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The act against papal supremacy having again, as of old, an animation to input the magiltrate above the church ; justice, to plunder and to violence. what was forinerly called heresy, was About 1790, the Irish Catholics began now to be called treason. These vic- their applications to the legislature for a tims were hypocriticaily said by the repeal of the laws to their prejudice.-church to fütter for trenfon. No de- The refusal of this emancipation, again struct on of a hostile prietthood so exten- accompanied with the outcry of No Pow sive ever took place in any Catholic pery, has occafioned, before our own country. It has been rivalled in our own eyes, a long and bloody civil war in Iretimes by the atheistic persecution of the land, distinguished for inhumanities more French Convention. The names of the atrocious than even the crusade against pricsts executed by the Church of Eng- the Albigenfes. Iridh Catholics have land, between 1570 and 1602, inay be been half-banged, half-flogged to death, read in detail in Caulfield's History of pushed with the pike-ita:f indiscriminately the Gunpowder-plot. Thus Elizabeth from the bridge into the river; thut up realized her will for No Popery.

in barns and burned alive in bands; and James overlooked with magnanimity still the whoop of savage triumph was No the inferior ramifications of the powder- Popery. plot: with fuch a pretext for intolerance, If there be men, who glory in such there was virtue in his forbcarance. He deeds, who would again aroule fimilar left to the vulgar the cry of No Popery. pallions, and make Ireland once more

The vulgar took it up; and under the taughter-field of religious massacre, Charles I. used the cry of No Popery, let them pronounce aloud, and write upto bring a king into diffepute, who felt on our walls, these words of death ; but liberally toward the Catholics. All the let focietybeware of such, If they fould seditious efforts of the Puritans, which be found too numerous and too ftrong to produced so long a civil war, and fo con be ruled by the civil power, and chaftized spicuous a judicial regicide, were cover- by the courts of justice; the friends of ed by that Protestant ihield which Eliza- huinanity and tolerance muli again resort beth had inscribed with the deadly words to such a social interdict, as Saint AmNo Popery.

brose of Milan carried into execution After the Restoration, the religion of against Theodofius, and the barbaric Bucer, and the double intolerance of ruftians who ubeyed him. The funile of the magistrate, returned. Popith plots greeting mutt be withheld in the fireet, were invented or detected. An act of and the cup of hospitality denied at uniformity plundered the diffenting home to the partizans of a murderous inclergy of an oppofite defcription. tolerance. Those churches and conven

James II. was expelled by the cry of ticles must be shunned with public loNo Popery: all the civil wars of the Re- lemn indignation, where the preacher is volution had for their most specious pre- heard to justity any partial oppreflion of text the preservation of No Popery. the common children of Chriit. It is in

William III. and the two firit Georges, the power of public opinion, would it not having been brought up in the reli- pronounce itself with energy, if not to gion of Bucer, acquired the tolerant atonc for its long injustice, at leali to spirit of foreign Proteftanitin. Under prepare a more equitable futurity. them, the temper of the Englith people was much foftened and liberalized.

In this present reign, the American To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. war seenis first to have revived froin their SIR, which had agitated and disgraced our

OBSEE YON Gadebe invited Miculine

you rather difcuffion ancestors, and defolated our common on Mr. Whitebread's new Parochial Bill, country. The cry of No Popery was I cannot help mentioning a few particustill undersiood by the multitude to be an lars, that, in reflecting on the heads of the expression of abhorrence against that intended bill given by that Gentleman, high-church party, which had protected have struck me; and though I would not Charles I. and opposed the Revolution. be thought to have a worfe opinion of Hence, during the riots of 1780, which the lower classes than they deserve, nor were in fact the work of a whig mob, and would I favour that syftem of oppreffion were infpired more by hatred of the mi- and inhumanity fo often employed in nistry than of the Catholics, No Popery houses of industry, yet as labour ought to was the popular watcl-word: and it was be enforced among the poor, and this

