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Notwithstanding the antipathy acquired by most persons during childhood to all species of lizards (efts, or rfks, as they are nfually called) it is certain that they are amongst the most harnie less and inoffensive of all animals. I have frequently put my finger into their mouths, and have endeavoured to scratch the skin with their teeth, there, however, are lo short, that they would scarcely lacerate the tender skin of a hird. Their sharö pointed tongue is formidable only in appearance, for it is perecely fott: the rapidity with which the lizards dart it out, and again retract it, whenever they are alarmed, is an instinctive action intended no doubt to operate upon the fears of their enemies; and thus to contribute towards the safety of these, urherwise, de enccleís creatures.
March 20. The ground ivy, (gleroma hederacea) barren firazuberry, (fragaria fterilis) dogo viski, (visla canina) and marsh merigold (caliha paluftris) are in fower.
A revelae-rayed ea star (allercas fappoja) was this day found on the fea-beach.
The fun thining unutually bright on this day, I, for the first time, observed several individuals of the saffron yellow lurte fix (patilo rbameri) flitting about in the fhady lanes.
It has been remarked that the appearance of huttertiies is, on account of the extreme deli. cacy or the animals, the lurest sign of spring. This is certainly the case when they are seen in any contiderable numbers: but it is well known that individuals of leveral of the species occafionully revive from their torpidity and fly abuut in warm days even during the depth of winter.
March Si. A greater ip-red wood piker was this day sent to me.
April 7. Roarb and dace bezin to twim about, and feed at the surface of the rivers. The old jalmen, after spawning up the rivers, have for fome weeks part been coming down to the Ica. In the funny days they may occasionally be seen, in a very weak and enaciated state, bak. ing themielves on the thallows.
In leveral of the ranks ncit there are young ones.
April 13. Walking along the back of the river, I this day observed the bones of a fike, and the body of a large eel, which had been dragged out of the water by an otter. Upon enquiry I found that two otters were killed in the neighbourhood not long ago.
April 15. The black snail (limax alır) appears.
April, 1307, inclusive, Two Miles NN. of St. Paul's.
18. Wind N.
On the 15th inft. the Greatest
thermometer was to 32 hun. curyitood at 20.82,
and on the next
higher than 43°; and morning it was no
on the 16th it was as $10urs.
24 hours. higher than 29.50.
as high as 53.
*The quantity of rain fallen during the last two months is equal to about two inches in depth.
Although the thermometer has been fix days at 60° or 610, fill the average height for the whole month is only 11.74, which is about equal to the mean heights for the lame period the lait two years, but in April, 1802, the average heat was nearly 528. The mcan height of llie barometer is 20.90.
Piet ween the such of March and the 19th of the present month, we had much levere weze ther, and leveral very heavy fails of Inow; on the 18th the ice was in fome placci much more chan half an inch in thickneis.
The wind has been variable. On the cold days it came chiefly from the N N.E. and on line others it was S.S.W. On leveral days it changed to every point between fun rise and fun-jet.
TO CORRESPONDENTS. We are defired, by an old Correspondent, to ftate that, as no authenticated inftance of the exiitenec of a lingle mad dog, or any case of hydrophobia, has yet been published, notwithtranding many thousands of dogs were destroyed during the late alarm, he wilaca to recene in formation of any such inttances, if there were any, through the medium of the Bluntas a puzint.
JUNE ), 1807.
5 of VOL. 23.
* As long # those who write are ambitious of making Converes, and of Ejving to their opinions a Maximum of
Influence and Celebrity, the most extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greatát Etek tije * Cariofity of those who read either for Amusement or Inftrudion." JOHNSON.
and deaf by
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS, For the Monthly Magazine. of teaching those persons to speak who are ON THE STATE OF THE EDUCATION OF dumb only in consequence of their being
THE DEAP AND DUMB THROUGHOUT deaf (or the deaf-dumb, as I shall call EUROPE.
