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mult therefore rank him with the “ I take it that there is no real poverty, lightened" maltitude whom I have al- but that which arises out of the sterility ready found to be wonderfully edified by of the soil, or the imperfections of nature. that performance, merely because they Artiticial poverty is of two kinds, one had not found leisure to inveftigate its arites out of the injudicious arrangements merits.
of governinent, the other out of the vices The direct object of “Common Senfe," of the people. It would be an intult to if I understand him right, is to prove that the understanding of your readers, to ato the diftreties of the country arile princi- tempt proving that we have no complaint pally from the occupation of extentive, to make on account of sterility, or even infiead of small, farıns; and this is an opi- for any temporary scarcity connected nion fo prevalent, that if it be not true, with bad seafons. We have abundant it may be attended with confequences proofs of the liberality of our resources; not less fatal to our future welfare, than and the increating extent of our granaour former errors have been destructive ries and our flocks, serves to thew that of our future comforts. It is importantly the value of øur land does not diminisha true, that no folly can be greater than with the number of those who farm them. " to create and continue an evil, for the The poverty of which we complain then pleasure of attempting to cure it;" and is wholly artificial, and our attention the public will be greatly indebted to thould principally be directed to asceryour correspondent for commencing this tain what portion of it is to be attributed difcnllion, it it should lead to fuch, an ex to the government, and what part of it amination of the subject, as will make it the people create for themselves. understood. Till it all be taken up by I have in a Tract lately published, enforge abler inquirer, I beg leave to sui- titled “The Wants of the People, and geli three reasons for believing, that no the Means of the Government," offered a part of oar diftrelles arife out of the en- tew desultory hints upon this subject; grofling of farms.
but it would be improper in this paper First, because we have no fatisfactory wander from the immediate inquiry as to data to deternine the proportion that the effects of engrossing farms. Your the number of agricultural poor of the correspondent has expressed himfelt very present day, bears to the same clats of clearly, when he says, that, in consequence poor at thic tine when farms were not so of one hundred and twenty farms being eugroffed; and without such data, there is reduced to fixty, tixty fainilies have been
great reason to believe that the increase reduced to depend on the parish-rates; sof paupers is principally ainong the de- but is there any mau of reflection in tha
pendents upon commerce and manufac- kingdom, who does not see that this is a tures.
mere sophism? If sixty persons out of a Secondly, because the occupation of hundred and twenty become dependent extensive farms, has tended to improve upon their parishes, it is because the agriculture, and to increase the produce other fixty have found means to do the of the soil.
work of a hundred and twenty; and it is Thirdly, because Gince the period when to the dexterity and skill which contrives the practice of engrossing farms come to cultivate the soil with half the number nienced, the manufactures and commerce of hands, that they must attribute their of the country bave encreased to an ex- poverty. This is the only rational mode tent that has found employment for a of accounting for it; for if the difpoffefmuch greater number of persons, than Gon of their farms were the only change those who have been discharged from in all the relative circumstances, the fimagricultural employments.
ple amount of the mischiet would be, that There is one omifion that most persons one man poflefled of fixty farms, with his seem to be guilty of, who forin opinions family, would be added to the population relative to the poor; they do not distin- of a spot in addition to the former inhaguitha real, from artificial poverty; and bitants, whilst the lixty occupants of his until that distinction become the
basis of farın would
be reduced to live as lathe inquiry, it isoflittle consequence whe- bourers, instead of farners. Now fupther we compliment ourselves as “ wife poling the condition of the labourers of Ratelmann, profound philofophers," or the district to have been precisely such as
patriolic feuators;" we shall only ape it ought to have been prior to the change, the wifilom of our ancestors," whilft we the ejected farmers being in no worse grento as much confusion for posterity, as situation than their own labourers had thair wifdom has prepared for us. been in, when they worked with them as NowInLY Mag. No. 156.
superiors instead of equals, can be under time, that the foil cultivated, has been no necellity for becoming burdensome less productive in consequence. If such to parishes.