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being impoflible in large parishes where and this knowledge, so necessary to a due they are dispersed over several miles of execution of the ottice, is rendered more country, surely it is desirable that there difficult by the prevailing mode in most hould be some spot, where employment large parishes of electing to the office of may be had for them, and where their overseer, every new comer into the town; united labours may produce something who is doubly unqualified for it, both on towards their own fupport, which can account of his utter ignorance of the fifeldom be done unless they are collected; tuation of the poor, and the plans of his and therefore I think that a law prevent- predecessors if they had any : add to this, ing any new houses of that fort from be- that he must be butily occupied in aring established, which I fear is a part of ranging and improving his new situation, Mr. W.'s plan, will be wrong. No doubt and consequently can afford little linie such infticutions have been established for his parochial labours; so that a perwhere there was no need of them, and manent directory, such as is establiihed many of them are badly managed, but in many parishes where there is a house no man of understanding will urge this as of industry, in which nine or twelve dian arguinent against their general utility: rectors are chosen, three of whom go undoubtedly parishes ought well to confi- out of office annually, and three more are der the necellity, propriety, and proba- chofen, would be infinitely preferable. bility of fuccess of fuch an inftitution, Another subject intimately connected before they proceed to petition the with the parochial system, is the great House for leave to incorporate, and erect. abuse of the charities which have been Such is the itate of the poor in fome left from time to time, to various de parishes where no such houses are, that fcriptions of poor. Let a foreigner go into unless their employers will give them our churches and read the tablets which their price for such labour as they choose record the various benefactions and doto engage in, the answer has been, “No, nations left for the poor, and he will be we will not work at that price, we will astonished that any complaint should fobaer go to the parish." This was an arise of the heavy burden of the poors' answer made in this borough by a wo- rates: but let him attempt to trace those man to an offer of 1s. per day to plant charities from their source, and he will beans; now, where houses of induftry find them make a very devious course, have been established, the poor are glad and, instead of reaching at last the neto be employed, and receive their wages cellitous cottage, and adminiftering rewith thankfulness.

liet' to its inhabitants, he will find them The prosperous state of the manufac pampering the rich. tories in fome of those houses, and the Whether a revision of the Charities improved morals of the poor in others, should, or can with propriety form a part muight fairly be urged in the behalf of of Mr. W.'s bill, I leave to that gentle fuch inftitutions, but I think that there man; but certainly it is a matter that exists a ftronger plea for them than those, needs revision, and regulation, as much namely, neceflity; for till by education, as any part of the parochial system whator fome other mode, that spirit of in- ever. dependence heretofore existing in the Evesham, Your's &c. breasts of the lower claffes can be again Murch 5, 1807.

J. COLLETT. infufed into them, houses of industry will be found absolutely necessary, especially To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. in large towns where there is no esta SIR,

were

R.

excite, the attention of humane stimulant to exertion; and to aid in people, of which number, no doubt many preventing that fyftem of fraud and pecu- of your readers are; indeed it seems, by lation, fo fuccessfully carried on by the its being printed and circulated, that it more crafty among the poor; in which was intended fo to do. No people, Mr. the parifh officer is the dupe of their too Editor, see more of the condition and Joften feigned tales of milery and distress : sufferings of the poor than medical men,

for in many parishes it is utterly impof- of which profession I am; and if they ble for the overseer, during the thort pe have had the regular education they riod of his office, to get acquainted with ought to have, there are few people who half the poor he has to superintend; or are better qualified to investigate the

der their real stution, unlefs cause of them than they are. There is a The entirely neglects his own bufinefs : propriety too in treating the subject of

Mr.

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only ereéted in terrorem, or by way of Me Waitbread's bill will naturally

[graphic]

more.

Mr. Whitbread's bill in the manner phy- it is evident, that the husbandmen proficians usually treat dileares. His Tube duce the neceflaries of lite for themject matter is the diseale of the confiitu. felves and the other two claties; and in tion of the state, as theirs is the difuate proportion as their number is fufficient or defect of the contiitution of the indi- or not, fo are the whole people well or viduals of it.

ill provided. It is natural to fuppose The general method of writing among that the people, if no caule preventing physicians, is firii to ascertain the caule them intertered, would in the first place of the disease, and then to direct me- apply labour futhicient to produce the thods, suitable to that cause. Now what necetlaries of lite, a want of wbich ocis the cause of the wrciched situation of cations much greater sutiorings to them, the poor, which Mr. Whitbread is fo me- than the deticiency of the other proritorioutly employed in endeavouring to ductions of their industry. We mult alleviate? It is confefled to be a scarcity therefore, enquire into the cause of this of the neceflaries and common comforts unnatural diversion of the indutry of of life; that is, an infitticiency of ani- mankind from the production of those mal and vegetable food, of warm and the moli indifpenfable of all human clean clothing, bedding, houlis, &c. Mr. things. Malthus, who is not allogether an un “For this purpose it is to be observed, suspected friend of that order, afeits that in the hands of some persons in the that this scarcity produces want, mitery, latt class in the above divibon of the peoand mortality, in to great a degree, as to ple, all the lands of the nation are vertdestroy fuine hundred thoulands annual- ed; in others, the cattle avd corn railed ly, even in England. Many more, no on them; in others, the raw materials, doubt, who have efcaped with their lives, tools, machinery, &c; in others, the goods fulier in the itruggle, and wave their con now manufactured, and stored Relale; ftitutions impaired.