them, to contradistinguish them from dumb of our species to converse with nature), are very simple. their fellow creatures cannot be traced Hearing is the universal medium of into times of very remote antiquity, á tercourse among men; it is also the meposition I by no means propose to lay dium by which men learn to express their down, it is, however, one which must thoughts to one another by sounds, that not be rankert among the discoveries that is, to speak. Hearing excites the child belong in principe to the present age. to make exertions for producing sounds We know of works upon the subject of like those which he learns to understand, teaching the deaf and dumb to think and day after day, as the usual signals of write, and to learn aseful arts, so early thougiit and will among men. Hearing as the begiouing of tlie seventeenth cen- is' at the saine time the criterion by which tury. I shall instance one in Italian, by a child judges every sound, and regulates Signor Affinate, printed in 1606; and his first attempts to mould and exercise another in Spanish, by Don Juan Pablo his organs in the way that produces Bouet, printed in 1620. These two sounds like those uttered by the persons books are generally reputed to be the about him. The deprivation of hearing cldest upon the subject extant. We have, from the period of infancy, whether acbesides, the Surdus loquens of Doctor cidental or constitutional, being almost Amman, a Swiss physician, who taught without an exception accompanied with sererad deaf-dumb children to speak in absence of speech, it became the reAmsterdam above a hundred years ago, ceived opinion, that where the sense of and his de Loquela, the former printed in hearing was not to be excited, it was im1692, the latter in 1700. - In addition to possible for a person so circumstanced to these documents of what has been before understand oral discourse, much more to our day, we have proofs that a very few pronounce intelligible sounds. years after the publication of the Ita- The sense of seeing, however, is very lan and Spanish works just mentioned, acute; and as our sense of hearing is aland before Dr. Amman began to instruct ways observed to be stronger and more any person whatever, some Englishmen accurate in the dark, because then all our of great learning and ingenuity conceived powers of attention are concentered upon the extensive and astonishing idea of that one method of perception, so with teaching the deaf-dumb to understand the the deaf, their sense of sceing is generally conversation of others by sight, and to quicker than ours, because better ex. speak themselves; an invention calcu- ercised, and their attention is not diInted to afford to them a complete partici- vided with a sense so powerful as that of
sa the same means of develope- bearing. If, then, ordinary persons can en and expansion of the mind, enjoyed take notice of the variety of changes the
rest of mankind. The faculty of muscles of the face undergo in pronoun
as thenceforvard made known cing any set of articulate sounds what who seemned for ever excluded ever; and we admit (what it is unpose fragtiges, and tlie art has been sible to deny) that sounds which are dig. with the intermission of some tinct, must have been produced by dis
hitervals, in some part of tinct motions; it follows, to the compreHead cyer since.
hension of everyone, that the acute and ciples that led to the first idea well-exercised sight of a dear person, No. 137. SG
whose attention is all bestowed to that and in Holland, as well as England, it one point, may gradually learn to distin- did not begin to be universally admitted guish the motions exhibited on the coun- tliat those who were born deaf were not tenance in pronouncing each word: and likewise destitute of the powers of reathat he may at length succeed in making s011, until the contrary was demonstrated the very same motions; which, if they be in France by the Abbé de l'Epée. The exactly the same, and produced in the progress which had been made in other same manner, cannot fail of being accom- couutries, however satisfactory in most panied with the very words uttered by instances, was but partial, and seemed, other people.
after some time, to be lost in obscurity. Our neighbours, the French, who are The consequence was, that many minds
, in general too little inclined to allow the endued with the brightest natural qualicredit due to the inventive spirit of this ties, remained neglected, and confounded country, or too niuch disposed to claim it with the hopeless ideot. The success of for themselves, dispute with us the palun De l'Epée fortunately drew the attention of superior gevius and humanity, in re- of princes, and crowned heads bave since spect to the unfortunate dumb aud deaf. deemed the topic not beneath their Their governments, since the foundation glory to notice. Several establishments said by their munificent Bourbons, have are now formed in various parts of Eucertainly done much to attract the atten- rope under the immediate patronage, and tion of the universe and claiın the principal at the expence, of the inonarchs. The merit among sovereigns anxious to ease example was set by France : Germany the unfortunate of the oppressive weight followed : Italy and Spain, which gave of evil. Europe looks with admiration to birth to the tirst essays upon this curious -the progress of the schools of De l'Epée subject, bave joined in the benevolent and Sicard in which the mode of instruc- undertaking; in England the contributing is by a language not intelligible to tions of private persons support a conthe generality of men; the glory of the siderable institution; and Deninark and English is, that they first, in spite of Russia either have, or are preparing to seeming impossibility, taught to operate carry into ellect, complete systems of nain favour of the speechless, the last of mi. tional education for the deaf and dumb racles, to impart to them the gift of on the most extensive scale. tongues; and that here the bounty of in Upon a subject so intimately condividuals keeps pace with the muniti- nected with philological and liberal cence of princes.
