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The act against papal fupremacy having again, as of old, an animation to ipput the magistrate above the church; justice, to plunder and to violence. what was formerly called heresy, was About 1790, the Irish Catholics began now to be called treason. These vic- their applications to the legislature for a tims were hypocriticaily said by the repeal of the laws to their prejudice.church to füffer for trenfon. No de- The refusal of this emancipation, again struction of a hostile priesthood so exten- accompanied with the outcry of No Posive ever took place in any Catholic pery, has occafioned, before our own country. It has been rivalled in our own eyes, a long and bloody civil war in Iretimes by the atheistic persecution of the land, distinguished for inhumanities more French Convention. The names of the atrocious than even the crusade against priests executed by the Church of Eng- the Albigenfes. Iridh Catholics have land, between 1570 and 1602, inay be been half-banged, half-flogged to death, read in detail in Caulfield's History of pushed with the pike-itaif indiscriminately the Gunpowder-plot. Thus Elizabeth from the bridge into the river; thut up realized her will for No Popery.
in barns and burned alive in bands; and James overlooked with magnanimity still the whoop of savage triumph was No the inferior ramifications of the powder- Popery. plot: with such a pretext for intolerance, If there be men, who glory in such there was virtue in his forbcarance. He deeds, who would again aroufe fimilar left to the vulgar the cry of No Popery. paffions, and make Ireland once more
The vulgar took it up; and under the taughter-field of religious massacre, Charles I. used the cry of No Popery, let them pronounce aloud, and write upto bring a king into disrepute, who felt on our walls, these words of death ; but liberally toward the Catholics. All the let focietybeware of such-If they should seditious efforts of the Puritans, which be found too numerous and too ftrong to produced fo long a civil war, and so con- be ruled by the civil power, and chaftized fpicuous a judicial regicide, were cover- by the courts of juttice; the friends of ed by that Proteftant shield which Eliza- huinanity and tolerance mult again resort beth had inscribed with the deadly words to such a social interdict, as Saint AmNo Popery.
brose of Milan carried into execution After the Restoration, the religion of against Theodofius, and the barbaric Bucer, and the double intolerance of ruffians who obeyerl him. The finile of the magistrate, returned. Popith plots greeting mutt be withheld in the fireet, were invented' or detected. An act of and the cup of hofpitality denied at uniformity plundered the diffenting home to the partizans of a murderous inclergy of an opposite description.
tolerance. Those churches and convenJames II. was expelled by the cry of ticles must be shunned with public lo No Popery: all the civil wars of the Re- lemn indignation, where the preacher is volution had for their moft specious pre- heard to justify any partial oppreffion of text the preservation of No Popery. the common children of Christ.
It is in William III. and the two firit Georges, the power of public opinion, would it not having been brought up in the reli- pronounce itself with energy, if not to gion of Bucer, acquired the tolerant atone for its long injustice, at least to fpirit of foreign Proteftanitin. Under prepare a more equitable futurity. them, the temper of the English people was much softened and liberalized.
In this present reign, the American To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. war feenis first to have revived froin their SIR, long flumber those hierarchic divisions,
BSERVING, by your last Magazine,
O which had agitated and disgraced our
that you rather invited difcuffion ancestors, and defolated our common on Mr. Whitebread's new Parochial Bill, country. The cry of No Popery was I cannot help mentioning a few particustill understood by the multitude to be an lars, that, in reflecting on the heads of the expression of abhorrence against that intended bill given by that Gentleman, high-church party, which had protected have struck ine; and though I would not Charles I. and opposed the Revolution. be thought to have a worse opinion of Hence, during the riots of 1780, which the lower claffes than they deserve, nor were in fact the work of a whig mob, and would I favour that lyttem of oppreffion were inspired more by hatred of the mi- and inhumanity so often employed in niftry than of the Catholics, No Popery houses of indultry, yet as labour ought to was the popular watclr-word: and it was be enforced among the poor, and this
being impossible in large parishes where and this knowledge, so necessary to a due they are dispersed over several miles of execution of the ortice, is rendered more country, surely it is desirable that there difficult by the prevailing mode in most should be some spot, wbere employment large parishes of electing to the office of may be had for them, and where their overseer, every new comer into the town; united labours may produce something who is doubly unqualified for it, both on towards their own fupport, which can account of his utter ignorance of the fifeldom be done unless they are collected; tuation of the poor, and the plans of his and therefore I think that a law prevent- predecessors if they had any : add to this, ing any new houses of that fort from be- that he must be butily occupied in aring established, which I fear is a part of ranging and improving his new situation, Mr. W.'s plan, will be wrong. No doubt and consequently can atford little lime such inftitutions have been established for his parochial labours; so that a per where there was no need of them, and manent directory, such as is eitabliihed many of them are badly managed, but in many parishes where there is a house no man of understanding will urge this as of industry, in which nine or twelve dian arguinent against their general utility: rećtors are chosen, three of whom go undoubtedly parithes ought well to conti- out of office annually, and three more are der the neceility, propriety, and proba- chofen, would be infinitely preferable. bility of fuccess of such an institution, Another subject intimately connected before they proceed to petition the with the parochial system, is the great Hou:e for leave to incorporate, and ereit. abuse of the charities which have been Such is the itate of the poor in fome left from time to time, to various des parthes where no such houses are, that fcriptions of poor. Let a foreigner go into un els their employers will give them our churches and read the tablets which ther price for tuch labour as they choose record the various benefactions and doto engage in, the answer has been, “No, nations left for the poor, and he will be we will not work at that price, we will astonished that any complaint should fooner gas to the parish.” This was an arise of the heavy burden of the poors' answer made in this borough by a wo- rates: but let him attempt to trace thote man to an offer of 1s. per day to plant charities frown their source, and he will beans ; now, where houses of induttry find them make a very devious course, have been establithed, the poor are glad and, instead of reaching at last the neto be employed, and receive their wages cellitous cottage, and administering rewith thankfulness.
