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form an ample collection of inscriptions, ma that this country does not gain any acnuscripts, and medals, and other valuable cession of riches from her trade; that monuments of antiquity, whether Hebrew, her wealth, her prosperity, and her Phenician, Greek, or Romun. 18.- Estimate of the present population of inherent in berselt; and consequently
power, are wholly derived from resourres Palestine, with details of the manners and
that we have no reason to be alarned, customs of the inhabitants.
19.- Vestiges of ancient cultivation in although our enemies should succeed in parts of the country now desolate and unpru
their attempts to exclude us from comductive,
inerce with every part of the globe. 20 — Weights; and measures of time, dis A new Spanish and English Grammar tance, and capacity.
is announced by Mr. Tuomas Plata 21.-The present moles of dividing the year and day, in use aipong the Arabs, The first numher of the Transactions of Turks, Christians of each denomination, and the Entomological Society of London, is Jews; as well as the state of trade and manu. expected to make its appearance early factures within che limits of Palestine, and in June. its vicinity.
Mr. BUEWSTER, of Edinburg', has inA variety of other subjects of inquiry of a
vented a new strometer, for finding the more partiular and detailed nature cannot
rising and setting of the stars and planets, fund to surgess themselves to the committee,
and their position in the heavens, which when they are preparing their instruciions for
is said to be more simple in its constructheir travellers.
The following is a list of the members of tion, and more extensive in its applicathe committee oprointed by the association: tion, than any before invented. The use
A. Hamilton, D. D. F.RS, V.P.A. Pre- of this instrument is illis described: To sident.
find the name of any particular star that is Earl o: Aberdeen, Treasurer.
observed in the heavens, place the astroWilliam Hamilton, Esq. F.S.A. Secretary. meter due porch and south, and when George Browne, Esq.
the star is near the horizon, shift the Rev. W. Cockburn.
moveable index till the two sights point J. Spencer Smith, Esq. LL. D. F.R.S.
to the str. The side of the index will F.S.A.
then point out, on the exterior circle, the Mr. BYERLEY’s Trauslation of Maclia- star’s' amplitude. With this amplitude vel's Prince, is in the press, and will enter the third scale from the centre, and be printed in an elegane octavo volume, find the declination of the star in the embellihed with a tead of Machiavel. second circle. Shift the movcable borary
The same gentleman's Translation of circle, till the time at which the essere Don Quixote, which has been finish
Intion is made, be opposite the ster's ed these two yours, will be inime- declination; and the index will print to diately put to press, and appear in six the time at which it passes the incridian, elegant cabinet volumes, embellished The ditierence between the time of the with engravings.
stars suuting, and twelve o'clocli at Mr. Dinding the celebrated composer, noon, couverted into degrees of the proposes to publish a new periodical equator, and added to the right ascension work, consisting of a series of short and it ihe star comes to the meridian after simple Essays and sa; calculated in the sun, but subtracted from it if the star their general operation, progressively to Souths before the sun, will give the right assist the musical education of yoully ascension of the star. With the right la sies at boarding schools, called the ascensions and declinations thus found, Musical Mentor; or, Sc. Cecilia at enter a table or the right ascensions and School.
