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every side, they are apt to lose all pre- sound of a particular whistle denotes that sence of mind, become giddy, and fall the firemen are at their post; the seduwn; thus, not only obstructing the ex cond, that the working of the engine has ertions of the experienced tiremen, but begun; and the third, that it has ceased, disheartening the tyro from following the and is no longer necessary. exarnple of his master.

The veteran After what has been observed, no one fireman, on the contrary, forms his opi- can, even in Paris, become an expert nion of a contayration at the first sight firemen, before seven or eight years pracof it; he immediately knows u bitheriodic tice, For although thicoretical knowrect his engine, and what instructions to ledge is of some use, yet the views of magive to the assistants.

ny totally different couitlagrations, an una A guard of fireinen consists of three common presence of mind, and a coue persons; a corporal, a lieau fireman, and rave supported by the generous disposiav under-fireman. The tiist superintends tion of succouring the unfortunate, are the engine, that is to say, be directs the absolutely necessary to insure ultimate working of it, and takes care that no muddy or gritty water be poured into the In Paris, the idea of honesty is insecistern of the pump. The second super- parably connected with that of fireman; intends the fire, that is, he attends to the for although the tiremnan has a right to tendency, power, and extension of it, and demand the opening of any room, and in points the spout of the engine accordinya case of refusal, to burst open both street ly. The third superintends the leather and room-doors, yet there is no person pipes, that is, he follows the second, bewy who would take more scrupulous care very careful that the pipes be well laid, of property entrusted to him. do not become entangled, or swell too Skilful engineers have more than once snuch in one place. To prevent their attended at coutlagrations, but have free bursting, he is always provided with some ly confessed, that on such emergencies twine, for the purpose of applying it in their theoretical knowledge proved insufume. For, even if the pipe actually ficient to direct the operations of the fireburst, this application is so beneficial, men, who had the advantage of experithat the operation is no way interrupted ence, derived from long practice. by the aperture. The firemen, who pos Every fireman is at liberty to retire sess the privilege of compelling every one

froin the service of the company at pleapresent to give assistance, are expected sure, which is a wise regulation, calcuto assign each person his proper place, lated for its general benefit

. For many lest he labour to no purpose. This task individuals are admitted members, who, is allotted to the first fireman, who di- after becoming more intimately acquaintrects the working of the engine, and ar- ed with the dangers, to which every fireranges near it the first file of from ten to man is daily exposed, shrink from the fitteen persons, handing the buckets. The dithculties of such a service. Were these rest are under the orders of a magistrate, men enrolled lihe soldiers, they would attending for that purpose. As scarely a discharge their duties not only in a serday passes at Paris without some fire vile manner, but in constant agony, and breaking out, the firemen are kept in certainly do more harm than gond; as the continual practice. Every playhouse firemen engaved in actual service are e!in Paris is obliged to provide a fire-en- joined to perform certain functions, froin gine, which is served by three fireinen, which every other citizen is excluded. who are daily relieved by others. Their I have been intimnied that the French attendance begins at five o'clock in the soldiers who returned froin Egypt unaniafternoon precisely, and is continued mously assert, that is Bonaparte had through the whole of the night till day- taken with hin either a wide company, lighi, during which time they keep strict or at least a dozen, of fireinen, to iuwatch. Each man receives a monthly struct cthers, they wou:!! mot, during gratuity of thirty francs, as their pay, their stay in that country, bave been anconsidering the extraordinary hardslips voyed by so many cont'agrations. and dangers to which they are exposed, The new organization of the Paris is very slender; for the city pays to each firemen is set forth in a decree, which firemnan no more than sixteen sols a day. passed in the ninth year, under the Cone The smaller theatres disburse every day sular government. Its principal iratuses for the three fireinen nine livres, and the arean augmentation of their number, and larger ones from lifteen to eighteen livies. an increase of pay. The age of the tiraIn case a theatre be set on fire, the first neu is likewise restricted to the perio i MONTILY MAG, No, 157.


