Sidor som bilder


Egypt never transacted business on the 3d happy by the Romans, such as the day of day of the week, and abitained even from facrifices to the dead; of the Lemuria, food till the evening, because on that day of the Feria Latinæ, and of the SaturTyphon, who was contidered by them as nalia; the 4th before the Nones of Octhe caute of every evil, was born.

The tober, the 6th of the Ides of November, 17th of the month was alto deemned un

the Nones of July, called Caprotina, the fortunate, as on that day Oliris died. The 4th before the ones of Auguti, on acGreeks, too, had their unlucky days, count of the defeat at Canna, and the which they denominated atompedes Ides of March, citeemed unlucky by the The Thuriday was generally coniidered

creatures of Calar. There were betides by the Athenians as of to unlucky an days which every individual contidered import, that the assemblies of the people

as fortunate or unfortunate for himself. which happened to fall on that day, were Augulius never undertook any thing of always deferred. Hetiva enumerates importance, on the day of the Nones. the days when it might be proper to

Many biltorical obfervations have concommence certain undertakings, and tributed to favour there fuperliitious no. thote, when it was neceilary to abliain tions. Jofepbus remarks, that the temfrom every employment. Among the ple of Solomon was burnt by the Babylatter he mentions the 5th of

Ionians on the 8th of September, and

every month, when the infernal Furies were

was a second time destroyed on the fame Supposed to bestride the earth. Virgil day by Titus. Emilius Protus alfo ubhas the same idea

ferves, that Timoleon, the Corinthian, Quintam fuge :-pallidus Orcus gained mote of bois victories on the anni. Eumenidesque lack-tom partu terra

versary of his birth.

To there tacts, drawn from ancient fanco Cæumque Iapetumque creat, sævumque Ty

history, many troin more modern times Plaza,

may be added. It is faid, that most of Et conjuratos cælum refcindere fratres.

the fucccfies of Charles the l'itih occur. 1 GEOR. 279.

red on the reliival of St. Mathias. HenThe Romans also demonstrated in their ry the Third was elected king of Poland, calendar, the implicit faith they placed and became king of France, on Whitin this distinction of days. The fori unate funday, which was also his birth-day. days were marked in white, the unfortu. Pope Sextus the Fifth prefered Wednet pate in black. Of these were the days day to every other in the week, because it immediately after the Calendæ, the was the day of his birth, of his promoNonæ, and the Ides. The reason was tion to the cardinalate, of his election to this : in the 303d year from the building the papal throne, and of his coronation. of Rome, the military tribunes, perceir

Louis the Thirteenth aflcrted that Friing the republic unsuccessful in its wars, day was always a favorable day to him. directed that the cauic thould be in- Henry the Seventh of England was parquired into. The Senate having applied tial to Saturday, on which most of the to L. Aquinius, he answered “That when happy events of his life had taken place. the Romans had fought against the Gauls

But if it were neceflary to adduce near the River Allia, and liad experienced examples against a fentiment fo

contrary so dreadtul a defeat, facrifices had been to rcafon and common sense, it would offered to the Gods, the day after the be easy to enumerate instances of good Ides of July, and that the Fabii, having and ill fortune occurring on the fame day. fought on the same day, at Cremera, Pompey was afiflinated on the day of were all destroyed.” On receiving this, his former triumph over Mithridates. autiver, the Senate, by the advice of the Alexander, who had received better inpuntur, ordered that, for the future, 110 tructions froin his preceptor Arittotle, military enterprize thould be formed on once ridiculed with ipirit an observation the days after the Calends, the Nones or of one of his officers, who represented the ldes. Vitellius having taken police to him that the kings of Macedon never tion of the sovereign authority on the commenced a mach in the inonth of 15th of August, and on the same day June, and that he might encounter tome promulgated fome new laws, they were unfavourable event it lie neglected to folill received by the people, becaule' on low the ancient cattoin.

