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different decanters. It will be found could estimate, he could live for one half that their motions are very uncertain, of the lum. Still, I am of opinion, that and that even fometimes each will afford household expenditure may be more acA diferent indication. No dependance, curately rated at a third only of what it therefore, can be placed in them; and is in England: for new settlers can thele living barometers can defcrve to be scarcely be supposed to have become facontidered as little better than playthings miliar, in fo thort a time, with all the for children.
ways and means of getting things at the It inay not be improper, at the conclu- cheapest rate; particularly in Poland, fou of this article, to describe the specific where they must be continually liable difference which exists between the me to the extortion of the Jews. Beides, dicinal leech, and the horse-leech, fince, from my own observation, I mult rate. from the circumtiance of their inhabiting domestic expences lower. At respectable the fame waters, and being nearly of the hotels in Warsaw, no more than about a fame lize, they are frequently confounded thilling is paid for a dinner, though noby ignorant people.
thing be erpected to be drunk afterwards. The medicinal leech is of a blackish I tpeak now of a commım table, it is true; brown colour, marked along its upper but it is well and abundantly furnished, part with several lines of yellow dots, is attended by people of respectability, extending from one end of the body to and a billiard-table itands in an antiroom. the other. The under part of the body What I conjectured, or rather what is usually somewhat lighter, and marked I stated with a full conviction in my
fewith yellowith spots. The principal cond paper relative to the difficulty of characteristic, however, conlilts in the maintaining large armies in Poland, has dotied lines.
been recently verified by a ftatement in The horie-leech is nearly of an uniform one of the French bulletins, which affirms black colour, except on the under part, that beef is half a crown a pound at Warwhich is of a cinereous green, and faw; that is, it is risen to ten times its usually marked with black 1pots.
cultomary price. February, 1807. W. BINGLEY. The manufactures of Poland are very
few and incontiderable, consisting chiefly
of the coarse linen cloth worn by the For the Alonthly Magazine.
peasants. The late King established, in PARTICULARS of the PRESENT STATE 1776, at Grodno, the principal of town
of POLAND, by an ENGLISH GENTLE- of Lithuania, manufactories of cloth, MAN, recently returned from that camlets, linens, cotton, tilks, stuffs, &c. COUNLRY, after a RESIDENCE in it of Of the tate of these ettablithments I can
give no distinct account: for, of Russian THE price of provisions in Poland Poland, I know absolutely nothing from partition; but as money has increased in There is, in Galicia, one manufactory proportion, no complaints are made of of earthenware and of porcelain; and dearth. The ordinary price of the best the china it produces is futficiently neat, Thambles-meat is about three-pence a though there is no approach to elegance. pound, Englidlı money; whereas betore These are perhaps the only manufactories the two laić divilions, it was often at a in Poland of any articles above what penny, and never exceeded three half- my be considered as absolutely necefpence. The molt intelligible statement, fary in every country, that has the smallI could probably give relative to this to- eft" claim to the epithet of civilized. pic is the following :-The Count Za. Hence the price of all manufactured armoylki, wheu in England, three or four ticles is extremely high. A hat of the years ago, took over with hiin several value of a guinea in England will cort English mechanics, and among the reft an equivalent to a guinea and half in Poa porter-brewer of fome respectability. land. The faine proportion takes place Happening to see the last of these per- in the two countries, in the price of a fons, when be had kept house in the coun- yard of cambric, for which I have also try about six months, I enquired of him paid a guinea and half. A coat, of which what were the average expences of his the cloth may be bought separately, and liviny? He said, it was difficult if uot im- made by a dirty Jew in an insignificant poffible to live so well in Poland as in Polith town, will coit little less than five England, though there should be no want guinens. Other articles of dress are in of the means; but that, as nearly as he proportion.
The manufactures of England are in tion, the peasants constitute a large magreat requisition, notwithstanding the jority. prohibitions wbich existed, before the ar A Polinha peasut is short in ftature, rival of the French, against their impor- and appears as it stinted in his growth. tation. You cannot enter a fhop in any He bas suall grey eyes, a thort nole, large town, but every thing of this de- generally foniewhat turned up; hair in scription is English, even to an ordinary general approaching to yellow, though it tilk purse. Of course, this cannot be sometimes inclines to a darkish colour; always, though it is frequently, true. his coinplexion is also of a yellow hue; I bad occasion to buy a bat at Lem- his general aspect dull and dejected; his berg. The naine of the maker, of the gait heavy and devoid of life. Sull, the street in London, and number where he Poles affert that he may be drilled into lived, were all distinctly noted on a label; a very good foldier. The peasant wobut from fome particular and decisive men are usually very short, and squat. marks, I could not hesitate a moment to From their extreme dirtiness and geneconclude that the hat had never been in ral unsightliness, nothing in the form of England.