declinatiuns of the principal tixed stars, An Essly on the Authenticity and An- and you will discover the name of the tiquity of the Pueins of Ossiam, in wlich star which corresponds with th se ninothe objections of Mr. Malcolm Laing, bers. The astro'neter may be employed are particularly considered and refuted, in the solution of various other probleins, is preparing for publication, by PATRICK Dr. THORNTON bastaid beto ethe pub Guatem, D.D. minister of Aberloyle. Jic two new cases, in which the oven
Mr. WILLIAM SPENCE, F.L.S. bas in gas has performed striking cu ez in izatii the press a work, entitled Britain In ma. The sabject of one of these was, dependent of Commerce. The object Mr. Williams, who had been a'iliceert in of this publication is to show, in opposi- the most alarminy manner for several tion to elie commonly received doctrines, years, but who, by inhaliuz tlie oxygen
gas, aided with tonic medicines, was about five feet and an half; its diameto perfectly cured in a few weeks. Mr. two and a half, and that of the flues four Willianis has now beendee tron asthma inches. The external part is constructed upwards of two years, which be ascribes of brick, and the internal parts of thin entirely to the plieumatic medicine. Ryegate or fire-stone, except the top of
Mr. TAUNTON, suryeon to the City and the tire-place, which is a plate of castFinsbury Dispensaries,has again appealed iron. This stove might be adapted to to the public tipon the necessity of esta- 'the drying of malt and hops, perhaps of blishing a fund, to be connected with herbs, corn, and seeds, generally. It charitable institutious, for the relief of might also be accommodated to the purthe ruptured poor. He contends, that fucs of sugar-bakers, connected with the nearly ont-tenth part of mankind are great tires employed for their builere. afflicted with hernia: of course the pre Dr. Parry las laid before the Bath vention of an evil attendant uponi ibis Society, some account of his improved calamity, is of the utmost importance. sheep by Spanish wixture,, in a series of Tie distressing scenes which he is called propositions which lie demonstraird ly on frequently to witness, and which specimens exhibited before the society. he has described very pathetically, Dr. Parry in his experiments employed miglit, he says, generally be prevented llerefordshire ewes, and the rais em by a proper bandage or truss, applied in ployed for the original crosses were Me the beginning of the discase, and con- rinos. (1.) The first proposition is, that tinued with care. This might be ac
the wool of the fourth cross of this breed complished at a small expence, com is fully equal in fineness to that of the pared with the good that would accrue male parent stock in England. (2.) By to society; it would even be a saving to breeding from select Merino-Ryeland the community at large, by the preven
rams and ewes of this stuck, sheep way tion of accidents which always tend to be obtained, the fleeces of which are increase the parochial rates.
superior both to those of the cross-bred Dr. Olgens has written to Dr.Young, parents, and of course to those of the foreign secretary to the Royal Society, original progenitors of the pure Merino announcing his discovery ot'another new blood in England. (3.) From mixed planet, on the 29th and 30th of March rams of this breed, sheep may be oblast. This planet, which he calls Vesta, tained, having wool at least equal in fineis apparently about the size of a star, of vess to the best that can be procureri the 5th or oth magnitude, and was first from Spain. (4.) Wool from sheep of a seen in Virgo. On the 29th of March, proper modification of Merino and Ryeat 8h 21m, mean time 18-1° 8': N. de- land, will inake cloth equal to sbat trum clination 11° 47'; on the 30th at 12" 33m the Spanish wool imported into this mean time 1890 52': N. declination, country. (5.) The proportion of fine 11° 54'. It has since been seen by dr. wool in the fleeces of the cross breed, is GROOMBRIDGE, at liis obscrvatory on equal, if not superior, to that of the best Blacklieath, who says,
a Spanish piles, and it is more profitable star of the sixth magnitude, of a dusky in the manufacture than the liesi Spanish. colour, sinilar in appearance to the (6.) The lamub's wool of the Merino-Rye Iterschel
laid breed, will make finer cloth thing In the Duke of BUCCLELGU's Collection, the best of that of the pure Merino there has lately been found a curious breed. (7.) Should long wool of this nemanuscript of the Statutes of the orders grce of tineness be wanted for shauls, of the Carter and Bathi, with various old &c. this can be effected by allowing the drawings; among the latter are portraits fleece tu reanin on the animal wastura of Richard Ill. and of Amne, bis queen. two years. (8.) This stock is already These drawings prove to lie the originals much improved as to the form of the earfrom which the late Lord Orford's vuta case, compared with the Meruos orilines were taken, us represented in his ginally imported. “ Historic Doubts."