It is neceflary that day had happened the disastrous (faid he) for once to infringe the custom; battles of the Allia and Cremera, I therefore order that this June, which There were other days esteemed un- is so much dreaded, thall benceforklı toe

called the second month of May." Lu- ter; but on the 3d of September 1658, cullus replied in the same manner to he expired. those who endeavoured to diffuade him Though this distinction of good and from engaging Tigranes on the Nones of evil days be in reality as absurd as it apOctober, because the arnıy of Cepio had pears to be, I much doubt if it be yet on that day been defeated by the Cimbri. entirely eradicated. When it is contider“ And I fór that very reason, (faid Lucul- ed liow many things concur to keep up lus), will render it for the future a favoura- an error of this kind, and that among the hle day for the Romans." He attacked great, as well as with the vulgar, opinithe king of Armenia, and defeated hiin. ons as puerile as this are not only reLeo 'the Tenth was inaugurated Pope on ceived, but even made a rule of action, the anniversary of his imprisonment the it may be inferred, that in every age and

Oliver Cromwelt had al- every country, however civilized, fuperways confidered the 3d of September as ftition always maintains its influence, fortunate for him. On the Sd of Sep- though it may occalionally vary in its ob tember 1650, be defeated the Scotch at ject and name. The human mind, alterDunbar, and on that day, in the follow- mately wife and weak, indiscriminately ing year, be gained ihe battle of Worces- adopts error and truth.

year before,



for a new Mode of boring Pipes. STRAND,) for a Composition, for AgriWHIS invention, if such it may be call

cultural Purposes, which acts as a Ma.

nure, and is efficacious in the Destrucuniting them to one anotherinstead of mak

tion of the Fly in Turnsps and other lite ing them of the whole length of a tree. The

jects. usual mode of boring pipes from elm or

The composition here described conother trees is now very generally known; lifts in mixing 1000 butbels of pulverized this is totally rejected by the patentees, gypsum, 100 bulhels of pulverized oylierwho form ihort lengths from timber, fome- hells, and fire hundred weight of the thing in the Mape of the staves made ufe sulphate of barytes. No account is of by coopers, but with a less degree of given of the mode of application ; of the curvature. Pipes formed after this plan quantity to be used in a given portion of are made of a conical shape, in order Jand; or by what ineans it is destructive that the several parts may be the more

to the turnip-fly, and other insects, whe readily bound together by iron hoopsther by prevention in mixing the feed and these parts may be dove-tailed, and with the compofition or otherwisc. In the hoops fastened on the pipes by means

these and other particulars we deemn the of wedges.

The patentees have also specification deficient, at least as far it mentioned the inode of uniting the smal is intended, as all fpecifications flould ler pieces of pipe to as to form one long be, for general utility: one, and the method of painting or pitchiing or varnilling them, both within and

MR. JAMES WINTER's, ( STOKE-UNDERwithout, but as there cannot claim any

HAMDON) for a Machine for fearing tide to novelty, we prefuine the invention,

and pointing leather Gloves. as such must be in the uwon of the ftaves The drawings attached to Mr. Winter's or other pieces of woud into the form of specitication are ncceflary to the full era hollow-pipe, instead of boring it out of plication of his invention. The princr folid wood. Upon this part of the speci- pal apparatus contilts of jaws made er fication we must be allowed to observe, ther of wood or metal, and are intended that the principle which thcle gentlemen to hold the gloves for fewing, and indices have applied to water pipes, has many for the direction of the needles. Thele years been adopted by Mr. George Smart indices are made with grooves on their in the conftruction of his hollow-mafts, faces, and contain from 18 to 30 grooves and therefore it may be doubted how far in an inch. They are of different lenyths their title to an exclusive right can be and breadtha; and are varied in thape, maintained.