liet to its inhabitants, he will find them The prosperous state of the manufac- pampering the rich. tories in some of thote houses, and the Whether a revision of the Charities improved morals of the poor in others, thould, or can with propriety form a part might fairly be urged in the behalf of of Mr. W.'s bill, I leave to that gentlesuch intitutions; but I think that there man; but certainly it is a matter that exists a stronger plea for them than those, needs revision, and regulation, as much namely, neceffity; for till by education, as any part of the parochial system whator some other mode, that fpirit of in- ever. dependence heretofore existing in the Evesham,
Your's &c. breatts of the lower claffes can be again March 5, 1807.
J. COLLETT. infused into them, houses of industry will be found absolutely necessary, especially To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. in large towns where there is no efta- SIR, blished manufactory; even if they were
R. Whitbread's bill will naturally only erected in terrorem, or by way of
M stimulant to exertion; and to aid in people, of which number, no doubt many preventing that fyftem of fraud and pecu- of your readers are; indeed it seems, by lation, so fuccessfully carried on by the its being printed and circulated, that it more crafty among the poor; in which was intended fo to do. No people, Mr. the parish officer is the dupe of their too Editor, see more of the condition and often feigned tales of misery and distress: sufferings of the poor than medical men, for in many parishes it is utterly impof- of which profesion I am; and if they lible for the overseer,during the thort pe- have had the regular education they riod of his ofice, to get acquainted with ought to have, there are few people who half the poor he has to Superintend; or are better qualified to investigate the to understand their real giuation, unless cause of them than they are. There is his entirely weglects his owa bulinefs : propriety too in treating the futject of
Mr. Whitbread's bill in the manner phy- it is evident, that the husbandmen proficians usually treat dileares. His fub- duce the neceflaries of life for themject matter is the diseale of the conftitu. selves and the other two claffes ; and in tion of the state, as theirs is the difuale proportion as their number is fufficient or defect of the confiitution of the indi- or not, fo are the whole people well or viduals of it.
ill provided. It is natural to fuppose The general method of writing among that the people, if no caule preventing physicians, is firit to ascertain the cause them intertered, would in the first place of the disease, and then to direct me- apply labour fufficient to produce the thods, suitable to that cause. Now what neceffaries of lite, a want of wbich ocis the cause of the wrciched situation of cations much greater fufferings to them, the poor, which Mr. Whitbread is fo me- than the deficiency of the other proritoriouty employed in endeavouring to ductions of their industry. We must alleviate? It is confessed to be a scarcity therefore, enquire into the cause of this of the neceflaries and common comíorts unnatural diversion of the indutiry of of life; that is, an infifticiency of ani- mankind from the production of those mal and vegetable food, of warm and the most indispensable of all human clean clothing, bedding, houtes, &c. Mr. things. Malthus, who is not altogether an un- " For this purpose it is to be observed, Suspected friend of that order, asserts that in the hands of some persons in the that this scarcity produces want, wifery, lalt class in the above divibon of the peoand mortality, in lo great a degree, as to ple, all the lands of the nation are veitdeitroy fuine hundred thousands annual- ed; in others, the cattle and corn raised ly, even in England. Many more, no on them ; in others, the raw materials, doubt, who have escaped with their lives, tools, machinery, &c; in others, the goods sufier in the itruggle, and bave their con- now manufactured, and stored for sale ; ftitutions impaired. Here then is the and so on. In the hands of those, or of cause of the disease, or rather the dif- fome other class of the rich, all those ease itself, which we are to letlen or re- things are collecied, and by the laws
But this scarcity muli have some there firmly secured, which the poor caufe ; we muti, therefore, enquire what man liands in need of, and are neceiðary it is that occalions this scarcity the to the support of his existence The necessaries of life. We know that the pertensin poliession of those things, hold neceffaries of life are the joint produce them out to the poor labourer, laying, of the land, and the labour beliowed on If you will labour for me in such and it, and the latter is as neceffary as the such a way, I will give you out of those former to the production of them: the things such as you stand in need of : but spontaneous produce of the earth would unless you will do those things which I fultain few inhabitants. In all cases of require of you, you thall have none of scarcity where the land is in sufficient them. Hence there is an absolute nequantity, the requisite quantity of labour cellity, under the penalty, the heavielt must be wanting, and be the cause of the of all penalties, namely, the privation deficiency. It is allowed, that there is of such things as are necessary to his and land more than sufficient to fustain its his family's existence, for his submitting inhabitants in great Britain; the labour to do the things thus imposed on liim të only therefore that is employed on it, do. muit be deficient there. The cause then “ And as the quantity of the necer of this deficiency must in the next place faries of life that are or can be conbe fought for.