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of from 18 to 30. Every man must “ Inutilesque amputans feliciores inserit. measure five fict (10 aches. He must be able to read and write; have been

I am aware that the latter part is (very apprenticed at least tor two years to

happy) adopted for the (litran seal: the trades of bricolajer, carpenier, tiler, bui inut smety does not precude a duteplumber, jomer, coacumanci, iochismith,

rent and prauon of it tur i sull higher sadler, or basketnaher, and ne must pos

prucess; by mbichi, ilmay keuture upon sess a good eliaracter,

the match bet, the nine kingdom itself Though many attempts have been made is morady Vacownied at once. in the city of Pars, both i efore and alier

open my nie to say, that in your the revolution, as well as under the pre-in Memous of Lord Thulow, there is a

last number but one (vol. xxii. p. 355), sent iinperial Lovernment, to establish institutions for insuring buildings and mistahe or two deserving of currection.

Dr. Sinitb, the invier of Calus Colproperty, simiar to those which are the pride of London, yet whether it is wat leve, Cambridge, died 1u 1795, and 26 the people of Paris bave no favourable succeeded by Dr. Belu ara. Dr. Davy opinion of the integrity of the monneet succceded the latter. interest, or that they place implicit con

In the next page, Lord Walsioghan's fidence in the skill of their firenen, ihese family name is De Grey, ant velpea. institutions have never been crowned

The query at p. 351, Tescire to the with success.

barbarous practice of boiling lobsten alive remainis unanswered.

F. R. S. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR,

To the Editor of the Monthly Miguzine T

STI, pondent Zewas, but, napon enquiry, he AVING seen in' your entertaining, he propuses (vol. xvii. p. 435) in the ortho- yuriy conceng daily alie, wtsune Mes graphy of the words exceed, proceed, and mwins are willi cu bare le canserted in succeed, nas introduced by au iess a wri- Pereyrne Pichle, give me ivait to intoria ter than Dr. Conyes Middleton, author you what I how about her. In the year of the Life of Cicero, &c. but without any 1771 (I was then a young girl, and on a permanent effect. There is a vexatious party of pleasure will suine trends at perver eness in this want of analogy, March's, Mandenhead-bridge), in the which more or less pervades our fan- montis vt August, when, giriishie, we were guage, and which, I fcai, is incorrigible. watching at the window to see who came The same cmineat authority, on the to the bo, a coach stupper, and a lady same principle, would have introduced was hirted out between two men,

Tue the words exclume, erplune, &c. omni- singulariyotderappearance attacied our ting the i, as forming no part of the ori pouce: her face appeared us in a mask. ginal Latin word; but the practice died I suppose from paint,

When the waiter with himsclf. In the words ancient, pro Caluc it, "e enquired who this extraor runciation, and others which have ubij- dmary personage was, and were told it ously come lo us by the strictly geogra was die formely much adiired Lady phical route of France, it may sul be Vave, ulio resided in complete setirement doubtful whether the Galicc or the Ro- a few miles from that spot; that she was man t should be preferred; and yet, in entirely nursed and attended by men; such a word as vice and its derivatives, had lost the use of her limus; and Wine whuch inay perhaps decide the question, her only recreation was to come to that we cannot hesitate about adopting the innt, which she did occasionally, and was former.

obliged to have a bed on the groundThere is such a prejudice (perhaps tour; and that she sat up most of the night, your Correspondent". A Subscriber', and drank a great deal of wine and spirits. who dates from St. Paul's Cofice-house, Some years alter, being in thut tigh p. 451, may call it " a vexatious per- bouriroud, I coquired atier the unfortuverseness,"in favour of Latin inoltos nate lady, and heard that she died a few to seals, &c. that I would venture to l'ee months after I had reeu her:so I suppose commend for that of the Philanthropic she was buried acar the salve spot. I Society, with a double reference (both to the heard the name of the place, but the exiled convict aod his protected have quite furgot it. child):

1 an, your's, &e, C.P.