either straight or circular, corresponding

to the part of the glove to be fewn there behind each other. On one Gde of the in, and may be formed of ivory, bone, veill there is a trough, which receives bra's, &c. The grooves in the index the materials of the paper through bules, mott be of the depth required for the each of which is provided with regiiters stitch, the leather being placed even to regulate the supply of ine laid matewith the face or top of the index, for its rials which are wiated ii the trough, proper lituation for fewin.

wbile they pass or low töibe outer edre The chief novelty laid claim to in this over which they tall upon the moulds bee invention, is the application of the index neath. for de le ving and ornamenting of gloves, l'pon and near the other extremity of and the casy method of buiding them by the platform, which is not remote tion means of the jaws. The advantage the place of agitation, is a cymailer, gained is the strength of the fewing, for having its axis parallel to the furface of " nothing" says Mi, Winter, “ is so well the moulds, and in a plane at right anadapted for that purpose as the machine gles to their course. The cylinder is supdcfcribed.” What is called double lewe ported by, and connected with the plate ing is with clovers only an increaled num- form, fo that the agitation does not alter ber of stitches; but the fewing with this the relative situations of the cylinder, machine is really double, as the glove is platforın and moukis.. There are other fewn over twice, the second sewing have cylinders, and their oses described in the ing no connection whatever with the virit. fpecifications, but there, we are told, are

nut eflentially neceflary.

Tlie process of the manufacture may 22. HENRY FOURDRINIER'S (SHENBORNE be thus defcribed: a series of moulds is

LANE), for a Method of making a Mu- duly placed and connected upon the platchine for manufacturing Paper of an forin, so as to oceupy the fame. The indefinite Length, luid and wove, with machinery is then thrown into year with jeparated Moulds.

the first mover, which causes the cylinder, The moulds, which are similar to those and allo agitating axis, to revolve at the commonly used, except as to the thinness same time that the paper, stutt, or materiof the framning, on each part of two al is permitted to flow from the trough and opposite tides, by which means any num- fall upon the moulds. The cylinder which ber of thein :t; be brought into contact is connected with the platform, rafts upfo as to form me! gmwuld, upon which on the moulds, and, by means of its telt, the paper is to be inade. Intcad of the takes hold of that inould which may be deckle being applied to each mowd, there inmediately beneath it and cautes the is an edge ba!, joined by binges to whole feric to advance by an uniform moeach of those lides of the moulds which tion the edge bars of each mould; being are not intended to be applied to each thrown and kept back by an obstacleor proother. This bar may be raised to per- jećting piece on each side of the platforin form the office of a deckle, by prevent- previous to its arrival at the cylinder. ing the paper, &c. from Howing beyond As the moulis advance, a workman who the tide esives, and the edge-bar is by stands near the agitated end fupplies and weights, fprings, &c. mule 10 allume a connects other moulds in fuccellion; the perpes.dicular position, excepting when it moulds are also dilengaged and taken is wanted to be deprailed or turned back. away in fucceflion by a workman who

Anu her principal part of the engine ftan is at the other end of the platform. is a platform: upon which the moulds are By the continuance of this process the to be supported during the tiine of work, moulds which have received the paper, in such a manner, as that the moulds fuif, or material, which is duly distritiall be at liberty to fide alorg in one buted upon their surfaces, do arrive bedirection and in no other. The paten- neath the first cylinder of which the felt tee has here given the details of his mode web takes off the paper, and conveys it of operation int, which our limits will not to the first pair of presling cylinders, fufer us to follow hin.

whence it proceeds to the second pair, Above the platforn, he disposes a vef- and afterwards to any fit place of recepfel, custanning the paper ready to be tion. And by continuing the fair promade in sheets, in such a bration as to cess, the faid paper, whether laid or wore, allow the moukis to be fuccellively intro- may be manufactured of an indefinite duced in their places upon the platform length with leparate inoukis. MONTILY Mac. No. 156,

3 A



ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, nierely on the out-lide shell which has M