Mr. TTELWALL is about to commence, Mr. GEORCE FIELD has invented an at bis Institution for the Cultivation of inproved store for heating rooms, or Englislı Qratory, aitd Cure of Impedidrying various articles, whicle unites the meats, in Bedford-Place, a Course of Sys various advantages of heating, boiling, Lectures, particularly addressed to the steaming, evapointing, driny, ventila- junior Members of the New Parliament, ting, &c. The height of the stove is un the objects tad genuinc characteris
ties of senatorial and popular cloquence, for it, in the history and geography of the causes of the present declining state their country. None are to be dismissed of oratory and popular talent, and the from school before they can read both means of improving our mionai elucu- print and plain writing, and give a ration. The lectilie's will commence on tional account of the principles of christhe crening ur Yonday, June 8:11, and tranity. These regulations are, for the first, will be continued on Jlonday evening's limited tu the islands of Zealand, Funen, only. They will be illustrated by Orit Coland, and Galster; but ater they have torical recitations, esternporary decidit- been tried, they will, no duulit, perhaps unations, id critical sketches vi sereral with some alterations and improvements, of the host celebrated statesmen and be extended to ali the rest of Denmark. parliami wary orators of the preceding The Supreme Court of Justice at Cogeneration; nocluding Lords Chubut, penbayen, bas laid before the king an Manneld, Camden, Ashburton, Vri account of all criminals in the Danish Gienville, Chirils Townshend, Pitt, dominions, (including Iceland and the Burke, Fox, &c. Mr. Thelwall also Indiau colonies,) in whom sentence has prufers liis priate instructions to young been passed in the year 1006; in which senators, desirous of improving their it is stated that two hundred and five citortorical talents; aud otters to superii- ninals, eighteen otwhom were foreigners, tend a select murder of pupils from the were in that year sentenced to corporeal cilliyes and public schools, during the punishment, tive for murder, ciglit for approaching recers.
other capital crimes, seren för tryery,
the rest for interior silence, and be the A Swedishi naturalist has discovered number of criminals bcars a proportion the smallest animal of the order of manna to the whole popriation of the kingdom malia that has been yet seen: be calls and colonies, as one to ten thousand. the animal sorer cuniculutus; it is a kind A. Guoss, a turrier of Copenhagen, has of earth-mouse,
invented a method of making black hats
of seal-skin, and has obtained a royal Víuch has of late years been done in palent, which entitles loim to the sole Denmark for i he education of the poor. Iabricatiou of that article for three years. A law, respecting the establishment of An utlicial paper of Copenhageil, gives country schools, which was promulgated an account of the state of the Danista in Octuber last year, seems to omwa
culories in tireenland for the year 1301; die
honourable endeavours of the from which it appears that there were in Danish government towards this impor- that year cught forty-seven whales, five tunt object. Schools tier the peasants thousand une hundred scals, six bcars, and and the poor bare long been established tivo dunded and ninety unicorns. Seven ihrouglout the country; but parily they slips were employed in the trade, and were too few; partly the schoni-masters exporteri goods to the amount of saviva were not suficien!!y paid, and therefore wine thousand one hundred antive ris mostly compelled to seek a livelihood dolliers, of which cre provisions for by other employinents. The present law twenty-five thwusand three hundred and directs trtihe country shall be divided forty-five ris duikers.
Tie total popun 250 school districts, iii eich of which lation of all the colonies was, its far ils there is to be a school, and no district could be ascertained up to June 1305, must be larver phan the children my, as six thousand and torty-six persons, which to the chstance, without inconvenience is an increase of one hunded indvigiityattend the school. a decent !!lcome, one since the year 1802. It is much with free bouse, is appointed tor the complaineid of that nothing couli till masters; and ali parents are compelled to that time be done in the inoculation of sem hr chrleiren seynlarly to school the cow.pock, because tho inatter sent uiter the age of seven years. The child froun Copenhagen had been found indren are divided according to their age effective. and proficiency into different classes, which are to attend the school at din Dr. SCIRETER, froin a variety of olje ferent ciines of the day and the week, 90 scriations made at Lilienthal, his reasoa that no child is taken away from its to believe that the planet discovered by parents more than a part of the day. Dr. Ulbers, sunie time back, and called Instruction is to be given in readiny, by lis name, is about the size of the writing, anittuneric, and religion, and to inoon; that the Pari is about threebase sube have capacity and inclination fourths of the size of the Olbers; and the MIOXIULY Mac. No. 137.