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To the Editor oj the Monthly Mugazine. I am at a loss to conceive why he should

ever have adopted Hebrum instead of le-consideriny Mr. Pickbourn's Euruni, unless the course of the river was

sopuler letier in vol. xxi. p. 104, I intended to convey the idea of gruce and found 18.t1 bare understood that part benuty.

I am, &c. of it as a Iranisation of the passage Kuvenstondule,

J. ROBINSON. gustoitin Bishop Hare, which Mr. P. Muy 2, 1807. intended only as an explanation of ac

Tunis inisunderstauciing, I a sure To the Editor of the Monthly Alugurine.

P was unintentional, and occasione SIR, eli jucivertency, touch the mwner

on the frecerling sentence was pool to Chester, on Easter Mon#sh, Itzht ble deceived others a day, I crossed at one of the ferries, and

Tuis, however, wakes no pertörmed the journey on foot. As I mai'it il alteration with respect to the passed along, i perceived the female

which we dufer in senti. villagers eye me with 10 little curi

Wind dir, P: I think that aru osily, but conceiving it to be nothing tus is undoubtedly a participle from the more than usual at the sight of a stranveio ocul.

But in the place of the ger, or perhaps somewhat flattered by word syllubu, I would insert nolu. Aculu temale attention, 10 unpleasant appremoto means a sharpencil or acuted vote: hension arose; till at length a strong and therefore syllaba occute nota prorina party of them, consisting of seven or muise signity tie syllable which is accent- cight, rushed trom a little village, and ed. That this is not a faise nor forced surrounded ine, one of them seizing me interpretation of the passaye in question, by the breast. Alarnied at this, so much is evident trom the context, and in par- like a hue and cry after a thiet, I desired ticular, from what he afierwards subjesins; to know what was my offence; and in re“Quæ acuuntur in tertia ab ertromin, in turn was intorined by the Amazoo, who terdum acutum rorripiunt, si positione had me still in her grasp, that it was Easter aola longa suni, ut optime, sérvitus, péror- Monday, or Littingday. As I had receive lim, Lámphilus, et pauca nliu, quo Cretici ed some little hint of this custom when mutuntur in snajestos. Idem fuctum in Liverpool, and rightly supposed the est in néutiquum, licet incipiat a diphia principal object of all such (at least in mothongo." De Metr. Cornic. p. 62. dern days,) to be the extortion of money,

I could wish to be informed by some I thought it prudent so to liberate myself, of vour learned correspondents why rather than to satisty my curiosity by a Heyne, in bis edition of Virgil

, has made practical experience of the operation. nse of the word Hebrum, instead of The next village I had nearly shared a siEurum, in the passage in which the poet milar fate; but fortunately, I was too far is describing Venus, the inother of advanced ere they could collect in suffi£nes :

cient mumbers to commence the aftackom -qualis cquos Threissa fatigat As it was past 12 o'clock when I arrived Haspalvce, volucremque fuga præveruitur

at Chester, I witne-scd nothing more on H brum.

that day, it being confined to the forenoon Volucrem Hebruin, (says lleyne), coma

entirely: but on the morrow my ears muni futurum cpithelo declaravit, etsz

were carly assailed by the rude camours Hebrecursuin nurrunt esse tenem ac places of those who were attacking the passendum. I do not think that the epithei rolu- gers on every side. Nor were the houses,

at least the inns, a sufficient protection; CT * in applicable in the llebrus, it, as said, tie curse oofibe river be lenis et pluciilus.

as I had by no means the enviable pleasure Bis des, the con edicions of l'irgil

to hear, during my breakfast, a far from headpierd the amenduent of Huetius, delicate party enquire if the gentleman and red Eurum, to which vulucnem is

was risen, which was answered by my mu is more aplicable. In everal places falsehood securing my safety. Thię prac

hostess in the negative; thus by a little of bis works, Vinylhas made use of Eurus tice is, that if the perfons so scized, male to express rupachty.

or female (as they have each a day), rc--Fagi ilicet scior Euro. En. viii 993.

fuse to pay the necessary fine, they are -Fugit ucior Euro. A. xii. 733.

taken by the arms, lees, clothes, or any To these and other passayes, Heyne part, and tossed up and down several has followed the cominun reading; and times, the last, not uafrequently, suffered

to fall with considerable violence: in For the Monthly Magazine deed, I am told that serious accidents

THE ANTIQUARY. have been known to occur through it.