Hee ten is the and so on. In the hands of those, or of cause of the diteate, or rather the dif- fome other claf of the rich, all those eale itself, which we are to letlen or re- things are collecied, and by the laws

But this scarcity muli have some there firmly secured, which the poor cause; we muli, therefore, enquire what man fiends in need of, and are necetary it is that occafions this scarcity of the to the support of his existence The neceflaries of life. We know that the perfons in pofletion of those things, hold necessaries of life are the joint produce them out to the poor labourer, saying, of the land, and the labour bestowed on If you will labour for me in such and it, and the latter is as neceflary as the such a way, I will give you out of those former to the production of them: the things such as you stand in need of : but spontaneous produce of the earth would unless you will do those things which I suitain few inhabitants. In all cases of require of you, you thall have none of scarcity where the land is in sufficient them. Ilence there is an absolute nequantity, the requisite quantity of labour cellity, under the penalty, the heavielt must be wanting, and be the cause of the of all penalties, namely, the privation deficiency. It is allowed, that there is of such things as are necessary to bis and land more than sufficient to fultain its his family's exiltence, for his submitting inhabitants in great Britain; the labour to do the things thus imposed on liim ta only therefore that is employed on it, do. muit be deficient there. The cause then “ And as the quantity of the necesa of this deficiency must in the next place faries of life that are or can be cunbe fought for.

sumed by the rich are limited, and in In every civilized nation, the people the purchasing of which a finall part only of it may be divided into three clafles; of their wealth can be expended; the the firii class contains those that labour surplus they are nnturally inclined wlay on the land in producing the necetluries out in procuring the conveniencies, the of life; the second those who work on the elegancies, and the luxuries of life. manujactures; the third, those ubodu 110- These are the produce of the more refined thing. The manufacturers may be subo manufactures of different kinds; and for divided into those who work on the ma- those they are inclined to give a greater mutactures which are jublervient

to price, contidering their wealth would be agriculture, and the other coarse ones, of liide ute to them, if it procured only such as the poor themselves make use of the neceffaries: hence a much greater and as to those who work on the retined proportion of their incomes is cupended miunuluctures used only by the rich. Now on tore refined articles; of courie A

greater

The re

greater proportion of the labouring times palliate the sufferings of individual hands are forced to apply their industry patients, when we cannot atlect the in the various fine manufactures in canle of them; but in the cale of the which only they can get employ. By diseases of luciety, we can act only these means, hands are drawn off power- through the medium of the carife What fully from agriculture, and such coarse but the necetiaries of life can supply the manufactures as produce the things which want of the nccettaries of lite? I know chey themselves make use of."*

of nothing that can give a temporary We have at length arrived at the whole relief even to the craving of hunger, oc caule of the evil, namely the diverting of the faint and uncomfortable feelings in the people from working on the land and the stomach, occalioned by a mcagre and the coarte manufactures; by which only watery diet, but tnult, tobacco, and lpie can be produced the neceslaries of rituous liquors; and whether there hite, and other things, the want of which, hould be prefcribed, may be left to the even according to Mr. Malthus, who is judgment of other people as well as to fu much applauded by Mr. !Vhitbread, jhyticians. caules all the misery and inortality we i thall not go to any length in my oly see; and it need not be oblerved that, if servations on the particular means Mr. this truly be the real, fole, immediate Whitbread has proposed. Some of them and emncient cause of the evil, nothing seem to be calculated rather for the eafshort of the removal of it can produce ing the contributors to the poor-raies, any confiderable amendment in the con than for the benetit of those who ltand dition of the poor. Other methods, if in need of their contributions. attempted, may amuse and quiet the wards proposed to be given to the poor people for a time, but they cannot be people who bring up a family without proposed by a man, who acts with fince- the atliktance of the parishi, ought, in my rity and uprightneis, as radical, or in any opinion, to have no iniluence on the poor devree material remedies for the evils of parents. The poor man thould endeathe poor. The means proposed by Mr. vour to get what he can by his laWhibread bave no direct tendency to

bour for lus family, and belides that, remove them; their operation is circui- thould get what he can from the parild ; tous, weak, and of inconliderable ettect; both being by far too little to bring up and, what is worse, they seem to give us

his children in health and vigor, and to to untertiand, that they are the only re- prelerve them in any great proportion inedies that the case admits of; and that from premature death. If he abitains Do more effectual ones are within the froin applying for parish atillance, out of feuch of human power : the real caule pride, or with a view to the reward of and obvious remedy of the evils not be- tered, he greatly injures his offspring. To boy brought forward.

