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much improving that approach tò the and humanity claim our praise, but the Bedford eftate.

news recommended are exceptiona Of the importance of the buildings on ble. the Bedford and Foundling eltates to the To destroy (as he advises) every dog country and the proprietors, fome judg- fufpected of being bitten, would indeed ment may be forined by the following fully aufwer the purpose of security; but estimates, which are very nearly correct : equal tatety may be obtained, without The duties already paid to government the loss of many of these valuable anifor the articles consumed in the build- mals. Is it not unjust to involve the ings, amount to 84,5001. The house and harmless and noxious in the fame ruin, window duties per annuin, 40,7001. The when it is in our power to discriminate? war tax on property, per annum, 19,800). -may we not transfer the fame mode of The new river company guin hy the in- reatoning, with propriety, to the unbitcreased service, per annum, 3,4501. The ten, but faspected, and the bitten dogs ? present value of the buildings erected is in the present cato nothing is more ob1,328,0001. The annual value, 125,7101.' vious, nothing more caly than this dife. And the present annual value of the crimination. It contitis iimply in tying ground-rents, 18,8391.

them up: the intected' will soon be dif It is presumed, that about one half the tinguishable buildings are completed on the Bedford I would take the liberty to refer your ekate, and two thirds on the Foundling readers to my Treatise on Hydrophobia, cftate. If, therefore, those proportions vol. i. p. 292-5, fecond edition, where be added to the sums already estimated, fufficient facts are recorded to establish fome idea, may be formed of the rever the inicrence, and mark with fome preLonary value to the proprietors; and if cilion the iuterval between the bite and to these be added the duties and taxes on the commencement of the disease in the the other eftates before inentioned fouth dog tribe. It will be found, from the of tlie new road, the permanent taxes exainples there adduced, that thirty days to the state cannot be less (according to is its longest period; though it often does their prefent ratio) than, for houses and not exceed the trait. Let the calculation, windows per annum, 100,000!.; for duties therefore, begin from the time the rabida and customs on the building articles, dog appeared in thie place; and the length 200,0001.; for the war-tax on property of the continement will be apparent. per annum, 40,0001.; and in total of the To remove all uncertainty, however, the chpital thus to be created, not less than dog may be kept on the chain a week 8,500,000). ; exclusive of all confideration longer. This inconvenience cannot bo of the advantages derived to the reve- thought grent. Food and water inuft bo nue, manufactures, and commerce, by daily fupplied; and the person employed the fitting up and furnishing so vaft a to feed them thould always approach with neighbourhood

2.' caution, pulling the victuals towards December 1806.

them with forne fuitable instrument, toi.

avoid coming too near. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine

By this advice I have favod feverinad SIK,

condemned dogs, which were aleful to IN N many of the London papers, and their matters for years afterwards ; and

in foine of the provincial, a corre have detected early difeafe in others, by 1pondent lately intimated, that several which dreadful effects, doubtless, had the perfons had, a few days before bis com- aninials been at large, were prevented, as munication, fuffered from the bite of a several of your readers can texify. mad dog, and mentions a fatal initance. I prefume it to be altogether unneTracing the progress of one of these ceffery bere to repeat, that in a very rabid dogs afterwards into the country, early stage of hydrophobia dogs are cabe enumerates the several animals, and pable of cumununicaling the disease. even some of the human fpecies, lately. They will eat, driok, answer the call, bitten in its flight from village to vil- fiwn on their matters, and fuffer themlage.

selves to be brudled, ns in perfod health, This writer very laudably cautions the wheti they are most dangerous compapublic againft cerelefs ipdifference, by nions. This arises from the intervals imprudently delaying to obriate danger between these fits, which characterize till bydrophobis appears in fome of these the complaint in the first days of its-atapitalis. 'In all this, his sdingnitions, tack. During toe paroxylins, ouly, they




For the Monthly Magazine. every biographer, in the absence of re. THE LYCEUM OF ANCIENT gular history, has not failed to exbibit an