knowledge, and peculiarly interesting to The celebrated Sir Kenelm Digby, an the mind either of curiosity or beneveauthor of the beginning of the seven- lence, it may be acceptable to many teenth century (from 1030 to 1660), gives readers to know what has been done in an account of a dcaf-dumb young man the various institutions of this nature who was taught to kvow what was spo now in being, where they are established, ken to him.
and by whom. A sketch of the various Dr. Wallis, in the Philosophical Trans- methods practised in those institutions, actions, Nos. 61, and 245,* gives a very will enable the enquiring mind to judge minute description of the method by of their comparative advantages, and, if which he taught one deaf and dumb pu- the heart or genius prompt, to contripil to write, and general notions upon bule to the extension of the blessing, the manner in which he instructed ano The method usually practised in the ther, a deaf-dumb person, to speak. The instruction of the deaf and dumb, is to first, a Mr. Daniel Whalley, was taught shew them the thing meant to be expressby the doctor to understand the English ed, and at the same time repeat the language inentally, and to become such a sign or gesture which is to be thence proficient in writing, that he could ex- forward understood between the pupil press his own thoughts readily upon pa- and his instructor as representing it, per, and comprehend what was written Then, passing from things evident 10 to him by other persons; the second was the senses, to thingsintellectual, the masMr. Alexander Pophani, brother-in-law ter, by gestures, corresponding motions to the Earl of Oxford.
of the countenance, and the approximusIt is remarkable, that, notwithstanding tion of such ideas as the pupil may have instances sb conchisive as these, and all already conceived, proceeds to contrawhich had been done in Italy, in Spain, distinguish and give a separate gesture
Dame to each of the sersations, emotions, # Abridginent.
passions, and operations of the mind;
and, in due order, to qualities and things within his own mind, and pursue any kdeal, as long, length, broad, breadth, train of thought which does not depend time, space, inmortality, &c.
upon results too abstruse for his unasEvery person who has been present at sisted comprehension, it is equally certain the representation of a good pantomime, that, if we communicate to him a certain has had an opportunity of witnessing, that set of signs, however incomplete and appropriate gestures are capable of con slow in the execution, he will make a proveying almost the precise idea of the per- gress of some kind proportioned to the son who uses them, to the minds of helps he has received. None of these others. The language of gesture is ex- methods, however, can possibly obviate pressive, and it is natural. Its first prin- the principal deficiency which they leave ciples are the same in all countries, and still untouched, viz. that of being able require no instruction. By it the strao- to make a 'ready interchange of thoughts ger in a foreign country makes known his with any individual of the nation in wants, and understands the intentions of which the pupils are to pass their lives. those who approach him. It is the me. The languages of pantomime, of letters thod imparted by heaven, to open a com on the fingers, and of writing, assist, and munication among the nations separated are undoubtedly useful in a high degree; since the confusion of tongues. Even a correspondence is indeed effected by the English, whose countenances, of all them, and they lead to the cultivation of othiers, are the most placid and inmove- the pupil's mind; but none of them reable in conversation, and who are re store him to a participation in the cheerinarked for accompanying their discourse ful, easy converse, from which his want of with fewer gestures than any other people, hearing has severed him: and, without even the English make occasional use of the power of speaking or understanding the miversal gesticulations for coming, oral speech, he still remains solitary in going, threatening, inviting, coinpliment the midst of his friends and of the world, ing, noticing, comunanding silence, bid * There are seldom more than one or diwy farewell, assenting, denying, &c. two among the whole nunber of any By carrying this language to its natural deaf-dumb child's relations, that will take extent, chusing new and distinct signs the trouble to learn the meaning and con. for ideas that in themselves are distinct; nection of his simplest gestures. They and successively substituting the written guess as well as they can at the purport word for the gesticulated sign, until the of his mode of expressing himself; and use of both, as signs for the thing or in so many incongruous ways as their own thought, becomes equally familiar; the minds happen to be variously organised, deaf nod dumb have been, and still are, do they contrive gestures to convey to most usunlly instructed ; "such an edu- him their own meaning. cation comprising properly the arts of The language of gesticulated signs, conversing by manual signs and by writ- therefore, although to a certain degree it
