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cester, which is preserved among the 3. « The Cronicle of Fabian, which manuscripts of the College of Arms, and he himself nameth the Concordance of entitled,' Lamentatio gloriosi regis Ed- Historyes now newly prynted, and in. vurdi de Karnarvon quam edidit tempore many places corrected, as to the diligent fuæ incarcerationis. Our authors tranfi- reader may appere.” Fol. John Raynes. tions from prole to verse, in the course 15 42. of a prolix narrative, seem to be made

-Fol. Bonham with much eale; and, when he begins 1542. to verify, the historian disappears only 5. " The Chronicle of Fabian by the addition of rhyme and stanza. whiche he nameth the Concordaunce of In the first edition of his Chronicle, by Historyes, newly perufed. And continued way of epiloynes to his feveu books, he from the begynnyng of Kyng Henry the has given us : The leven joys of the Blef- seventh to thende of Quene Mary.” Fol. sed Virgin in Englith Rime.' And under Kingtton. 1559. the year 1325, there is a poem to the Of these, the first is by far the rareft. Virgin ; and another on one Badhy, a In the Prologue he excuses his perforLollard, under the year 1409. These are mance, begging his readers to correct it fupprefied in the later editions. He has where it is amiss. likewise left a Panegyric on the city of « For by hym that never yet'any Ordre toke London; but despairs of doing justice to Or Gre of Scole, or fought for great cunnynge, fo noble a subject for verse, even if he This werke is gaderyd, with small unhad the eloquence of Tully, the morali

derstandynge." ty of Seneca, and the harmony of that There is a copy in the public library at faire ladie Calliope. As an historian, (Mr.

Cambridge. Warton adds) our author is the dullest of

As a favourable fpecimen of his talents, compilers. He is equally attentive to the succession of the mayors of London, the First, printed in Mrs. Cooper's Muses'

Mr. Rition mentions an Elegy on Heory and of the monarchs of England: and Library, which was in fact a tranflation seems to have thought the dinners at Guildhall, and the pageantries of the of Huritinydon, the conteniporary of that

from a Latin poem by Henry Archdeacon city-companies, more interesting transactions, 'than our victories in France, author's history.

monarch, inserted along with it, in our and our struggles for public liberty at home. One of Fabian's historical anec

On John king of England, Otho the dotes, under the important reign of Hen- emperor, and. Philip of France, he has

the following lines. ry the Fifth, is, that a new weather-cock was placed on the cross of St. Paul's steeple. “O quam mirabilia, good Lord, thy workes

been It is said* that Cardinal Wolsey commanded many copies of this Chronicle In punyshment of synners by thy myght won. to be committed to the flames, because As by old storyes yt is playnely seen.

dersly it made too ample a discovery of the exceflive revenues of the clergy. The As Alexander, wyth Julius, Pompey, and

One Tynner the other hath correded vtterly, earlier chapters of these childish anpals

Tholomny, faithfully record all thote fabulous tradi. And many other whych as thy scourgys were, tions, which generally supply the place of To punyihe fynners and theym self also dere. historic inonuments in describing the ori

“ In lyke wyse nowe reader, yf thou lyfte take gin of a great nation.”

hyde The following are the correct titles of And well reuolve in mynde thys hystorye the different editions.

Of these thre prynces, and loke well on theyr 1. “ The Newe Crouycles of En

dede, glande and of Fralice." Fol. Pynson. Thou shalte conceyve that they dyd wyckydly. 1516.

I meane kynge John, Phylyppe and Ottooy 2 “ Fabyans Cronycle newly prynted, Whyche vnto fynne made themselfe so thrall, with the cronycle, acies and dedes done That of pope Innocent they were accurfyd all. in the tyme of the reygne of the mofte “ Wherefore god sufferyd that one the other excellent pryace Kynge Henry the vi.”

to greue, Fol. Raftel. 1533.

And warre and chafe wyeh dedely hate and

tryfe.