R. GRIFFITHS bas, by the medium rather a smooth surface, but impreted

of Sir Joseph Banks, laid before the with the irregularities of the subliance Royal Society, a Defcription of a rare with which it was in contact. It is the Species of Worm Shells, discovered at great bength and fize of these fhuils Kattoo, an iland north-west of Sumatra, which are the largeli of the telincea vt a These Thells were procured in a finall tubular form yet discovered, and the aliMeltered bay, with a muddy bottoin, vilion of the tipper part, which conltitute surrounded by coral reefs. It appears their principal peculiarities, that the aniinal throws out tentacula In a few weeks after the foregoing from the two apertures of the apex description was read, Mr. Home connuof the shell, that resemble the finall nicated fome observations on the Shell actiniæ adhering to the rocks about of this Sca Worm, proving it to belong to Padang, and that the body of the a species of the Tercdo, with an account nell is filled with a soft gelatinous of the anatomy of the Teredo Navalis, fieh, fimilar to that of the teredo navalis. By analysis Mr: HATCHET found that the Mr. Griffiths did not obtain a single per- Dell was composed of carbonate of lime, fećt tell, the longeit that came into bis and an animal gelatinous subitance, potletlion was five feet four inches in which is greater in quantity than in the length, and the circumference at the base chama gigus, but less than in the cominon nine inches, tapering upwards, to two oyíter. We cannot follow Mr. Home and a half inches; the colour on the out- through all the minute anatoinical defide was milk-white, the inner surface ra- fcription that he has given, but felett ther of a yellow tinge. This specimen was fome of the more intereiting observatias nearly perfect, baving a finall part of the The heart is situated on the back of the lower extremity entire. In almost all the animal; in the iniddle between the mouth specimens the shells had adhering to them, and the lower end of the ftomach : thc about a foot or inore from the top, the structure is such that it adnits of only a small cockscomb oylier, small serpulæ, tingle circulation, as in other anınjals &c. consequently they must have been at which breathe through the inediuin of that distance, protruded from the hard water, but the mode of its being performnd, in consequence of a violent earth- med is different from tat in tishes; in quake that had happened previouily to the teredines the blood países directly the discovery of the thells. These tuber from the heart to the different parts of liells ditter much among themselves, not the body, and returns through the vetus one of them being correspondent in lize of the breathing organs to the beart, and thickness to another. The large end while in fiihes it goes tirit w the breating of the Mell is completely closed, and has organs, and then to the different parts

of a rounded appearance; at this part it is the body. This peculiar circulation lievery thin. The Imall end or apex is very comes a link in the gradation of the modes brittle, and is divided by a longitudinal of exposing the blood to the air in dilica teptum running down eighit or nine in rent animals, it appears to be less pero clies, forming it into two diftinét tubes, tect than in filles, but is more periect inclosed within the outer one, from than in caterpillars. whence the animal throws out tentacula; The mode in which the breathing-or the suhtiance of the thell is composed gans of the teredincs are supplied with of layers having a fibrous and radiated water, makes it evident that all leaappearance, covered externally with a worms, as well as other soft animals, pure white cruft, and internally is of a which have no cavity for the reception of yellow tinge; the, external surface is fea-water, must have breathing-organs frequently interrupted in a transverte di- placed externaliy. This is the case witb rection by a sudden increase of thickness all the allinia met with in the Weti Inwhich probably indicates different itages dies, called animal towers; and the in the growth of the thell, although they beautiful membranous expansions they are at unequal distances, fometimes at display, resembling the petals of flowers, fix inches, at others at four in the fame are in fact breathint-organs, not tentacufhell. These interruptions bear a rude la tor catching food. The teredi çiqur end unfinithe appearance, and do not tea, when arrived at its full growth, closes extend into the radiated subltance, but are up the end of the thell. This the teredo na