LITERATURE.-No. JI. hypothers of his own. In the poems OF THE LIFE, AGE, AND COUNTRY OF which are indisputably Homer's, he has

no where fpoken directly of himself; nor VERY historical account of Homer EY

was there in his tine any historian (at must be short, as it can only be an least, we know of none,) to record his useless repetition of uncertain facts, and name and the events of his life. Hero unfounded conjectures. There is no writ- dotus alone (who, hy his own account, er who has so much engaged the attention lived about 400 years after Homer) bas of posterity, and of whose real hiftory transmitted to us fomething like a prowe are less informed. An admirer of this bable narrative : but probable only in great poet would say, that he relembles this, that, divested of those fabulous des the Deity, who is known to us only by scriptions and incidents which abound in his works. We know not where he was other writers, it is a limple narrative of born, nior (with any degree of precision) circumstances, which might have comat what time he lived. If we confideí posed the life of any other man as well him in the light in which he is transinitted as of Homer. It relis upon as meagre a to us by ancient writers, we nuit be con- foundation, and is as little fupported by tented to pass from one absurdity to an. authority, as any of the rest. It is mi other; and, in the multiplied and con nute and trifling, deflitute of colouring, tradictory accounts, substitute fabulous imagination, and invention; conhiting atfertion for rational narration. It may only of details which might have formel satisfy the sceptical reader to be informed the life of any obscure grammarian, it na by Suidas, that no less than ninety cities where betrays the importance of the subclaimed the honour of having given bim jećt, nor the admiration due to lach a birth. In Eustathius, we read that he poet; and offers nothing corresponding wa; born in Egypt, and that he was with the idea we entertain of Homer. If nursed by a priesters of llis, from whom therefore, in common with so many others, he imbibed honey instead of milk. In we take from Herodotus all that we mean Heliodorus, that he was the son of Mer- to say historically of Homer, it is not cury: Others afcribe to him a direct and that we believe his account to be entitled lineal descent from Apollo. But there to much greater credit than that of any were the extravagant theories of men, other ancient, but because it has beeii who, unable to express how much they more generally followed, and is in truth adınired the poet, have exceeded all the only one deserving of serious obfers bounds of probability in their accounts of vation, him. The mind, apparently dazzled by Ilonner, according to him, was born such excellence, loses the common idea at Smyrna, about 106 years atter the of the man in the imaginary fplendour of tiege of Troy, and 622 before the expeperfection; and unwilling that he Mould dition of Xerxes into Grecce. Histuther ever be mentioned in a language beneath is not mentioned; but his mother Criits conception, gives us table for history, theis proving with child in coniequence The poetical genealogy, which may be of an illicit comection, the was fent to seen in Suidas, proves that the advocates Smyrna, a colony froin Cuma. Somefor Greece even surpafled the others in time after her removal

, accompanying in exaggerated fiction, in proportion as the procesiion of women to a fettival celerefinement of the Greeks was fuperior to brated near the river Meles, she was onthat of the Egyptians. Gods, goddefles, expectedly delivered of Hoiner, to whom muses, kings, and heroes, are linked in the gave the name of Meleligenes, from this wonderful descent. Every writer who the place of his birth. In process of lias pretended to give us an account of time, under the tuition and inspection of Homer, however he may differ from Phemius, who had married his mother, others in his narrative, is equally studious he advanced with tuch rapidity in all the in afcribing to him a celestial origin, and arts and improveinents of his age, and the most marvellous adventures. Eu- betrayed such extraordinary intelligence, stathius, Heliodorus, Hermias, Diodorus as to become the common wonder, not Siculus, Suidas, Plutarch, and Elian, only of his countrymen, but of all the offered to the mind only confused and strangers who resorted to Smyrnu, fitcontradictory compilations of the most tracted by its profperous trade. Homer absurd allegories. His Life seems to have appears to have poilefled a great defire of been invented, rather than written; and informing himself of the manners and