may be a help in the initiative instrucIn addition to the pantoinimic method tion, falls short of the purpose of exacta of conversing by gestures, and that of ness, and writing also falls short of the corresponding by the written letters in purpose of speedy communication, two use among the rest of the nation to which objects which are sufficiently answered the pupil belongs, a method has been by speech alone. The most complete Adopted of easier acquirement than the system of gesticulation that can be taught former, to persons already acquainted the deaf and dumb, is as foreign a lanwith orthograply, and of much conveni- guage to those with whom a person in ence where neither of the other methods that condition may bave afterwards to can be pretised. I allude to a literal live, and as difficult to comprehend, as Language on the fingers, for which there the least intelligible of his own original are various schemes, most of which have and peculiar signs. been tried with some success. The fa I have not heard of any persons who colties of a human being gain strength took the pains to attain a competent from any kind of exercise, however tedi- knowledge of such a manner of express000; or imperfect, ns these methods, com- ing thought, except the professors and med with speech must ever be ; and pupils alone; nor is it reasonnble to preditech, it is certain thint a deaf and dumb sume that many others would quit their pornon like my other human being ch- drdinary and important occupations, for a dued with me oping powers, wants but a study in itself infinitely cmnplex, with of distinct signs to unravel the chaos out being impelled either by strong nee
3 G 9
cessity, or the hope of obtaining a re- people, and the events passing around coinpence in some degree proportion- them: for this is what we see every untued to the previous fatigue of attending tored dumb person do of himself, and it. Those unhappy persons who are in with the greater significance in proportion curably dumnb (that is, who want, or are to his greater degree of intellect. This irremediably defective in, the organs re- is the initiative stage of instruction. quisite to produce articulated sound) have The famous French professors, the certainly no other resource to express Abbés de l'Epée and Sicard, have founwhat passes within them: yet even they, ded their system of instruction for the if their sense of seeing be not as defec- deaf and dumb upon this natural lantive as their hearing, may be taught to guage of signs. By giving the full extent read upon, and understand from, the lips to the inferences that may be drawn from of others, every thing that is said in their the simple observations just mentioned, presence.
they have filled all Europe with the echo The most numerous class of dumb per- of their praise; a praise which every sons, are those who are destitute of speech friend of humanity who has bad an oponly in consequence of their being desti portunity of contemplating their success tute of the sense of hearing, which ex with all its consequences, will say is most cites otber men to speak; and not from justly merited. any defect in the organs of speech, with In the Philosophical Transactions, No. which they are in most cases as well pro- 312,* there is an account given on the vided as the generality of mankind. This authority of Mr. Waller, the then secreclass of dumb persons is what I desig- tary to the Royal Society, of a brother pate by the name of the deaf-dumb; and and sister, natives of the town in which they would have learned to speak from Mr. Waller was born, and both aged their cradle, if they had not been likewise about fifty, who, although they had been destitute of the proper instruction to ob- deaf from their childhood, yet notwithserve and imitate the motions used in standing, by observing the motions of a speaking; which, in their effects, viz. the person's lips and face while speaking, variety of sounds, are rendered so per- understood every thing the person said, ceptible to all who hear. Every indivi- and returned proper answers. The produal of this class is capable of being in- nunciation of this man and woman, alstructed, not only to read the motions of though somewhat uncouth from want of the faces of others as quick as another being regulated by the ear, was perfectly can hear, but also to produce within his intelligible. or her own mouth those very sounds with There is another instance of the exwhich the motions observed are accom- ertions of nature in what I shall call the panied.
second and third stages of the instruction We have upon record instances suffi- of the deaf and danıb, related by Bishop cient of the exertions of nature in some Burnet, in the case of a daughter of the of these forlorn individuals, to suggest, Reverend Mr. Goddy, a clergyman of without any other proof, the possibility Geneva. The young lady was first obe of bringing this theory to the same de- served to have lost her bearing when a gree of perfection as the system of in- child of about two years old, and never structing how to carry on a conversation afterwards, although she retained some by the aid of hearing. It is here worthy of faculty of perceiving when the air was agiremark, that the efforts of nature are to tated by very loud noises, could hear a sitbe observed in all and the very same gle sound of what was spoken. By attenstages through which art will have to tive observation of the mouth and lips of follow,
persons speaking, she rendered herself It is presumable that in all ages the able to understand all that was said in dumb have not been destitute of as many her sight; and moreover, by imitating signs to express their wants or wishes, as the motions of their mouths, collected a they could in that state be supposed to sufficient number of words to form a jarhave had perceptions; for this species of gon of her own; in which she could hold language is not denied even to the brutes. a conversation with her friends, and three
It is also presumable that dumb per- whose attention and ingenuity were casons have always been able to invent for pable of supplying her lapses and defithemselves, and that they have always ciencies. With the approach of dark made use of, some particular signs to in- her conversation ceased, until candles timate how far they understood the inenning, gestures, looks, and actions of other