Glad that one the other to mischeac, * Ejus chronicou exemplatia nonnulla Car. dinalis Wollius in fuo furore comburi fecit: Manaslynge eche other wyth fpere (worde, uod cleri proventus pingues plus satis detex. Wych Cruell butayll durynge they fynfulf erit. Bale. Edit. Bafil. p. 612.

lyfe.

Wherefore

Pranys.

Wherefore I may conclude, in fa&tis horum, Perche wyth goion.
That multa funt flagella peccatorum."

Fysthe sturgeon wyth welkes.
As a speciinen of Fabian's poetry this

Porperies rotted. will probably be fulficient.

Lie is more

Mennes fryed. successful when describing antient man

Creuys de eawe douce. ners. The following is the bill of fare at the coronation dinner for Henry the

Elys rosted wyth lamprey. Fifth's Queen, 420 :

A leche called the whyte leche, flou« For the first course.

ryshed wyth hawthorne leuys and redde Brawne and mutarde.

haivys. Dedellys in Burneux.

A march payene garnysshed wyth dyuers Fruinent wyth Balien,

fygurs of angellys, amonge the whych Pyhe in Erbage.

was fet an inage of faynt Katheryne Lamprey powderyd.

boldynge thys reaton Il ejt ecrit, pur Trongt

voir et eit, per muriuge pure cefi guerre Codlyng

ne dure. And lattiy a' fulyitye pamed a . Plaves fryed

Tigre lokynge in a mirrour, and a man Marlyng fryed

fyltynge on horsebacke clene arined holCrabbys

ding in hvs armes a tyger whelpe wyth Leche loinbard florysthed.

thys reason Par force Janz rejon je ay Tartys.

pruje ceste besie. And wyth hys one ". And a fotyltye called a pellycane hande makynge a countenance of throwsytting on hys nest with her byrdes, and an ynge of myrrours at the great tygre. The image of faynt Katheryne holdyng a boke which held thys reason, Gile ihe mirrour and difputyng with the doctours, holding ma fete vijidur.a reason in her ryghte hande, fayinge his epitaph, in 1511 : Bale

fays, the 28th

He died, according to Stow, who gives Madame le Royne, and the pellycan as an answere Ce est la signe,et du roy, pur tenir of February 1512: and difiers as to the joy, et a tout su gent elle mete la entent.

place of his interment. Bale and Pits, says - The seconde Course.

Bithop Nicholson, tubdivide his works, Gely coloured wyth columbyne flowers. bat I presume the Concordantia Hilto

riarum is the sum of all. (See. Bale, viii. Whyte potage or creme of almandes. Breme of the fee

62. Pits. 690. Tann. Bibl. Brit. Hib. p. Counger

272. Nicholson Engi. Hist. Lib. p. 57. Solys

Ritson's Bibl. Poet. p. 55.)
Cheuen.
Barbyll with Rochie.

Colloquia et Dictionariolum octo Frestle Samon.

Linguarum, Latinæ, Gallicæ, Belgica, Halybut

Teutonica, Hifpanice, Italica, Anglica, Gurnarde

et Portugallicæ." 12. Antv. 1630. Rochet broyled.

In this little volume, the Itrong analogy Smelth fryed.

between the English and the Flemish lanCreuys or Lobster.

guages is curiouiy illustrated. It seems Leche Damalk with the kynges worde to prove that our vernacular tongue is a or prouerbe fourymed Une fun: plus.

nearer relation to the Belgic than the Lamprey freth daken.

German. The comparison is perbaps of Flampeyne flourished with a feschon more importance, as we have but few if royall, and therein, ili, crownes of golde any fragments of the antient Belgic to plantyd wyth floure de lyce and floures of alimilate with the Anglo-Saxon. carnemyle wroughte of confeccions. The following inttances are given

without selection. And a lotyltye named a panter wyth an image of saynie Katheryne wyth a whele

English.

He hath nothing to eat. m ber hande, and a role wyth a reason in

Let it go. that other hande, saying, La Royne mu

Make place there. file, in cefie ile, per bon refoni

, aues renount.

Mechinks that it is good. “ The thyrde Course.

Make all good cheer I pray you. Dates in compost.

How much hath it cost you? Crame motle.