Harding rather more than half: that less intense, by diluting the solution of the atniosphere of Piazzi is nearly fifteen indigo with a weak ley of caustic potasli. times denser than that of the carth; that M. VEAU DE LAUNAY, in a letter to the atmosphere of Olbers is about ten M. De Lametlerie, says, he has fretimes denser than that of the earth: and quently repeated the experiments made that the atmosphere of Harding is nearly by Messrs. Pacchiani and Brugnatelli, equal to our own. But he adds, that there relative to the formation of the murauc is still reason to suppose its atmosphere acid, and always with success, that is denser than that of any of the earlier- with the formation of the inuriatic acid discovered planets, froin the changes in at the zinc pile, in a manner more or less the appearances of its light.
Messrs. BioT and ARRAGO have fiM. DE LALANDE, to whose scientific nished a grand work upon live ainlabours this Magazine has been so fre- nities between the different gases and quently indebted, died at Paris oir the light. 7th of April, aged 75. By his will he ordered his body to be dissected, and the M. Prazzi at Palermo, and M. CALLANskeleton to be placed in the Museum of DRELLI at Rome, have recentiy niado Natural History, His relations, how- observations on several stars, from wlich ever, regardless of the injunction, caused it appears that some of the stars give a him to be interred a few days after his grand parallax of five seconds, particudeath. His funeral was attended by the Jarly Lyra, which, next to Sirius, is the meinbers of the National Institute. most brilliant star in our hemispliere,
The class of sciences in the French froin whence it would result that it is National Institute, has just published the one of the least distant. If there be five first volume of Memoirs presented to it seconds of simple parallax, the distance by learned foreigners, and vol. ii. of its ought to be fourteen hundred thousand own Memoirs. It has also published millions of leagues, that is, five times the first volume of The Meridian ot Dun- less than has previously been supposed. kirk, being the basis of the metric-decimal systein: this work will contain all
The city of Batavia contains about the observations and methods of calcu one bundred and fifteen thousand inhalation, which have fixed the fundamental bitants, the annual loss of wluch by death principles of the metrical system, the is about four thousand; and the Dutch in inetre and the kilogramıne.
proportion to their nunbers, contribuie Mr. ILAUSMAN has given an account most largely to this list of nortality. The of the manner in which the solution of Dutch, including the balf-cast, lose nine mdigo is prepared by meaus of an alka- in one hundred; the Chinese, three and line solution of red arsenic, for the use of three-fifths; the natives and Malays, two calico printers. He merely makes a and one-fifib; and the slaves, seven and caustic alkaline solution of red arsenic, four-titths. The mortality among Euto which he adds, while it is in a boiling ropean females is not nearly so great as state, a sutiicient quantity of indigo among the males; and this fact proves bruised, in order to obtain a very deep that intemperance is the principal cause shade, which may be rendered more or
PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. REPORT of the TRANSACTIONS of the phy It will be recollected, be proceeds to
SICAL and MATHEMATICAL CLASS af say, that in endeavouring to discover this the NATIONAL INSTITUTE in 1800. cause of the different colours of the triBy M. CUVIER, SECRETARY to the ple salts of platina, M. Descouls per
ceived that the red colour of some of L'RING the year 1806, M. Cuvier them was owing to the presence of all ant experiments bave been made by difa
Fourcroy and Vauquelin, on their ferent distinguished chemnists on crude part, examined the black powder, wlucha plauna, from which the most clear and remains atter dissolving platina; and finde satisfactory results harc been obtained,
ing that, in some of their experwcuis
it exhaled a strong metallic odour, and in black powder, is extremely volatile, havothers assumed a more fixed form, they ing a strong odour; it is very fusible, diswere led to regard it as a new inetallic solves readily in water, exhales with it substance, the different properties of in the form of vapour, to which it imwhich they attributed to its different de parts a strong taste and smell. The sogrees of oxygenation.