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boy were of the exploits at Troy, and This conclusion will appear the more that he had finillied both his poems about reasonable, when we conlider the lanhalf a century after the town was taken. guage of Homer, wbich, with the excep But the manners which he describes can- tion of a few words, isequal to the Greek not be adduced as a proof of the age in of the present times. The formation of which he lived; for by the rules of his the language into Tenses, Cafes, and art as an epic poet, it would have been Numbers, was already perfed and comabsurd is, writing of an ancient event, pleted. This evidently proves that the he had not adapted the characters of his Greeks had, long before his time, arrived personages to the times in which he laid at a conliderable fate of improveinent: the plan of his poems. Virgil, who wrote It was impofsible that the language fhould so long after him, gives the same finple attain such excellence, as to require litule manners to his heroes. All tragic poets, amendment or addition, unless those who in ancient and in modern times, have spoke it had alto acquired equal excel, endeavoured to suit the manners and fen- lence in the arts of social life and of civil tinents of their characters to the coun- government. It is the real perception of try and the æra in which they are sup: things, which gives birth to their respece posed to have lived. Why then Tould tive ideas in the mind, and these again to we suppose that Homer might not do the outward exprelijons, by words combined fame and that, though living himself in iuto significant sentences. That the use o polifhed age, he had the good lense of a language to express all the improvenot to ascribe to the rough warriors of ments of civilization, should procede the Ilium the refined inanners of his own actual birth and progress of civilization contemporaries. It was easier for him itself, is a paradox that no man can urge to give to his herpes the less polished cast who has not adopted fomne laypothetis, of an age long before his own, than to incontilient with thie real truth, Homer, have anticipated, in idea, a state of re certainly wrote in the dialect which pre finement in language, in metre, and in vailed in Asia, down to the most improved the arts, which Greece could not have times of the Grecian colonies there. And attained till : considerable time atier, we cannot fuppose that the language of There are such internal evidences in his thote Ionic settlers, should become any poems of refinement, as stand in direct way fixed and pure, till long after the leć contradiction to the roughness of his tlement of the colonists theinselves, But characters. The invocation of the Mufes without entering any further into this difin the second book, demonstrates that pute, it is enough to fay, that we must he lived long after the liege of Troy; till have recourse to the Arundelian and this would seern almost incontrover- marble, which affords the best computaribly corroborated by an expression which tion of thofe early ages,

and this by he uses, and which has been noticed by placing Homer when Diogenetus ruled in Velleius Paterculus," that mankind was Athens makes lıın flourith a little before but half ro ftrong in his age, as in that the Olympiads were establithed; abuut of wlrich he wrote." This expression, three hundred years after the taking of grounded on the fuppofed gradual dege- Troy, and one thousand before the chuila neracy of our nature, discovers the long tian era. interval between the poet and his sub The question respecting the Country of ject. The various articles of elegance Homer, is one of till greater difficulty. and luxury described in the Odyssey, be- The internal evidence of the Poems inay, tray a much later age than is ufually and, as we bave seen,occalionally do, serve afligned him; and inter that he must to contradict those allertions, which allign have lived in more civilized tites than him a period inconlistent with the clo can be consistent with the implicity gance of his language, and the refinement whiich he attributes to his berous. The of his ideas. But the number of places appearances of luxury asid elegance in which have disputed the honour of baving the Æneid, are nothing compared to given him birth, renders it impoflible at those in Homer; and although the Greek this diftance of time, satisfactorily to ats orders of architecture inight not then certain the precise place. To mention be invented, yet the ideas of magnifi- all the cities and provinces which fe. cence conspicuous in his palaces might verally set up a claim, to collect all the have been borrowed from the practice of ridiculous affertions and documents which much later periods than thofe he defcribes, have been advanced as proots from each. from times more polished in axts, as well would require the rainute curiosity and as more civilized in manners.

patient elaboration of his ancient come


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