No. XIII, The precedence of the sex as to the day ON THE INTRODUCTION OF CHIMNIES. is, I understand, in some places, where

MONG the introductions which no doubt the original custom is more strictly adhered to, regulated by the su

have more immediately distinguishperiority of a king or queen, who are

ed the comparative convenience of mo

dern life above the comforts of our early chosen to ride for it; the winning sex commencing hostilities on the Monday, the ancestors, we may, perhiaps, be allowed

to place the use of chimnies. other reta iacing on the Tuesday; but in must places, little to the honour of their

It has been a question often canvassed,

whether the ancients were acquainted gailantry, the men take the lead now. with them; but the testinonies which Sir, as I am a West-countryman, and little

have been cited are rather evidences that versed in any customs but those of my

the houses of Greece and Rome were own inmediate neighbourhood, I should thank any of the numerous readers of your silent on the subject. And what we learn

constructed without thein, Vitruvius is valuable Mayazine if they would intorm from the discoveries at Herculaneum and me through lis medium, of the origin and Pompeii, as well as from the traces of intention of this curious one; as I am by Roman stations both in this and other no means satistied with the information

countries, more than indicates that the given me by a gentleman, to whom, on account of his age and situation, I app tirely by subterraneous flues.

different apartinents were warmed enplied, that it was in commemoration of

The oldest certain account of chimour Lord's resurrection, Were such the case, much as I venerate ancient usages, writing the History of Inventions, was in


that occurred to Beckmann, while I could wish to see this abolished, as, 1347, when a great many chimnies at in addition to its appearing like a bur- Venice (molti camini) are said to have lesque, and fitter to convey an idea of been throun down by an earthquake. her, the horrid oaths and imprecations at

He adds, that the first chimney-sweepers tending the proceeding, give a stranger a and the neighbouring territories; which

in Germany came from Saroy, Piedmont, very indifferent opinion of the veneration for a long time were the only countries entertained here for an event the most where the cleaning of chinnies was carinteresting to human nature. As it seems

ried on as a trade. to originate in Wales, whither our most ancient customs retired, perhaps there is

But although chimnies were not comsome little remains in it of a ceremony

mon, their use may be proved in this attached to the early religion of this country at a period still more distant. island; as it was the practice of our first Chemin, which iinplies a road or way, Christian missionaries to suffer the con- may, perhaps, induce one to believe that verts to retain as much of the former ce

the introduction of them was froin France; emonies and usages which they were at

or the name might have been taken frun

the Latin. tached to, as was consistent with the spirit and purity ofour benevolent religion. In

Mr. Whitaker, in the History of Crathat case it may be classed with the May ven (p. S34), recites a Computus of Bolgames of our island, or the hill-tires of the ton-abbey, in Yorkshire; in which, so Irish; and some very learned person may

long ago as 1310, the sum of nine shile trace its introduction to the Phænicians: lings was paid for the making of a chime indeed, Mr. Editor, it is iinpossible to ney:

« Pro camino rect, de Gayrgrave facie say how far my question may lead; but at all events, it is pretty well for you in the endo, et dato eidem, ixs." twetropolis that it is not in the possession lus aud Cresseide, which it may not be

There is also a line in Chaucer's Traiof your canaille, or even in that of puissurdes at Billingsgate; for, though it irrelevant to quote: would not affect your beaux or fashion. “In this gode plite, let no liery thought ables, who scarcely know what a fore

Ben hangyo in the berris of you twey; noon is, the consequence inight not be

And bare the candle to the clymenty" pleasant to soine of the rest.