valis does also, hence it has been inferred sons who have sunk under Water. In his that the animal, by this act, formed its description the inventor says that he un tomb, tince it could no longer det ditlikes the contruction of drags loitherto troy the wood in which it was contained. in use both in this, and in other countries. Mr. Home, however, has found that in Those uled in Holland cannot without the teredo gigantea, death is not the con- much danger be applied to the naked lequence of this feclution from the fub- body, and are applicable only in cales in ilance in which it is imbedded. He has which the subjects fall into the water aidduced a variety of facts to prove that with their clothis on. The drag ured tuisteredo when arrived at its full growth, in London is clumsy and dangerous. To or when prevented froin increating its remedy thefe defects Dr. Coyan has inlength, clofes up the end of its thielfand vented two drags, of which one is recomlives a long time afterwards, furnithed mended on account of its cheapness; with food fron the sea-water wlieh it re- the other is applicable to every cate and çcives like the actiniæ.

is to contructed as to multiply the chanThe teredines in tlicir anatomical ces of laying a secure hold of any part of Atructure are inore perfect than many of the body without the pollibility of an inthe vernies, and have a portion of red- jury, “ Had the dimenfions," says Dr. blood. They turn round in their shell, C," been finaller than they are, the drag with which the body has no attachment, would not encompass every part of the and with which their covering only has a human body; and without the partition Tyll connection, at one particular spot, and curvatures at the extremities, the 42 prevent the external tubes from being diítances would be too great, and the diliurbed. This inotion of the animal body of a child inight fall through the is tor the purpose of boring. Their most interinediate spaces. By means of the itriking peculiarities are having three ex- sliding books at the ends, the intrument ternal openings instead of two: the ito- is adapted both to naked bodies, and mach being unutually large and the brea- those which are clothed. As bathers are thing-oryans having an uncommon con- naked, the lharp-pointed extremities furniation. As the teredo gigantea might lacerate, in a dilagreeable manner, bores in the mud, on which it cannot be or, by entering the skin, they might imfuppofcd to fubfitt, it is become a question pede a firmer nold. They are, therefore, whether the teredo navalis receives its made to recede." fupport from the wood it deliroys, or The upper extreniities are made both is fupplied with food from the sea. with a focket and a loop to be used either Mr. Home produces arguments and with a pole or cord, or with both which faris in defence of the lait opinwn, fup- are preferable to either fingly, because poling that it forms its habitation in a it has been proved by experiment, that Hubstance from which it receives no parts a cord tied to the ring or loop, and palgi its fuftenance: and that the law-Huttling through a hole made at the upper conveyed through the inteliines is not end of the pole gives a double advantage. divelled, particularly as that examined The drag with a pole attached to it may by Mr. Hatchet had not underyone the be projected feveral yards further than 1lighteti change: wien burnt, the finoke without it; and in drawing forward had the odour of Wood; and it formed a ihe drag, till the end of the pole is brought charcoal calily confined, and wañ con- within reach of the hand, the subject may verted into white athes in every respect be railed above the furface of the water like vegetable charcoal. The titraight in the most proper direction. course of the inteftine in the teretines * We have not,” says Dr. Cogan, as male's it probable thať the landuli re- yet had an opportunity of trying thele surd the progress of the food, to as to drags on the human body; but upon an render convolutions unneceffary. In ctigy made in every reipect as like a3 tunne of the wrince the intelling is to posible inform to the human body, much couvelated, that it appears to be both clothed and uixclothed, they have wound round acentral cytinder, in clofily antivered in the most fatisfactory manner. compacted turtis.

The etligy was brought to the furtace in

various directions, without once flipping SOCILTY OF ARTS, COMMERCE from the hold. Í thall add, that with

VD MANUFACTURES. two drays and a boat, allittapce given in

Dr. Cocar of Bath, for his luvention hook catching a lingle thread, will, it is of a Drag for racing the Bodies of Pere well known, be fufficient to bring a lu



« FöregåendeFortsätt »