Jave can only be done properly, where The wants of the poor being so great there is a luperHuity: If the poor fave, as they are allowed to be, nothing Thort they lave for the rich, to the prejudice of plovical obtiacles to the removal of of themselves and their children. If the caufe of them; or the want of phy- there are no favings, there will be no octical means for supplying them; ought to cation for banks; to that proposal thereprevent immediae and ellectual endea- fore I say nothing. vours for their relier. We have fertile I have no very great expectations land in fufficient quantity; and there from the education of poor children, are no physical obtiacles to the employ- which Nir. Whitbread recommends. The ment of a fufficient quantity of labour on learning to read when youny, is of very it

. That these phytical rehedies for the little advantage, if, in after life, they have fulenings and mortality of the people are

not leisure to read sutiiciently to improve present and in our power, is a solid and their understandings. rarional ground of confolation, and thould

Charles Hail. bu a nolive of gratitude to their author; Turislock, March 14, 1807. but that it should be rendered inefiectual by man, is a ground for grief and com

For the Monthly Magasine. pleint to those who are the futierers by

SCARO In medical practice we

CARCELY any subject involving the can some

general interests of mankind bas

occupied to large a portion of attention, Eifcus of Civilization on the People in and been attended with lo little fuccels, the European Stacca. 8vo. Oltell.

as that of making provision for the poor

and

and aged. The only advance hitherto an equitable basis; and if it be so formed, made is, that all persons agree in the tim- it can hardly fail to pronote the general ple and abstract conclufion,' that some- good, unless there be foine radical defect thing must be done. Ages have rolled in the order and conftitution of things, over ages, and every expedient has to which renders human diligence and incompletely miscarried, that the difticul- genuity unavailing. ties are greatly encreased by the labour The nature of the theories hitherto that is now required to repair the mif- acted upon may be examined in detail chiefs, and to restore things to the state by tracing the effects of the numerous they were in when the task was first cn- inititutions that they have given birth to. tered upon. In England, at least as Whatever special facts it may be neceffar as pecuniary exertions could be nc- fary to ascertain relative to each indiviceflary, they have been cheerfully given, dually, it would be neceffary with regard and both the legitlature and people have to them all, to inquire into their objects, patiently watched the operations of this their means, their management, and their kind of aid. Difcuffions of the most cri- progrets; whence it would be ealy to de tical and judicious ability have rivetted termine the exact value of the comfort the mind to the subject during the long difpenfed, and the proportion it bears to interval, and the relult of the whole in- the fums expended in procuring it. Such quiry seems to be, that a great proportion a subject is suited to the community at of all classes are now determined to agi- large. Whether influenced by the calcutate the practical and important question. lating fpirit of commerce, the fpeculaWhat it is that ought to be, and can be tive ipirit of philosophy, or the frank and done?

generous spirit of man-all must confider A subject of greater magnitude cannot themselves somehow or other interested be fuggelied, and even the mode of ma- in the fund of national comfort, and be naging the inquiry is of material confe- desirous of knowing whether the funis quence. To determine without a recapitu- employed in its purchase båre been fo lation of all the ascertained facts, will be applied, as to have procured as much as to flight the advantages of experience, if they had been direcied any other way. and to postpone the decision, until the With a delign 'to place the subject in mind becomes confused amidít a variety as clear a point of view as pollible, every of confiderations, will perhaps be to fol- degree of information thould be laid before low an error already too prevalent, and the public that can be obtained relative to adhere to a systematic courle of evils to the different benevolent ellablithments, which can hardly be aggravated by any and the most impartial publicity given fort of mistake.

to every fact calculated to fulve the difIt must afford general satisfaction to ficult problem-How can the general see the natter taken up by perious whose welfare be increased, without the comcalents and respectability will give fort of individuals being facrificed? weight to their recommendations; but it is one of those cases which call for the To the Editor of the Monthly Magasine. energies of the whole population, and SIR, extenlive research. A few auxiliary the I

greatly againit me, in conteuding in questions may also be agitated with very your Magazine with your correspondent, considerable advantage—as, Whether the « Common Sense;" but there are fume wealth and happiness of society be en- positions in his leiter on Mr. Whitbread's creased by the poverty and wretchedness plan, (see Monthly Magazine for April, of its members? Whether the principle 1807, page 219,) which, I think, are of justice may not be too much relaxed, fraught with fo much mischief, thai, noland the principle of charity too exten- withstanding the popularity of bis opfively adopted and, Whether in the nions, and the esteem in which he is beld foundation of previous institutions, suffi- by the greater number of your readers, cient care has been taken to distinguish I muti beg your permiflion to state a few betwcen natural and social poverty? objections to him. Upon a careful investigation of those The introductory observation of your points, the success of any new system will correfpondent I pafs over as irrelevant to in a great degree depend; for it is im- the subject; for whatever light be may poflible that in the present improved lave derived from Mr. Whitbread's Rate of society any eftablishment can be speech, he certainly has not reflected a of long duration, uulefs it be formed upon tingle ray ot' it, by his letter to you;

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