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from one medium into another of a diffe- By this experiment atınospheric air gave rent density, and that the degree of re- exactly that degree of refraction which fraction is in a direct ratio to the density ought to be produced, according to calof the body if incombustible, but in- culation, by a mixture of 0,21 oxygen, creasing in proportion to the combustibi- 0,787 azot, and 0,003 of carbonic acid. lity of the boily through which it passes. Even when these gases were not in the Hence Neton divined the combustibi- state of a simple mixture, but brought lity of the diamond, and the existence of into the most intimate combination with a combustible principle in water. each other, the same principle was found

If two substances be mixed together, equally applicable, provided no very the proportion of whose retracting pow- considerable condensation had been proers is known, and regard be paid to the duced. Animoniacal gas produced the density of the mixture, we shall be there effect indicated by the quantities of azot by enabled to calculate the total retrac- and hydrogen, which enter into its contion; and reciprocally, when the refrac- position; but when too much condensed, tion of a mixture is ascertained, of which some alteration, though very trilling, Wis the elements are known, we may, in like observable; the same circumstance ocmanner, calculate the proportional re curred in the experiment with water. fracting power oi' each. M. Biot having An accurate examination of the more applied this principle, to mixtures of atic acid yas, according to these principles, known proportions, and having find it fully demonstrated that its radical could just, afterwards applied it to ascertain not be azut, and consequently that this the unknown proportions of other mis- gas cannot be considered, as has been

lately supposed, an oxyde of hydrogen For this purpose it is sufficient to till containing less oxygen

ihan water. a glass prisi, iwder a knowo pressuire, The retractive property of the diawith the substance we wishi to examine, mond being much greater than that of or if it be a solid body, to form it into a charcoal, tlie refractions of the carbonic prism itself, and observe through it a dis- acic, alcohol, ether, and other substances, iant object. The angle of retraction is of which carbon forms a part, M. Bive measured by the repeating circle, taking concludes that the diamond cannot be a into account the weight, the tempera- pure charcoal, and that a fourth part of ture, and the humidity of the external hydrogen, at least, is necessary, in order air; and this method being susceptible of to render it contorinable to the results of a degree of precision equal to that of the experiment. astronomical processes, pecessarily sur The matters produced by organized passes in accuracy all the chicinical meaus beings have not hitherto been examined emploved with the saine intention. But wiili sufficient accuracy. For although it will readily be perceived that this mode we have a general knowledge of the cle is only applicable to transparent subio ments of which they are composcd, and stances, and the principles of which, ils that these primitive elements are not far as regards their species, are known to very numcrous, yet their combinations are

so various, and they are so easily changed M. Cuvier next proceeds to point out and converted in the course of the expethe great utility of this discovery, and in- rinent, that it is necessary to study these forms the Institute that the author has combinations themselves as if they were already applied it to the analysis of muse- simple suistances. These matters conous bodies, and obtained by this means sidered under this point of view, 210 the most important results, of which the termed the immediata principles of organfollowing are among the most interest- ized bodies; and during the present year ing:

sereral of them, we learn from M. CuAt an equal degree of ccosity, oxygen ricr, have been discovered by different possesses the least, and livdiogen the trench cheinists. Among others he greatest retiactive power among all the nentions M. Vauquelin aid Robiquet, gaseous boilies. The refiactive powers who have found in the sap of asparayus of the same gas is in an acurate pro- a crystaline matter, soluble in water, portion to its density, under así uniform which is, however, neither an acid, not a temperature. It is in the presence of neutral salt, and which is not netci uputu bvdrogen, in particular, that substances by the usund re-tuents. These cele pissessing a dvigti iegree of rotracting brated chemists propose to follow out the power appear to owe this property, siute investigauni utthis substance, and in it was found to be present in all of them. due time to lay tlic result of thcir labours