Flemish Carpe deore.

Hy en heeft t'eten. Turbut.

Laet gaen.
Tenche.

Maeckt daer plaetse?
S: 2

My

your book.

My dunckt dat hy goet is..

bieren, ist zu spath: Es ist mir aver genug Maeckt alle good chiere Ick bids u.

dass ich euch probiert hab. Hoe veel hevet u ghecost?

The same passages in the Spanish, German.

Portuguese and other tongues alford tiEr hat nicht zu eflen.

milar opportunities for comparison.
Gebt mir sie her.
Macht hie raum.
Mich dünckt das er gut sey.

For the Monthly Alagazine.

OBSERVATIONS on the NATURAL HISTORY Seydt alle frölich ich bitte euchi Wie veel hat es euch gekoftet?

of LEECHES. A Letter

, taken from the eight chapter T'dered interesting from their well of the first part, may perhaps exhibit the known use in furgery. One species, the fimilarity in a stronger point of view. English.

Niedicinal lecches, (hirudo medicinalis of

Linnæus) are employed for the purpose Peter, my good friend, after all recom

of extracting blood from various parts of mendations, know that I anı very evil content with you, because you would not send me

the human body, where the lancct would I can not think how I have de- be of no avail; and froin foine parts, as served that towards you : now perceive I the gums, to which even cupping-glatles wel that you will doo very little for me, could not possibly be applied. They are when you deny mee so small a matter. in such request in some diitricts of EngYour wordes and thoghtes do not agree well land, that the poor people derive a great one with another: if you had desired mee part of their subhltence from collecting of thinges of much greater importance, I them for sale ; and some plans have been would not have refused you, It is most projected of making ponds for the purpose true that men commonly say: One ought of breeding them. Such ponds, if in alwayes to prove his friendes before hee good fituations, and properly managed, have need of them; for to prove them in would, no doubt, prove extremely lucraneceflitie, that were too late. Therefore it

tive to the owners, is enough for me to have proved you. Flemih.

The body of all the species of leeches, Peeter myn goede vrient, naer alle ghehie. when extended, is long and Nender, but it denissen, weet dat ick ben seer qualyck te

is capable of very considerable dilatation vreden op u, om die fake dat ghy my and contraction. It is composed of a niet en hebt willen leenen uwen boeck. great number of annules, or to speak Ick en kan niet peynsen hoe ickt t'uwaerts more correctly, of circular muscles, which verdient hebbe: nu mercke Ick wel, dat are the principal organs of motion. The ghy foudt doen seer luttel voor my, als ghy surface of the ikin, in the different fpecies, my ontseght foo kleynen duick.

is more or less rough with minute tuberDwoorden ende ghedachten en ghelycken cles. To the touch, however, these tu. niet wel d'een den anderen: dat ghy my ver bercles are scarcely sensible, froin the focht haddet van dinghen van veel meerder circumstance of their being always smeared importancien, ick en soudese u niet ghewey- with a viscous fluid indiffoluble in water, gert hebben. Het is wel waer dat men ge

which transudes from them. By means of meynlyc seyt: Men behoort altoos fyn vrienden te proeven eer dat men se behoeft : this fluid, the progress of the animals, in want die te proeven in den noot, dat waer swimming, as well as in palling through te spade : Dacrom het is my ghenoech u mud, or amongst the carices, reeds, and beproeft te hebben.

other aquatic plants, (about the roots and German.

leaves of which they are cliefly to be Mein guter freund Peter, ich wunsch euch found,) is greatly facilitated. alles guts : willet das ich nit wol zu frieden The head of these animals, in a state bin mit euch, das jhr abgeschlagen habt mir of dilatation, is conliderably less pointed zu leyhen ewer buch. Fürwar ich kan nit than their posterior extremity. They gedencken wie ich solches umb euch verdient hab: jetzt aber merck ich was jhr von

have the power of attaching ihenfches meinent wegen thun würdet, dieweil jhr

to any hard substance, both by their head mihr versagt habt so ein klein dingin Euwer by what precise means this is effected.