lution becomes of a blue colour by the During this same period, Mr. Tennant addition of the sinailcst quantity of lince examined this black powder, and suc ture of galls. ceeded in separating it into two metals, We know not, adds M. Cuvier, wheone of which was fixed, and the other ther to be most astonished at the singulaextremely volatile; while Wollaston, rity of this mineral, or the sagacity and another British chemist, discovered that perseverance with which it has beeu rein the solution itscit, which was supposed duced to its original elements. to contain only platina, there was a mix The chrome which was several years ture of two other metals, which not only ago separated from crude platina by differed from those which form the black Vauquelin, bas lately been discovered by powder, but also from platina itselt. M. Laugier to form a component part
of Thus after having been subjected to a meteoric stones. It has since been long series of the most accurate experi- found by M. Thenard, in those which ments during the course of forty years, lately fell near Alet, in the department chemists have succeeded in detaching of Gard, and which the Academy of eleven different metals from this singular Nismes caused to be collected, and sent mineral, viz. platina, gold, silver, iron, to the Institute. copper, chrome, and titanile; the two These stones, the fall of which is equallast were discovered by Fourcroy and ly well authenticated as that of the forVauquelin, in the different coloured mer, differ from them, however, consisands, which are always mixed with it. derably in colour and consistence, being The two new metals separated from the blacker, and more friable. But from the solution of platina in the nitro-muriatic analysis of M. Thenard, they would apo acid, by Mr. Wollaston, are:
pear to contain nearly the same princi1. Palladiun, a white ductile metal, ples, only the metals are more oxydized, heavier than silver, very fusible when and the proportion of carbon is someunited with sulphur, soluble in nitric what greater. This result, we are inacid, colouring its solution of a beautiful forined by M Cuvier, bas been verified red, precipitable in a metallic state by and confirmed by a committee of the the sulphate of iron; yielding a dingy physical class of the Institute. green precipitate with the prussiate of We last year, proceeds the Reporter, inpot-ash, formning with soda a triple salt, timated the opinion of M. Pacchiani, solable in alcohol.
respecting the composition of muriatic 2. Rhodium, a grey metal, easily re- acid, which, he conceived, could be producible, fixed and intuisible, imparting a duced by depriving water of a portion of rose colour to its solutions in acids, which its oxygen by means of the galvanic pile. is rendered much deeper by the addition This discovery would have proved of the of muriate of tin, precipitated by the greatest importance to chemical science; alkalies of a yellow colour, but not at all but, unfortunately, subsequent researches by the prussiate of pot ash, the triple salt bave shewn that it was not well founded, of which with soda is insoluble in alcohol. since, atter the most accurate experie
M. Cuvier concludes this part of his ments, Messrs. Biot and Thenard did not report by observing, that the two metals succeed in producing it, when all suldiscovered by Mr. Tennant in the black stances that could furnish marine salt powder after solutiou are:
were carefully kept at a distance froin 1. Iridium, a very hard white inctal the apparatus. difficult of fusion, nearly insoluble in the During the year 1806, a work on the subnitro-muriatic acid, and wholly so in all ject of refraction has been published byd. the others; oxydizable, and soluble by Biot, the original intention oi' which, we the fixed alkalies, the oxyde being soluble are informed, was to aid the progress of in all the acids, and imparting to the dii astronomy. In the course of his inbours feren: solutions various vivid and lively the anthor was ler, however, to apply culours. It is these salts which give the the action of different bodies upon light red colour to those of the platina. to the analysis of transparent sulistances.
2 Osmium, a metal hitherto irreduci It has been long known that the rays bile, the oxyde of which, in the form of a of hybi are retracted when they pass