Liji 1. 1145. Liverpool, You's, &c.

Piers Plowman, whose Visions are supe April 1807. INQUISITOR. posed to bave been writteu about 1369,



appears to notice the chimnies as con “ In the building and furniture of their fined to the chambers of the rich: houses (he observes), till of late years, " Now hath eche ryche a rule to eaten by they used the old manner of the Saxons; himselte,

for they had their fire in the midst of the In a privy parler for poor men sake,

house, against a hob of clay, and their Or in chamber with a chimney and leave the

oxen under the same roof: but within chief halle."

these forty years they have builded chimBut the introduction of these funnels neys." was an innovation which does not seem Such are the principal testimonies to have been generally approved; since which relate to the introduction of clima we do not find them exhibited in the il- nies. Their use became afterwards so luminations of our ancient manuscripts general, that in the 11th of Charles the till about the close of the fifteenth cen- Second the duty paid to the crown on tury. One or two are seen in the View houses had the name of chimney-money. of London, of the time of Henry the Se. And it would be difficult, perhaps, to venth, engraved in Mr. Gough's History find a hovel at the present day without of Pleshy.

In some cases it should seem that they Our ancestors, however, at remoter were inoveable: at least we gather so periods, seem to have tried different from the following passage in the Will of ways of getting rid of the sinoke froin Jolin Sothill, proved in the Registry at their kitchens. York, October 3, 1500. (Rey. Ebor.

The kitchen at Glastonbury Abbey, Scroope, f. 296.)

which had four fire-places in the lower " I will that iny son have the great part, had a roof which contracted in prorhymney that was my faders, and all the portion to its height, and-ended in a kind leds in the brew hous.”

of open lantern. Harrison, in the Description of Bri That at Stanton Harcourt, in Oxfordtaine, written about 1570, prefixed to shire, belonging to the ancient residence Holinshed's Chronicle, gives a relation of the Harcourt family, is still more ciwhich seeins to imply that they had not rious. It is built of stone, square beeven then become very coniinon in our low, octangular above, ending like a country towns.

tower; and tires being made against the “ There are old men (he says) yet walls, the smoke climbed up them withduelling in the village where I remaine, out any funnels, or disturbance to the which have noted threc things too cooks, and being stopped by a large com much increased. One is the multitude nical root, went out in loop-holes at the of chimnyes latelie erected, whereas in sides, which were shut or opened as the their yuong daies there were not above wind set, being formed by boards with two or thice, if so manie, in most up-hinges.

L. landish townes of the realine (the religious toases, and inanour places of their To the Editor of the NIonthly Magazine. lords alwaies excepted, and peradventure some great parsonages); but each SIR, one made his tire against a rere-dosse in SHALL he obliged to any of our the ball, where he dined and dressed his


Correspondents who can inform me mear."

(through the channel of your useful He afterwards adds,

and widely-circulated miscellany) froin “ Now have we manye chimnyes, and whence caine the term ritch-elm, a name yet onr tenderlings conipla ya of rheums, given to a species of elm-tree, to distincatarı his, and poses; then bad we nothing guish it from the common-elm. Somie but rere-dosses, and yet our beads did people have conjectured that it was a never ache. For as the smoke in those corruption of white elm, and so called daiey was supposed to be a sufficient from the silvery whiteness of its leaves hardning for the ticuber of the house, so when the sun shines upon them : but this it was reputed a farre better medicine to is hardly probable, as Sir F. Bacon in his keepe the good man and his tainly from “ Sitra Silcuruin, or Natural History, in the quacke or pose, wherewith as then Ten Centuries," speaks of it under the very fewe were acquainted."

name of u cech elm, which I should think But Mr. King, in the History of Vale was the properest way to spell it. The Royal, published in 1056, states their in- insertion of this will muchoblige, trodnction into Chesbire to bave been

Your's, &c. S. R. Cutisiderably later :

December 6, 1806.


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