liefore the Institute. In the same class only albumen changed, ani become nearmay be ranked, proceeds the nicporter, ly insoluble without its termentable quithe discovery of a saccharine principle in lity being destroyed; from which he conthe bile, by M.Thcold, Professor in the cludes that altiumen, whether animal or College of France. This principle, which vegetable, is the real fermentutive princiwas before only suspected to exist, bas ple. In the course of his investigation, been clearly demonstrated by the learned M. Seguin also discovered that albumca Professor, uter has sliewn that it possess exists in Greeditlerent degrees of insolues the property of holding the oil of the bility, and possesses a greater or less aptibile in solution. The means of :nalysis tude io become fibrous; that its action, enployed by M. Thenard has been inen is in proportion to its solubility; that tionci, by the cominissioners empower- the respective proportion of albumen and ed by the Institute to examine his la- sugar present in the diiterent juices debours, as being singularly ingenious; and termines the vinous or acetic nature of it is, in fiect, extremely difficult entirely the product of the fermentation; that to tree this substance from those with the liquor thus obtained is gore spiwhich it is internised.

rituous in proportion to the greater quailSume recent researches respecting the tity of sugar; and, in short, that most nature of coffee by M. Seguin is next no- fermentable juices contain a bitter printiced by V. Cuvier. From the result of ciple analogous to that of coltee, which, the experiments, it would appear that though it does not assist in the fermenthis vrain is composed of albunen, oil, a tation, nevertheless contributes towards peculiar principle, which the author de- the taste and preservation of the terdominates the bitter principle, and a mented liquor. gieen matter, which is a combination of Tunnin, formerly discovered by M. Scalbumen and the bitter principle; that guin, and the character of which is to the proportions of those principles vary form av insoluble compound with gelain diferent kinds of cutice; that torre- tin, bas, we are informed by M. Cuvier, fiction, or rousting, as it is termed, aug- been lately re-examined by Bouillon la ments the proportion of the bitter princi- Grange, professor in the Lyceum. ple, be destroving the albumen; that He found it also to posscss an affinity these two last principles contain inuch for the athalies, for carties, and for ineani; and that the bitter principle is an- tallic oxydes, and that it might be contiseptic. The oil of collce is inodorous, verted into gallic acid by absorbing oxyCuriymated, and of a white colour, like gen. bog's larri.

The tannins extracted frono different 11. Seguin nest extended lis rescarch- vegetables vary somen hat in their come lo other vegetables, and discovered position; and that which Mr. Watchett that a great number which he has speci- discovered in great abundance in the fieil contain ibumen, and also a certain caoutchouc contained a greater proporportion of the bitter principle, mure or tion of oxygen than others. less similar to that of collec.

Mr. llatchett is of' opinion that tannin This remarkable quantity of albumen may be artificialiy formed, by treating being more particularly found in the charcoal with the nitric acid. juices of those regretables which ferment The next discovery noticed by M. Cue without the aid of yeast, aud vield a vi- vier is that by M. Norichani, in Italian 13665 liquor, ils the juice of raisins, goose- chemist, who having found the fluoric berries, &c. M. Seruin endeavoured to acid in the ename of the fussile jawdiscover whether albumen might not bones of the elephant, was led by this contribute to produce this intestine nio circumstance to analyse the channel of Liun hitherto so little understood; and the human touh, and is ui opinion that ne are informed that having separated it contains the same principle. Gaythe albuen fiom these juices, they be- Lussac has also found it in recent, as Clone incapable of fermentation, but on. well as fossile ivory, and in the tusks of unit aloumen with thew artiticially, the wild bor. as that of the white of an 24, for et Messrs. Fourcrov andi Vauquelin, on umple, or of saccharine matter, fermen- repeating these experiments, obtained tation took place, son the other neces- this acid not only from the fusks, but surt circumstancias concurred, in which from the teeth which had un ieryone a

en matter inviar tu yööst wie mic change hv barang remuned long under turus edeposited, which iu be ground, but they taled a prucuring it

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from the same parts in a recent, or even a comparative view of the cases in which in a fossile state, unless they had under- these fumigations not only prevented the gone such a change.