a position thould be advanced, I thould be The fupposition of “Common Sense,” glad to learn the grounds upon which it that of uniting two farms into one, in- might be maintained; but if it thould apstead of a hundred and twenty into two, pear that there is no reafon for tuch an renders the evil still less; for if each far- opinion, it will be proved beyond all kind mer was fully occupied before in attend- of doubt, that the consolidation of farms ing his one hundred and ten acres, he is advantageous, rather than injurious, by cannot now attend his two hundred and railing an equal qnantity of produce with twenty, without availing himself in some half the labour, and coniequently at much Shape or other of the service of his ejected less expence. neighbour; and then upon what pretence The evil arising from the diminution of can that neighbour become burdenfome ayricultural labourers, is again met by the to the parish? It is evident that the time increased quantity of labour, demanded ple engrofinent of farms has no tendency for manufacturing and commercial purto encrease paupers, and that the dilo poses, which has engaged a number equal treffes of the people are to be attributed to that of the cultivators discharged; and to some other caule.
this circumstance peremptorily calls upon This cause may be faintly traced in the every person, to inquire, whether the maNarrative of “Čommon Sense's," “ In- nufacturing and commercial paupers be telligent Farmer," where he represents not much more numerous than the agri
“whó already manages five cultural paupers, before he gives a decihundred acres by means of a single thep- five opinion upon this lubject. herd," and another man “ already por To the inquiry fuggested by your corfelied of nine farms, yet taking lix other respondent, there can be no objection; farms," to divide between thein; for, if the House of Commons would be as inthese five hundred acres had continued di- nocently employed in catering for the vided into four farms, there muî have facts, that he is desirous of knowing, as been four thepherds employed, as one it most likely will be in any other way; fhepherd conld not have served four but I cannot see the neceility for it, beo maiters; and therefore, four men would cause, it already notorious enough, that have found employment intiead of one, the nuinber of farmers has very greatly Now, with submillion to “ Common decreased within these twenty years, and Senle," I beg leave to suggeft, that the we have not only an adınillion of the fact, real cause of his complaint is not against but an illustration of its consequences, in the engroflment of farms, but againit the the inprovement of Sir John Sinclair's Skill and improveinents which have de- estate in the north of Scotland. That vised the means of diminishing labour. eminent agriculturilt, to whom the counTo regard this change as an evil, would, try is under incxpreffible obligations, however, evince a want of diligence itates, that he was desirous of increasing highly culpable in any person delirous of a Hock of five hundred ewes, by various forming a correct opinion upon the sub- annual augmentations, until it should ject. Labour is in itfelt an evil, and the amount to len t!ousand; and for this, very first article in the Christian religion and other purposes, be found it neceffary teaches us to regard it as fuch; “ Becaule to enlarge the farm he alrcady held, to thou haft done this, in the sweat of thy twenty-tive thousand acres. This design brow thalt thou eat bread." Tu dininith was opposed by the circumftance of the labour, therefore, is a positive good; and land being occupied by eighty farmers, if it be made productive of mischievous whom it became neceffary to difpotiess
. consequences, it is because we have They were however ejected, and with adopted an erroneous mode of appropri- their familjes, to the number of five hunating the advantages we acquire. dred, were obliged to submit io quit their
Suppose the position of “Common habitations. llere then is an inconveSense,' were incontrovertibly proved, nience to eighty families, but what are
our definite extenfion of foil tur- the effects upon the public? Wly, that, nishes employment and independence to instead of an “inconfiderable number of not more than half the number of persons, cattle and a few red deer," that were which it did twenty years ago, and that raised by these finall farmers, and which this number is annually diminishing," it supplied them with a bare fubfiltence, gives no rational cause for the increase of the proprietor was enabled to produce poverty, uulels it be proved at the fame food for a population fo great, that, ta in