woman can be conceived less lovely. I Prade almoft of every description is, have never seen in a young peasant girl, for the most part, conducted by Jews. In even when clean and neal, the flightest all the large towns, and indeed in the approach to beauty, small ones, their thops are not only the The dress of the peasants consists molt numerous, but the best. Thiele ihops chiefly in a coarse upper garment of a have their emiffaries, who are interior dark reddish colour, more like a mantle Jews, and whole business it is to loiter than a coat, which reaches below the about the town, and particularly about knee, and is confined round then with a the hotels and taverns to collect cuf- girdle. This, in winter, is lined with tomers. A stranger no fooner arrives at Theep-lkins. They have befides, a little an hotel, than he is accosted by some fur-cap, and a few other articles of dress, dirty Jew, who will even enter his apart- all of the coarsest materials. The dress ment without ceremony, and is ready, of the peasant women is scarcely to be on a favourable answer, to conduct him analysed, at least by a man. When they to the shop of his employer. It is cu are dressed on a Sunday, it is tawdry berious to see the officious eagerness, the yond description, consisting of a great persevering importunity, the unceasing variety of different colours, as in patchwatchfulness of every motion of the work, of which, however, red is the prestranger, which distinguish these emiffary dominant one. When thus accoutred, Jews, and the alacrity with which they they look as if inade up for scarecrows. lead the way, when they have gained In lummer, the women have nothing on their point. The Shops even in Warsaw but a mere fhift and an under-petticoat, make but little exterior display. Those which extends scarcely below the knees; which are abundantly furnished with va- and are commonly without shoes or luable goods, have windows of inconli- stockings. derable dimensions.
Their diet is very scanty. They have There are many Jews, who have even rarely any animal food; their best ohtained farms of the nobles. One of things are their milk and poor cheese, these was pointed out to me at Dantzic, which they have in sufficient abundance; who was relident there for a time to sell but the Itaple of their diet is the coarse his corn. He had divested himself, how- rye bread I have before inentioned, and ever, of his beard, and of the black robe which I have attempted in vain to fivaldistinctive of his order.
low. The general population of Poland is The political condition of this wretchstated at 15 millions. It was thus efti- ed race of beings, is still more degrading mated before the last partition : but the to human nature. I have before given nobles are fond of thinking that it has some account of a Polith farın; and have declined lince that event. The accounts now to add a few particulars, as conof others, however, who may be fup- nected with the subject of the peasantry. posed less interested in the independence When a farmer rents a farm, the villages of the country, do not confirm their opi- situated on it, with their inbabitants, ure nion ; nor, from the various marks of im- considered as included in the bargain; provement discoverable, particularly in and the farmer derives a right to the lache Prullian part, would a Itranger be led bour of the peasantry for the cultivation to such a conclufion. Or this popula- of that farm. The relation between the
peasant and the landholder is this–On him. I stood at a distance, and perceived the marriage of a young peafant, his that he did not yield to their supplicaLord alligny him a certain quantity of tion. When he had dismissed them, I land, luthcient for the maintenance of had the curiosity to enquire the object bimfeif and family, in the poor manner of their petition; and he replied, that in which they are accutiomed to live. they had berged for an increaled alloiva Should the fainily be numerous, they ance of land, on the plea that what they have tonne increase of land. At the same had was insufficient for their fupport. time they obtain also a few cattle, as a He added, “ I did not grant it them; becow or two, with fieers to plow their cause their present allotment is the usual land. There are fed in the Itubble, or quantity; and as it has tutliced bitherto, in the open places of the woods, as the lo it will for the time to come. Belides, seafon admits. In contideration of these (laid he) if I give them more, I well grants, the peasant makes a return to the know, that it will not, in reality, better landholder, of one half of his labour; their circumstances.” that is, he works three days in the week Poland does not furnish a man of more for his Lord, and three for himself. If humanity than the one who rejected this any of his caitle die, they are replaced by apparently reasonable petition. But it the matter; a circunstance which ren- mult be allowed, that he had good reasons ders bim negligent of his little herd, as for what he did. Those degraded and the death or loss of some of them is a wretched beings, instead of hoarding the cornmon occurrence.