sumed by the rich are limited, and in In every civilized nation, the people the purchasing of which a finall part only of it may be divided into three clafles; of their wealth can be expended; the the firii class contains those that labour surplus they are naturally inclined w isiy on the land in producing the necetlaries out in procuring the conveniencies, the of life; the second thole who work on the elegancies, and the luxuries of life. manujactures; the third, those who do no- These are the produce of the more refited thing. The manufacturers may he fute manufactures of different kinds; and for divided into those who work on the ma- those they are inclined to give a greater mutactures which are subfervient to price, confidering their wealth would be agriculture, and the other coarse ones, of little ute to them, if it procured only such as the poor themselves make use of; the neceffarius: lience a much greater and as to those who work on the refined proportion of their incomes is cxpended manu.actures used only by the rich. Now on tole refined articles; of courts a
greater proportion of the labouring times palliate the sufferings of individual hands are forced to apply their industry patients, when we cannot affect the in the various fine manufactures in caute of them; but in the case of the which only they can get employ. By diseases of fociety, we can act only thefe means, hands are drawn off power through the medium of the cause What fully from agriculture, and such coarse but the neceffaries of life can supply the manufactures as produce the things which want of the necesiaries of lite?I know chey themselves make use of."*
of nothing that can give a temporary We have at length arrived at the whole relief even to the craving of hunger, or cause of the evil, namely the diverting of the faint and uncomfortable feelings in the people from working on the land and the stomach, occalioned by a meagre and the coarfe manufactures; by which only watery diet, but Inuff, tobacco, and (pican be produced the neceslaries of rituous liquors; and whether these life, and other things, the want of which, should be pietcribed, may be left to the even according to Mr. Malthus, who is judgment of other people as well as to so much applauded by Mr. Whitbread, phyticians. causes all the misery and inortality we Í fhall not go to any length in my ols see; and it need not be observed that, if servations on the particular means Mr. this truly be the real, fole, immediate Whitbread has proposed. Some of them and etñcient cause of the evil, nothing seem to be calculated rather for tlie eaffhort of the removal of it can produce ing the contributors to the poor-rates, any confiderable amendment in the con- than for the benefit of those who ttand dition of the poor. Other methods, if in need of their contributions. attempted, may amuse and quiet the wards proposed to be given to the poor people for a time, but they cannot be people who bring up a family without proposed by a man, who acts with fince- the affiftance of the parish, ought, in my rity and uprightness, as radical, or in any opinion, to have no influence on the poor degree material remedies for the evils of parents. The poor man fhould endeathe poor. The means proposed by Mr. to get what he can by his laWhitbread have no direct tendency to bour for his family; and besides that, remove them; their operation is circui- fhould get what he can from the parish; tous, weak, and of inconsiderable effect; both being by far too little to bring up and, what is worse, they seem to give us
his children in health and vigor, and to to understand, that they are the only re- preserve them in any great proportion medies that the case admits of; and that from premature death. If he abstains no more effectual ones are within the from applying for parish alifance, out of reach of human power : the real cause pride, or with a view to the reward ofand obvious remedy of the evils not be- fered, he greatly injures his offspring. To ing brought forward.