duce them to come and eat it, he builds tempted to be palliated, is to be found in a new town, that they may be ready upon a fundamental error in the order of fothe ipot. “Wherever a viumber of inba- ciety, which makes every tiep that the bitants are collected together," says the country advances in improvement and patriotic baronet, “ they become a mar- plenty, injurious to the labourer, in exact ket for the agricultural productions of proportion as it is advantageous to the the neighbourhood, which, of course, in other claffes of the community. creates the demand." From this coni April 4, 1807. Your's, &c. deration he was induced to build the new Office of Tranquillity, Join BONE. town of Thurlo on his own ettate, which Albion-jirect, Blackfriar's Bridge. he fays, “ on account of the cheapnets of provisions," added to certain “other con To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. veniencies, nuit induce pertons of ino SIR, derute incomes to settle there." In this I the one monthly Magazine, page 236,
N me instance the ejected farmers were not injured, for the proprietor had occation for under the title of " Prepojilions are mereall their services in his extensive improve- ly ujel to avoid quejlions likely to be put melits, and, to attach them to his employ, for the sake of obtaining circumftantial built each family a cottage, to which he latements," (and which is only a small annexed a garden and two Scotch acres part of a very interesting correspondence, of land. The increase of agricultural on the mechanism of language, with produce gave fpirit to the general im- which I have been favoured by the auprovements, and the consequence was, thor of the “ Evenings of Southill,") that employment was found for a great there is an important omission, occafioned number of other labourers, who were in- probably, by halte in tranfcribing, which vited to come and people the new colony. I am very detirous thould be supplied as
Whether the inhabitants of this settle- foon as poflible. ment be alluent, or indigent, I do not The purport of that paper, is to exe know ; but I will venture to atfirm, that plain, how the prepotition by, placed be. if there be the flightest tendency to pau- fore any of the retlective pronouns, as perifiu ainong then, it does not relult by myself, is used to denote exclufio, in froin the engrofinent of the farın. Wbilit, regard to all other individuals not menhowever, I ditler with " Common Sense,” tioned, and that it may sometimes not as to the cause of the evil, I am painfuily only denote rrelufion, but land for near : obliged to acknowledge at once its ex- thus, by myjell, may mean near muielf. ittence and its magnitude; and I with I The forner of these fignitications is tully did not at the fame time see reaton to explained in the paper in question, but fear, that it will rather increase than di- the latter is not even alluded to, owing to niiwth, unless we take a much more en the omillion of the following paragraph: larved view, than any persons feem, at “ The reader of the ' Evenings of prelent, difpoted to take of the subject, Southill' is to recollect that I only proThis
paper is already too long to war- feited to investigate every one of the exa ränt my going into my own opinions anples which Dr. Johnson adduced to upon the evil; yet I thould not be dealing his several divilions of by. I have, howfairly by your correspondent, if I were to ever, in the pages of the inveliigation, content myself with merely contradicting introduced here and there fome examples him. It is an affair in which we are all on circumitances which the Doctor had interested, and the poorer we are, the not noticed. The divition 6 (Evenings of greater our intereft is. Every degree of Southill, p.80) and the examples adduced, franknets should therefore be encouraged would fütticiently thew, that the fort of that has a tendency to dillipate the con- by, therein elucidated, might introduce a fution, in which discullions upon the pau- pronoun of the clals, generally considered per fytiem bare hitherto been involved. as reflective, such as melt, ourjebres, &c. Slavulai this introduction to the subject as well as any other pronoun or any noun: meet a favourable reception, I will in a but, as not one of the pallaves, quoietl
, future paper endeavour to prove, that presents any of those pronouns generally though the vices of the people, and the called reflective, I am going to discuts an injudicious arrangements of government, example of the kind. Let us convier both injirumentally tend to create a great this combination of words, “Come and number of paupers, the true cause as fit by mujeff," with an emphasis upon mit mell of the pauperism coinplained of, as fe!', 'initead of, “Come and by me," of the fyttern by which its evils are ate with an emphalis upon me.” Í shall core