small surplus of their absolute neceslities, Thus, though the Polish boors are not are almost universally accustomed to exa attached to the foil, in the feudal sense of pend it in that abominable spirit which the tern, and ablolutely subject to the they call schnaps. It is incredible what will of the Lord like brute beasts; yet, quantities of this pernicious liquor is they are till transferred as a part of the drank both by the peasant men and woItock of the etiate on which they live to
men! I have been told, that a woman every frell purchaser or tenant. They will frequently drink a'pint and even are not prrvileged to quit the soil, except more, at a fitting, and that too in no in a few inllances of complete entran- great length of time. I have myself often chisement; and if they were, the privi- leen one of these poor women led home lege would be merely noninal: for between two men, fo intoxicated as to be whither thould they go? No landholder unable to stand; there can be no querwould adınit a fugitive peasant, through tion, that the excessive use of this whisky fear of encouraging a spirit of difaitec- (were it not to libel whisky tbus to file tion. It is not in their power, from the it) ought to be enumerated anong the circumstances of their condition, to sell chief proximate causes of the deficient their labour indifferently to this or that population of Poland. It is indeed to master; and if such obstacles did not op- contidered by the Poles; and Count pose, the very extent of the Polish farins, Zamoyski has lately established a porterand the consequent want of a second brewery in Galitzia, in the hope of checkcontiguous employer, would suffice in ing eventually to hurtful a habit, by the most cases to preclude a change of maf- fubstitution of that wholelesome beverters.
It is said, that a few of the peasants The farmers are intermediate between improve the little stock which is com the nobles and the peasants. They are mitted to their management, accum a respectable class of men; and have free lating some small property; but their access to the noble's table. Hence, they conduct is far more frequently marked by fometimes acquire a degree of polish sucarelessness and want of forecast. Belides, perior to what is usually found among it does pot appear, that their allowance English farmers, though teufold more of land and cattle either is, ordetigned to opulent. The situation of a farmer, be, more than enough for their scanty therefore, has fomne peculiar advantages; maintenance. I was once on a thort and it is accordingly, the highest object of journey with a nobleman, when we stop- anbition to a young Pole, not of indeped to bait at the farm-house of a vila pendent fortune, to get the lease of a lage, as is common in Poland. The pe.- good farm; when he establishes himself in fants got intelligence of the presence of life, in the best manner which Poland adtheir Lord, and assembled in a body of mits. As a first step, however, to the twenty or zbirty to prefer a petition to obtainment of a farm, it is often the cale, MONTHLY MAG. No. 156.
that a young man becomes connected I had seen. There were several rooms with a nobleman's family in some official larger than ordinary, well whitewashed, capacity, and turns farmer only when he and the furniture and general appearance marries. But even his marriage does not sufficiently neat and commodious; yet necessarily preclude his continued con- it was built folely of wood. It had also nection with the family; for thould his a spacious garden, fenced by a woodeu services be deemed of lutficient conse- enclosure, and laid out into walks, &c. quence, a contiguous abode is provided I have been thus particular in my achim.
count of this purchase, because this lingle The houses of the farmers are com- instance furnishes a striking proof, how monly built of wood, and have merely certainly manufactures are followed by a ground-floor. On the exterior, they opulence and improvement. are, in every point of view, humble, very
often in appearance; the in- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. terior is occasionally somewhat better ;
SIR, though an Englishman looks in vain for
N your very useful and entertaining any thing like comfort. There are usually two or three ordinary rooins white
rary and Philofophical Varieties, I obwalhed, though one only serves, for the serve announced, certuin booksellers of molt part, as a litting-room. The floors London have undertaken to publish a are sometimes of earth only, but more splendid and coftly edition of Hollinthead, frequently planked. A bed almost al- which they intend to follow by timilar ediways stands in every room, fometimes tions of others of the early Chronicles of though rarely with curtains. The only England. It strikes me as very lingular, double bed, however, is that for the that they should have made fuch a grand malier and mistress of the fainily; and mistake, as to begin at the wrong end, which stands in the principal.room; the and prefer Hollinjhead, who was only a others are mere couches for single per- compiler, and not an original author (ex'fons, placed in the corners.
cept what he relates in his own time. ) midst of all these homely appearances, It has been long lamented we have you are much, though equally, surprized had no Gibson to tranllate our Saxon auat seeing the table set out with confi- thors or manuscripts; all our modem derable neatness, and abundantly fup- publications on antiquities are most miplied with good things. Every plate is ferably poor, ánd extremely unsatisfac-. furnished with a napkin and a filver tory. fork; the courses are almost as numer The whole Society of Antiquarians hare ous, and follow the same order as in the never dared to publish our Saxon Chrohouse of a nobleinan, froin which the nicles, but continue to go on working whole is obviously imitated. There is like moles blindfold for the good of the some little incongruity in all this, it must general readers of Englith history. I be owned; but incongruities of this de- with you would recommend through your fcription are abundant in Poland.