and tail; but it is difficult to compreheyd wort vnd gemuth bedüncken mich nicht All we know is, that they form a concazusammen timmen: so jhr begert hettet von mir sachen daran viel mehr gelegen wer, vity beneath each of these extremities; ich wolts euch nicht verfagt haven. Aber es

by which, in the manner of a cupping ift wahr wie dars gemein sprichwort ist; glass, they adhere fo firmly, that in Inme Man sol probieren einen freundt, eche instances their body has been torn alunman fyn bedarff: denn in der noth pro- der, in uttempting to detach then. The

litructure

Structure of the fleshy discus, which per ever, no eyes are to be seen, even with forms the office of sucker, cannot ealily high magnifying powers. be ascertained, for when the skin which If a leech be cut in two, that part covers it is removed, we observe only which contains the head will continue in some minute fibres interwoven in dito life, and, after a time, greater or less acferent directions. In consequence of the cording to the season, will become a new vacuum, formed by the contraction of the animal, dillering in no respect whatever difcus, the animals are fixed by the pref- from others of its species. "It thould apsure of a column of air, corresponding to pear from this fact, and froin fome other their diameter.

obfervations, that leeches increate in lize, They twin like cels, by a serpentine not only by the developement of their motion. When they would change their parts, but likewise by augmentation, that place without fwlinming, they begin by is to tay, that old leeches have a greater fixing their body at one of the extremi number of muscular rings than the young ties, by means of the fucker that termi

ones. nates it. The circular inufcles of the Leeches are furnished with the organs skin then separately act, by which the of both sexes; and are viviparous or probody is elongated, by diniviling its di- duce their offspring alive. 'In the famo ameter. When the free extremity has manner as in the quails, their generative reached the place to which the animal is organs are tituated near the ælophagus. desirous of extending it, it is applied and They usually breed about the beginning made faft to that tpot by the fucker, and of the spring, and as many as seventy becomes the fixed point of a new motion. young leeches have been counted in the The animal, baving now removed the body of an old one. sucker firii made ute ot, draws it, by the Some species of leeches are found in operation of the longitudinal fibres of the alınost all waters; but the greater part of skin, towards the other fucker, and pro- them prefer such as are muddy, and ceeds, in this manner, to fix each extre atford growth to numerous aquatic plants. mity alternately. These motions are ex- They are common throughout the whole ecuted with conliderable rapidity. of Europe, but less fo in the southern than

The mouth is a triangular opening, the northern parts. The duration of their having three tirong and harp teeth, which life has no been ascertained; but, bc meet in the centre, and are capable of Gides the general causes of mortality to piercing not only the human skin, but which they are subject, such as the drying even the tender parts of that of the horse up, but more particularly the putretacor ox. At the bottom of the mouth there tion (during the heats of suminer,) of the is a kind of Aelhy prominence, in which waters that they inhabit, they have many the tube terminates that conveys the enemies, which are in continual pursuit blood from the triple wound, formed by of them for food. These are chiefly difthe teeth, into the stomach of the animal. ferent species of filh and water-fowl; but The ftomach conlitis of a great number there are also numerous larvæ of waterof membranous bags, furnithed with small infects, and even of perfect insects which valves, in which blood has sometimes prey upon them. Even the lecches been known to continue for many inonths theinselves destroy one another. Those without being coagulated. As none of that have been long without food fall, the leeches have more than one principal without mercy, upon such as are gorged, orifice in their bodies, it is extremely and suck out oi their bodies the juices probable, says Morand, who has pub- with which they are replenished. This lithed a Memoir respećting these animals, circumtiance has been particularly rethat all those particles of the blood they marked by Vauquelin and fome other swallow, which do not allist in nourishing naturaliits. their bodies, may pass off by transpira Thele animals will not only fuck the tion, and thus form the viscous Auid blood of each other, and of quadrupeds which exudes through the skin. This and thes, but will taften upon the larvæ fluid may be observed in blackish fila- of infects, and numerous kind of vermes, ments, in water in which leeches are &c. that inhabit the fame waters in which kept.

they live. Whenever they have opporIt appears that leeches respire through tunity, they gorge themselves till their their mouth. The greater part are fur- ftomach will contain no more. On the nished with uryans of vision, varying in contrary, when food is not to be had, nuinber, (according to the species,) froid they are able to support life for many one to cight. In many of them, how- months without receiving any nutriment.