sider either of the two constructions as associate, fince by may mean proximity used to one or several, by a person, who of place, and by myself, may stand for withes the fitting not to be near or by neor mule!t, which does not seem to jinsome other person in the company, but ply exclujion. . This objection is also reto be by or near him in preference to any moved by the grand principle already one elle. On the leali reflection, it will mentionedl; for it proves, that in the phrale be evident, that, in by myself or by me, the Come und Mit by myself, every individual word by is, as tó value, different froin the not myfelt wouid be excluded in regard by which I have difcufied before, and to the manner in which I requelled him that by myself is something more than a to come and lit; and, at the same time, redundant exprellion, however emphati- it thews that Dr. Jobnton had attributed cally uttered, in regard to myself, by the to by alone a force of exclufion, to which perton. It is evident also that mujilf is every prepotition was really entitled. And not here a reflective pronoun, and yet indeed, it any person thould remain diit excludes every one, who is not the per- lent, after saving Come and jit, he would son that utters the above combination of be alked, where? or, how? and his anwords. Indeed, if the perfon had faid: swer would probably be, here or there, “ Come and fit by TILAT TABLC,” (point- (pointing to the place); or he would reing to it) every place not about that ia- ply, by me or by mylelf, neur ine or near ble would have been excluded, since I mylelt, &c. have proved, (see Monthly Magazine, p. To conclude, it must be granted, I 236) that every sort of prepoution may think, that my friend Salmon was the introduce a noun or pronoun to be view- first who discovered the principle, that ed, as excluding all individuals, that are whatever is, in a sentence, prejented as not represented by that noun or pronoun.” governed by one and the jame preposition,
Conlidering the detached forin in which actually ercludes every individual not the above paragraph appears; it seems' mentioned as un afjocinie. And, I trust, proper to add a few explanatory remarks. it will also be allowed that he is free froin In the first place it should be obterved, the blame which attaches to Dr. Johnson that it was Dr. Johnfon who considered and other philologifis, for having imagined by myself, &c. as excluding every other that by, and all other prepositions, had individual; but the author of the Even- not always the power of excluding from ings of Southill has given to that fort of their adjunts, all the individuals not inby the value of affociate, and, anticipating plied in the adjuncts themselves. objections to this meaning, is defirous of "Epping, 1807.
J. PAYNE, removing them. It may be asked, how, in the phrase, I shall dine by myself, myjelf can For the Monthly Mugazine. be conlidered as an associate to I. "This objection is easily removed by the author's JOURNAL of a voyage performed in the
INDIAN SEAS, to MADRAS, BENGAT, grand principle, “Prepositions are mere
CHINA, &C., &c., in ms MAJESTY'S ly used to avoid questions likely to be put
SHIP CAROLINE, in theYears 1803-4-5, for the sake of obtaining circumftantial
intersperjed with shart DESCRIPTIVE statements.” Now, after having faid, I
SKETCHES of the PRESENT STATE of her Shall dine, if any person were to ask me with whom? I, having no companion or
principal SETTLEMENTS of the INDIA associate, fhould be forced to reply no
Communicated to the NONTILLY MAGAZINE body, or I alone. Therefore, as by mySelf is equal to I alone, it follows of courie, by an officer of thut satt. that though by myself is presented as an E tiarted from Malacca on the becomes a sort of negative asociate, or courte for the firaits of Sincapore, where no associate at all, merely because my we arrived in two days with a lylit and felf means here the very individual il- pleafant breeze; we came to an anchor ready represented by I, and is introduced in the middle of these firnits for the purin the very place where a real affociate pose of collecting the convoy, a part of inight have been mentioned; baving with which we had left behind at Malacca, to for its prefix, as would be the case in the repair the damages they had received in 'phrafe' I thall dine with my brother, in- the traits by lightning. ited of, I shall dine by myself.
