and foundation, which gate in old time had now the church is all world : then chabene a prison, whereunto such citizens rity went before, and exceeded preachand other as were arrested for debt (or ing; now there is much preaching, nay like trespalles) were committed, as they more than ever, yet lefle charity; our be now to the counters, as maie appeare

forefathers advanced the church, and by a writ of King Edward II, in these kept their land i these times Joose their words: “Rex vic. London falutem. Ex lands, and yet decay the churches. I gravi querela capti et detenti in prisona honour antiquity fo much the more, behoftra de Creplegute, pro xli quas corain cause it fo much loved the church. Radulpho Sandwico, tum cultode civi- There is more reason to fufpect the pretatis mitra London, et 1. de Blackewell cite puritaine devoyd of charity, than cultode recognit, debitorim, &c.

the simple ignorant fraught with good Holinfhed, p. 703.

workes. I thinke truly in this one pomat,

the ends of their actions were for good, RATCLIFFE HIGH-WAY.. Sir Robert Cotton told Weever of a and their owne happines. They builded

and what they aimed at was God's glory chelt of lead, found in Radcliffe-field, in temples, but our degenerating age can Stepney parish; the upper part garnilled fag, come let us trike them into our wich scallop shells and a crotilter border, hands and potless them: amongst many At the head and foot of the coffin stood Others, this cannot be fayd to be the two jars, three feet long; and on the rarest, though the greateit. Puritaines fides a number of bottles of glittering are blown out of the church with the med earth, fome painted, and many great loud voice of the organs; their zealous pliials of glass, foine fix fome eight square, fpirits cannot indure the musicke, "nor having a whitish liquor in them. Within the multitude of the surplices, because the chelt was the body of a woman, as they are rclickes (they fay) of Rome's the furgeons judged by the foull. On fuperftition. Here is that famous place either fide of her were two fceptres of for fermons, not by this fećt frequented, ivory, eighteen inches long, and on her because of the title the Croje. The brealt a little figure of Cupid nently cut middle ile is much frequented at noone in white tone. And among the bones with a company of Hungarians, not were two pieces of jet, with round heads walking fo much for recreation as neede; in forn of nails, three inches long.

(and if any of these meate with a yonGough, Sep. Mor, vol. i. p. 64, Weever ker," that hath his pockets well lined Fun. Jun. p. 30.

with filver, they will relate to him the OLD ST. PAUL'S.

meaning of Tycho Brahe, or the North Io a curious little volume of the time Star; and never leave flattering him in of Charles I. entitled “ London and the his own words, and flicke as close to Canntrey carbonadoed," is the following him as a bur uppon a travailer's cloake; defenpoon of S. Paules church. and never leave til he and they have

"Oh Domus antiqua, a fit objea for saluted the Greene Dragon, or the Swanne pitty, for charity further reported of behind the thåmbles, where I leave

knowne, it is a compleat body, for them.) Well, there is some hope of rethe three dimentious of longitude, Soring this churala to its former glury:

the

ELY HOUSE.

the great summes of money bequeathed, it may acquit itself boldly and valiantly are fome probabilities; and the charity in real engageinents, it will run these of fore good men already, in cloathing hazards in iham ones." and repayring the intide, is a great en Finibury, or Moor fields, were at this couragement; and there is a speech that period but a vast morals. the houses that are about it must be pulled down, for Paules church is old Here, according to Stowe, died, enough to tiand alone. Here are pray- February 3d, anno 1399, John of Gaunt, ers often, but tiniler fufpition doubts Duke of Lancalier, more formal than zealous; they thould It seems from the following pallage in not be worldly, because al church-men'; Stowe's Annals, that the gardens here there are none dumbe, for they can were famous for producing fine straw1pcake loud enough. I leave it and berries. He says, speaking of Richard III. then, wilhing all might be amended.” “ And after a little talking to them, he FINSBURY FIELDS,

faid to the Bishop of Ely, My Lord, you Fitzstephen, who wrote his Descrip- have very good strawberries at your

Gartion of London before 1182, is very ac den in Holborn, I require you to let me curate in describing the winter anjuse- have a messe of thein? Gladly, my Lord, ments of the Londoners in Finsbury quoth he, would to God I had foine betfields; and particularly mentions a fpe- ter thing as ready to your pleasure as cies of skaiting. The following is a tran- that; and therewith he sent in all hatte Nation of the parage :

his servant for a 'mesle of strawberries." " When that vait lake, which waters This circunstance has been minutely the walls of the city toward the north, copied by Shakespeare in his play of is hard frozen, the youth in great num- Richard (I. where he puts the following bers go to divert theinselves on the ice. words in that prince's mouth. Some taking a small run for an increment “ My Lord of Ely, when I was last in of velocity, place their feet at the

pro

Holbourne, per distance, and are carried Niding lide I saw good ftrawberries in your Grace's

garden there, ways a great way; others will make a large cake of ice, anid seating one of their

I do beseech you send for some of them.” companions upon it, they take hold of During the civil war, this house was one another's hands, and draw him converted into an hospital

, as appears by along; when it fometimes happens, that an entry in Rushworih, vol. ii. part iv. moving swiftly on follippery a plain, page 1097. “ The Lords concurred they all fall down headlong. Others with the Commons, in a meflage fent up there are who are still more expert in to their Lordflips for Ely Iloufe, in Ilolthese amusements on the ice; they place bourne, to be for the ule of the fick and certain bones, the ley-bunes of some ani- maimed foldiers.”—Grofi's Antiquities of mal, under the foles of their feet, by England and Wales. tying them round their ankles, and then

STREETS IN LONDON IN THE SAXON TIMES. taking a pole thod with iron into their

London jo mentioned in Bede as the hands, they push themselves forward by striking it agaiult the ice, and are carried metropolis of the Ealt Saxons in the year along with a velocity equal to the flight

604, lying on the banks of the Thames, of a bird, or a bolt discharged from a

“ the emporium of many people coming cross-bow. Sometiines, two of them thus

by sea and land."

In furnithed agree to start opponite one to don is conveyed " at the ancient liony

a grant, dated 889, a Court in Lonawther, at u grcat distance; they meet, edifice, called by the citizens huæț manclevate their poles, attack and ftrike cache des itone, from the public ftreet to the other, when one or both of them all wall of the fame city." Fron this we and not without some budily lurt ; and learn that so early as 889, the walls of even atter their fall, they livall be carried

London exilied. a good diliance from cach other by the rapidity of the motion; and whatever in London; called Coolinundinge lunga,

In 857 we tind a conveyance of a place part of your head comes upon the ice, not far from the West Gate. The West it is fire to be laid bare to the full

: Cate may have been either Temple Bar Very often the leg or the arm of the

or llolborn Bars. party that falls, it le chances to light

Ethebald, the Mercian King, gave a upon thein, is brokeu: but youth is an aye ambitious of glory, fund iind covete * Bedr, l. 2. c. 3. t Heming, 42. ous of victory; and ibat in future times ; Hans. 43.

Court

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