This is particularly the case during blood, on their making the attempt, bewinter, at the commencement of which ing unpleasant to their tatte. The wound they bury themselves deep in the mud; they make out of water, is more fenfible they continue in a semi-torpid state, till than what they make in water; but in the warınth of the entuing spring again the latter cate, particularly when the calls them to life, vigour and activity: water is fomewhat warin, the blood lows

Sea-Salt, tobacco, and in general all more freely. When it is necetlary they kinds of salt and acrid substances, applied thould cease from fucking before they to the furface of their bodies, are fatal to have fully gorged themselves, a finail leeches. Some of these are always quantity of talt, tobacco or snuff, will adopted for destroying such as falien upon caute them to drop off in convullions, and a man or animal, that happens unfor- they soon afterwards die. On tlie contunately to go into waters where they are trary, when it is considered necellary that in great numbers. When forcibly' torn they should draw from the wound more off, they almost always leave in the blood than their stomach will contain, wound some part of their head. In this it is sometimes customary to cut of the case the wound has often been known to posterior extremity of their body, out of fester and become a troublesome fore. which the surplus of bloud will flow as We are informied by Pliny, that Mef- through a tube. salinus, a person of confular digvity, For some years it has at different times even lost his lisc by an accident of this been asserted, that by means of leeches kind..

it is possible to foretell the various Of the leeches employed by surgeons, changes of weather, boib of heat and in phlebotmy, that called the medicinal cold, of rain and fair. The means of leech is preferred to all others. It is; doing this have been variocily laid down. however, by no means true, that the A French clergyman, who attended to black or horse-leech, as it is usually de- this subject for many years, has afferted, nominated, bas any poisonous properties, that a leech kept in a decanter tilsed with notwithstanding the prejudices which, on water in a window, will continue at the this supposition, have long been enter- bottom, without any motion, if the fol. tained against it.

lowing day is about to be ferene and Leeches ought to be collected in the pleasant. If rain is about to fall, before spring of the year, if possible, and thould or after noon, he says, that ibe lille anibe kept in vessels of pure spring water, mal will ascend the tide of the giais, to which must be changed very frequently, the surface of the water, and there conparticularly in summer. If they are very tinue till very nearly the time, when the numerous, they ought to have fresh water fine weather returns; and, previously to as often as twice a day; but if they are the commencement of high winds, that it only in small quantity, once in two days will swim about in the water with great may be fufficient. All the line which rapidity, and will not cease from this moaccumulates upon

their bodies, Mould be tion till the wind begins to blow. At the well cleaned away whenever they are approach of a storn, he informs us, tlat kept in any abundance, otherwise the it will continue entirely out of the water new water will be tainted, and become even for several of the preceding days, prejudicial to them from the moment appearing all the time agitated and refithey are put into it. Violent noises and less. The same perfon, in conclusion, powerful" fmells are alike injurious to asserts, that during frosty weather, the these animals; and on the latter account, leech will continue "alınost mtionless, particularly, an apothecary's or druggist's and, as much contracted as poffibie, at Thop, is one of the worst places in which the bottom of the decanter; and that they can be kept. The person employed always during snow and rain, it will fix in removing them from one vetfel into itself near the mouth of the decanter, and another, should have his hands in every there remain in a ttate of perfect tranrespect as clean as possible.

quillity. There is no great art in applying There can be no doubt, but that the leeches to the body; but a person who is variations which take place in the atmoaccustomed to it, will always do it better sphere, have congderable influence upon than one who is not. In the most ex- these animals; but this influence is by no perienced bands, however, they will means fuch, as always to produce the fometimes refuse to fasten themselves, fame effects upon them. An easy and either from not being hungry at the time, fatisfactory proof may at any time be or from the Surface of the skin, or the bad, by putting four or five leeches into

different

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