The ttraits of Sincapore are furrned by It may also be objected, that in such a a clulier of innumerable little illauds, combination of words as by myfelf, &c. lying off the moti fouthern part of the the preposition by is not always equal to Mulay peninsula. They are coverere!
with woods, have a great variety in their scene, however, now began to lift, Thapes, and indented on all sides with and our misery to commence. pleatant little bays and fandy coves, On the 2d of Ocwber, the iky assumed a where the finest turtle is found in great very umutual appearance; the ikirts of the plenty. The patlage between these horizon feemed its if they were tinged Íslands is in fome places so narrow with blood; the black portentous clouds that we might have almost chucked a bil- that hung over us, looked as it surcharChit on thore; yet the water was deep, ged with clectric fluid, and ready every clear, and finooth as velvet. There can instant to burit on our heads ! scarcely be a more beautiful picture, than lu the evening the lightning gleamed the light of a fleet of thips winding with such vivid flathes through the air, through this romantic group of wlands. that it was painful to look around; ftill, The natives came off in their canoes
however unaccompanied with thunder. ladden with turtle, some of which weighed The rain now began to pour down in such three or four hundred pounds, and there torrents, that it actually appeared to be they fold for a dollar or two a-piece; we precipitated from the heavens en mulle, of courfe had alderman's fure every day deluging every part of the thip:while we continued in thicle traits.
" Mean time in sable cincture, madows valt, At length having got the thips all to
Deep ting'd and damp, and congregated clouds, gether (ou the 22d), we hurried away,
And all the vapory turbulence of beaven, fcaring that the north-ealt monsoon
Involve the face of things." might let in, or at least that we might be batlled between the two monfoons.
It had now continued calın for some The next day piitled to the northward hours, but foon the gale commenced ; of Pedra Branca, a rock lying off point and lasted, with foine interruptions and Romania, and so called by the Portu- various alterations, for four tuccellive fuese, on account of its being covered days. The wind was firit tivin the weitwith the white excreinents of birds ; it 'ward, but in the course of the typhoon it las fume resemblance to the Bals rock in blew froin every point of the compass! the Firth or Furth. Here the Chinese As it was, however, gencrally in our seas conmmence, and Nuips generally take favour, we scudded great part of the time, a departure from this rock, or point and of course made a mot rapid proRomania, when proceeding to China.
gress: Next day (twenty-fourth of September)
It is impossible to describe the unpleapatied Pulo Aore and Pulo Timon, two fantness (I may lay milery) of our lituaillands lying in 101° of east longitude, tion during this period. The tirti twentyand of contiderable height; at this place four hours of the gale demolished tables, we expected to fall in with Linois, when
chairs, crockery-ware, and almost every we would have furprized him a little with cooking utentil we had on board, so that the force we now had (a seventy-four, a
we could scarce get as much fuitenance fifty-yun fhip, two frigates, and a floop
as would keep foul and body together! of war): as there were no appearances,
To add to our comforts, we had genehowever, of an enemy, the line of battle raily a quantity of water walhing about Thip here took leave ot us, and returned
our lers in the gun-rooin; while the to India.
feanis of the thip (coming from a hot We this day loft sight of land, and country) were to open, that the water steered for China with a pleasant breeze came pouring down through the decks on and compact convoy; the weather con cur heads! tinued uncommonly fine for the next five The frequent fisting of the wind raidays, when we made Pulo Sapata, a
fed such a cross tumultuous fea, that it very fingular rock stavding up like a pillaer broke over us in all directions, cnuing in the middle of the Chinese leas; 'it is the ship to labour with undefcribable vio
lencepe pendicular all round, and white like Duver clitīs, witb innumerable flocks of “ Through the black night that fits immense birds hovering round it, and seems as if around, placed here by Providence as a mark to Lam'd into foani, the fierce conficting brine guide mariners through those seas, where Seems o'er a thousand raging waves to burn ! lo many hidden dangers abound.
Mean-time the mountain billows to the clouds litherto uchad been sailing on velvet,
In dreadful tumult swellid, furge above surge,
Burit into chaos with tremendous roar!" and with winds inuch more favourable huu we had reason to expect at this late On the 4th, we experienced a considerperiod of the fouth-west inonfoon : the able interinillion of the gale, and to