useful Magazine, the early tranllation To give the reader fome idea of the into English, of all our Saxon manovalue of land in Poland, I hall mention scripts now lying dead and useless in the a purchase, with the particulars of which British Museum. I happened to be made acquainted. The I am fully persuaded, Sir, were they manufacturer of porcelain, above-men- translated into English, and printed in a tioned, had become rish enough to have neat, but not splendid or erpenjive fiyle, a quantity of superfluous capital, which that 6000 copies would be told before a he was desirous of velling in the folid twelvemonth. property of land. Accordingly, he pur In every gentleman's house I go into chaled an estate, for which he gave about in the country, it seems to be the gene two thousand pounds sterling. The ex- ral with and delire. The foundation of aćt number of acres it is not in my our history at present is fo obscured and power to fiate; but from the informa- clouded, that no man can tell whom to tion of a gentleman present who had been believe on the subject of our bittory prior in England, I learnt, that the whole to the Conquest. must be about two thousand acres, half Apologizing for the trespass on your of which, however, was in forest. The time, I remain with great respect, house on this eitate was the largest and AN ENGLISH READER OF ENGLISX the bett, exclusive of those of the nobles,
CONCERNING A WAR-WHOOP.
To the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. occupies the space in immediate contact SIR,
with the floor. The fireman crawls then We created bicorn freouently, of perfons into the base on his hands and knees, ing theintelves by leaping out of win- close to the floor as pollible; and in this dow when a house is on fire, for want of manner he will go and return to any the means of etcape, that I feel it my part of the premises not actually in duty to mention a timple contrivance flames. A knowledye of this practice which I have for many years adopted, cannot hut be of extenlive use to the and which enables me to fleep in se- community, and I know no means of curity.
conveying it with such effect and author I provide tiro or three of my cham, rity as the Monthly Magazine. bers with a moderateig stout rope, such
Common SENSE. as may be bought for a shilling or eigh. London, March 28, 1807. teen-pence; I tie knots in them, and fallen one end either to a bed-post, to a
For the Monthly Magazine. strong faple, or any other suitable fixe ture. In case of fire, and of my inabilicy to escape froin the lower part of the THERE are not words in our lanboule, either of these ropes thrown out
guage which have so often been of a window, would enable me or iny written in letters of blood, as No Pue faudy to ip down it. The knots would pery. aflord us retiing places for the hands and Henry VIII. put to death Sir Thomas feet; and children and intirm perfons More, l'ither, the bilhop of Rocheiter, might be let down by means of a run and numberleis inferior victims, that we ning noole, with which I always provide might have No Popery. the lower end of the rope.
Under Edward' vi. Cardinal Beaton If from inattention, for I cannot sup- was allallinated in Scotland; Tonttal, pole the practicability of the means will and other English bishops, were impriLe doubted, or the expence of the ropes foned, persecuted, plundered, and rebe begrudged, boules on fire are unpro- duced to mifery, that we might have No vided with this fimple means of escape, Popery. Leait this barbaric zealotry i is the duty of all he neighbours, fhould be called anti-religious; Joan of without delay or solicitation, to bring Kent was burit alive for denying the out and strew under the windows of the miraculous conception, and Vanparis house on fire, all their feather beds and for denying the divinity of Christ. Not mattrelles, till the family are in secu- from antipathy ayainte intolerance had rity.
the cry been railed of No Popery. BuIn communicating these precautions to cer was the grand contriver of the docthe public, relative to the means of ef- trine, the liturgy, and the discipline of cape from fire, I consider it very im- the church of England. He fired from a portant to wake known to the world a double battery at Papist and Unitarian, means of escaping fuification in a room declaring from the pulpit, that Cathofilled with smoke. It is practised by the licin ought to be exterminated, and that. fireinen in the metropolis, with a degree Servetus ought to bave his bowels torn of success and address which has en Yet this man, whom our lawgivers titled them to the name of Salamanders. einployed to accommodate their statutes If a house were on fire, so that no or to No Popery, was boni a Jew, and died dinary person could venture into any part a Jew. of it without suffering immediate futfo Qucen Mary had the spirit and the cation, and its owner wished to rescue power to retaliate on the reformers. Atfrom the danes any precious object, an ter the victory of her adverfaries, the experienced London tirenian will ex- acquired the epithet bloody, for rivalling tricate it without hesitation or hazard. Catharine dei Medici in cruelty of into
He effects this by means of a prin- lerance. Her motto was No Bucerisi. ciple well known in the science of pneu Elizabeth was not bloody. She prematics, but which the intellectual ferrect stilling and strangling to beheading powers of man would never apply a and burning. She itopped the breath of priori to such a combination of circum one hundred and seventy-five Catholic tances. The heat, finoke, and unre- prieits, and of five Catholic women, Spirable air, ascend to the upper parts whose crime was no other than teaching of the room, and a stream of pure air their hereditary religion in England.