fave can only be done properly, where The wants of the poor being fo great there is a fuper Huity: . If the poor fave, as they are allowed to be, nothing short they save for the rich, to the prejudice of phyical obtiacles to the removal of of themselves and their children. If the caufe of them; or the want of phy- there are no favings, there will be no ocsical means for supplying them; ought to casion for banks; to that proposal thereprevent immediate and effectual endea- fore I say nothing. vours for their relief. We have fertile
I have no
very great expectations land in fufficient quantity; and there from the education of poor children, are no physical obftacles io the employ- which Mr. Whitbread recommends. The ment
of a fufficient quantity of labour on learning to read when young, is of very it. That these physical rensedies for the little advantage, if, in after life, they have sufferings and mortality of the people are not leisure to read sutficiently to improve present and in our power, is a folid and their understandings. rational ground of confolation, and thould
CHARLES HALL. he a motive of gratitude to their author ;
Tuvislock, March 14, 1807. but that it should be rendered iveflectual by man, is a ground for grief and complaint to those who are the futrerers by
For the Monthly Asgarine. 11,
CARCELY any subject involving the In medical practice we can some
occupied fo large a portion of attention, Eticas of Civilization on the People in and been attended with so little success, the European States. 8vo. Otell.
as that of making provision for the poor
and aged. The only advance hitherto an equitable basis; and if it be fo formed, made is, that all persons agree in the tim- it can hardly fail to promote the general ple and abstract conclusion,' that some good, unless there be fome radical defect thing must be done. Ages have rolled in the order and confiitution of things, over ages, and every expedient has to which renders human diligence and incompletely miscarried, that the difficul- genuity unavailing. ties are greatly encreased by the labour The nature of the theories hitherto that is now required to repair the mif- ačied upon may be examined in detail chiefs, and to restore things to the state by tracing the effects of the numerous they were in when the task was first cn- institutions that they have given birth to. tered upon. In England, at lealtas Whatever special facts it may be neceffar as pecuniary exertions could be ne- fary to ascertain relative to each indivicessary, they have been cheerfully given, dually, it would be neceffary with regard and both the legitlature and people have to them all, to inquire into their objects, patiently watched the operations of this their means, their management, and their kind of aid. Discussions of the most cri- progress; whence it would be easy to detical and judicious ability bare rivetled termine the exact value of the comfort the mind to the subject during the long difpenfed, and the proportion it bears to interval, and the result of the whole in- the fums expended in procuring it. Such quiry seems to be, that a great proportion a subject is suited to the community at of all classes are now determined to agi- large. Whether influenced by the calcutate the practical and important question. lating fpirit of commerce, the fpeculaWhat it is that ought to be, and can be tive ipirit of philofophy, or the frank and done?
generous spirit of man-all muit conlider A subject of greater magnitude cannot themselves somehow or other interested be suggested, and even the mode of ma- in the fund of national comfort, and be naging the inquiry is of material conse- desirous of knowing whether the fums quence. To determine without a recapitu- employed in its purchase have been fo lation of all the ascertained facts, will be applied, as to have procured as much as to flight the advantages of experience, if they had been directed any other way. and to polipone the decision, until the With a delign 'to place the subject in mind becomes confused amidít a variety as clear a point of view as pollible, every of considerations, will perhaps be to fol- degree of information should be laid before low an error already too prevalent, and the public that can be obtained relative to adhere to a systematic course of evils to the different benevolent eslablishments, which can hardly be aggravated by any and the most impartial publicity given fort of mistake.
to every fact calculated to folve the difIt muit afford general satisfaction to ficult problem-flow can the general see the natter taken up by persons whose welfare be increased, without the comtalents and respectability will give fort of individuals being facrificed? wcight to their recommendations; but it is one of those cases which call for the To the Editor of the Monthly Magasine. energies of the whole population, and SIR, besteld be aided by the mofe diligent and I trust fully aware that the ending in questions may also be agitated with very your Magazine with your correspondent, confiderable advantage-as, Whether the « Common Sense;" but there are some wealth and happiness of society be en- positions ia bis letter on Mr. Whitbread's creased by the poverty and wretchedness plan, (see Monthly Magazine for April, of its members? Whether the principle 1807, page 219,) which, I think, are of justice may not be too much relaxed, fraught with so much mischief, thai, ootand the principle of charity too exten- withstanding the popularity of his opi. tively adopted and, Whether in the nions, and the esteem in which he is beld foundation of previous inftitutions, fuffi- by the greater number of your readers, cient care has been taken to distinguish I'muti beg your permillion to state a few between natural and social poverty? objections to him. Upon a careful investigation of those The iotroductory observation of your points, the success of any new fyftem will correspondent I pals over as irrelevant to in a great degree depend; for it is im- the subject; for whatever light he may poflible that in the present improved lave derived from Mr. Whitbread's ftate of society any establishment can be speech, he certainly has not 'reflected a of long duration, unlefs it be formed upou single ray of it, by bis letter to you;