communication of the disease, but apM. Vauquelir. has also been engaged, peared to assist in their cure when acduring the present year, in conducting a tually produced. series of accurate and interesting experi M. Pinel bas esperienced siunilar sucments on hair. By dissolving it in wa cess by the employment of the same ter by means ot' Papin's digester, and af mcans in the Hospital of Salpetiere; terwards examining the solution and its and the beneticial effects resulting from residuum, be succeered in extracting its use in Madrid, as well as in other mine different substances; an animal places in Spain, lave already been made matter similar to mucilage, two kinds of known to the public through the medium oil, iron in a peculiar state, some partie of different Spanish Journals. cles of oxyde of manganese, phosphate We next learn from M. Cuvier's report and a small portion of carbonate of that he himself was led by his experilime, a considerable portion of silica, and ments on the tossile grinders of elephants much sulphur. Black hair yielded an to examine others in a recent state; and oil of the same colour, while red hair an occasion having presented itself in the produced & reddish-coloured oil, and course of a few years of dissecting two white one wholly colourless. The last elephants, nearly full grown, he was by contained always an excess of sulphur, that means enabled to observe with greatand the white, in particular, magnesian er precision the growth of the iceti in phosphate.

these animals, and thence to deduce cunBesides these thicoretical researches, clusions respecting dentition in general. chemical principles have been applied to The anatomy of large animals, be obmany useful practical purposes; among serves, may justly be considered as a which M. Cuvier mcntions a mode of kind of natural inicroscope, which asimitating Roman alum, discovered to sists in dscovering that of the smaller wards the conclusion of the former year, kind. It was with a view to confirm the and which has succeeded so completely doctrine of the late John Hunter, that that the alum manufactured in this mana M. Cuvier was induced to enter into this ner is sold at the same price as the genu- investigation, at least so far as regards ine Roman alum. This method merely the osscous portion of the teeth. It is consists in calcining and re-crystalliz- not furnished with vessels, nor formed ing the common alum, in order to de- by intus-susception, like true boues, but prive it of its super-abundant acid. M. by a successive transudation of layers Curaudeau contends, however, that it is produced by the pulp of the teeth, and also necessary to oxygenize the small which lie over each other. The enamel portion of iron usually contained in alum, is deposited above by the menbrane to its marimum. But a mémoir lately which envelops the young tooth, and is published by Messrs. Thenard and Board attached to it by a species of crystallizahas perfectly cleared up this subject; tion; in fine, a third substance, peculiar from this we learn that a thousandth part to some herbivorous animals, is depoof iron will sensibly influence the effects sites after the enamel, but by the same of alum as a mordant; and it is to deprive membrane, which changes its nature at it even of this small quantity to which a certain period. the efforts of our inanufacturers ought This third substance was first dissichiefly to be directed.

vered by M. Tenon, who has termed it The oxygenation of the iron appears the osseous cortex, but who couceives it to extremely well calculated to answer this be formed by the ossification of the cap intention, since it renders it insolable in sular membrane. This intelligent anatthe acid.

mist, M. Cuvier informs us, has comm The application of the oxygenated vicated to the Institute, during the premuriatic acid gas to the destruction or cor sent year, the results of some well-derection of contagious miusmutu, has, we vised experiments on the teeth of the are informed by M. Cuvier, been inuch cachalot, and on those of the crocodil, extended during the present year, and from which it appears that the first burg its beneficial eftects contirmed by various no enamel, but only an asseous cortes, extensive triols. M. Despennettes bäs, They are easily distinguished from each in particular, constantly employed it in other, because the enamel is much the Military Hospital of Val-de-Grace; harder, and dissolves entirely in acids. and be las transmited to the Institule without leaving any gelatinous parenchus


ma. Neither the tusks of the elephant, The same indefatigable anatomist has at nor the grinders of the morse and the present nearly ready for publication a work dugong, have any other covering. on the Diseases of the Eye, from which it

From this Report we farther learn that appears that he has made several new M. Tenon has presented to the Institute and interesting observations on the parts a work on this subject, in wbich he has connected with that organ. been engaged for more than twenty-tive M. Cuvier concludes his Report by anyears, and wherein he had anticipated M. nouncing the re-publication of several Cuvier himself, as well as Mr. Everard valuable works, and arnong others, a new Home, and other British anatomists, in edition of Dumas' Physiology, and M. most of their observations on the man Barthe's Elements of the Science of ner in which the teeth of elephants de- Man. cay, and are replaced.


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