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of no consideration in the account of his may need a complete revision: and I am feelings or his purse, and so may refuse told that a person, high in the law, someto notice them; whilst it appears that time ago alluded' to it in the Huuse of there is no other person on whom the law Communs, and promised to bring forward casts the obligation to feed them. a bill which had this for its object. It may happen also that the lord may
Your's, &c. Reglect to seize and proclaim them as
P. H. F. estrays; or the time which intervenes be April 20th, 1807. ween their being inpounded and the proclamation may be great; whilst it ap- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. pears that he is not in the interim obliged SIR, to provide them with food. And though THE taste prevailing in this and other the bayward, if he be a humane man, or in the hope of being repaid, or by the rature, promises to contribute much to tbe command of the lord (in the expectation improvement of philology and learning: of its becoming an estray), will sometimes and when classic scholars engage in this feed the distress; and though the owner, pursuit, the more eminent Greek writers if he be a humane man, will not fail to rem will richly share in the general benefit, pay him for it: yet this does not, and by light reflected upon them from the cannot always happen for obvious rea East. The acknowledged derivation of
So that as the law now stands, in the Greek from the Asiatic languages, the this age of benevolence and feeling, a dis- high antiquity of Homer, his frequent use tress of cattle (often very valuable ani- of terms in the sense which they bore in mals) taken damage-feasant, may perish in the parental tongue, are circumstances the common pound för want of sustenance: that occasion obscurities in many places of nay, it would often perish if humanity did bis immortal works, which the skill of those not prevent it.
acquainted only with later Greek autburs Whilst such a case as this can exist, has been by no means able to remove. how unfrequent soever it may occur, it is Such obscurities the critics and commena reproach to the Law; which should not tators, instead of elucidating by more en, leave what ought to be done to the dis- lightened criticism, have, from their wagt cretion or feelings of any man, but should of acquaintance with the languages of Peripake it compulsory on him; which should sia, Arabia, Chaldea, Egypt, and Judea, take to itself the merit of“ commanding passed over unobserved, or at least uner: what is right and prohibiting what is plained. As this subject is new and, wrong," without borrowing any thing from as I conceive, important, I propose, the refinement of public manners or indi- through the medium of your useful and vidual compassion.
well conducted miscellany, to subinit an If it were my object to interest the example to your classical readers; and if feelings of the reader, I might justly draw it should appear worthy of their attention, a very affecting picture of the misery of I shall send for publication a series of re dumb animals confined for days without marks upon the several books of the limit, food, in a small inclosure, without any combining, in the order of those boobs, shelter from the weather, or any thing to critical observations with etymological exlie down upon but mire and dung. I quiries. might speak of the inute language of their I select that example which first ocpain, which no passenger stops to con curs to my memory, thougb perhaps not strue; and their patiently standing hour af- the most striking that might be adduced. ter hour, with eyes closed and head droop Hector, it appears from many passages ing, in a corner ofthiswretched place, which of Homer, was the cbiet, if not the only no passenger sees. But those who arc means of repelling the Greeks; and in acboruto be the champions ofhumanity need knowledgment of his courage, skill, prunot themselves be tortured in order to dence, and vigilance, in the defence of teach them the rights of suffering crea- Troy, his fellow-citizens had the gratitude tures: it is enough that they see or are to appropriate a tract of land to his only told what justice and humanity require. son, who was born during the latter periul A reformation might easily be effected of the siege, and whom the fisther, to in the case before us by making the year commemorate a circunstance which was and day begin to run from the time of im- flected so much honour upon bis valour, pounding; and by giving a lieu on the caked Zanindar, which, in the language of distress for the costs of keeping from that the Persians (110 very distant neighbours) time. But perhaps the law of distress signifies lord of the land, and wluch
this day, in Hindostan, denotes a land- Most be his lot, since others will remove holder. This the Greeks, with itile va. At will his land-marks and possess his field. riation, pronounced Scamandrios. On the
Il. xxii. near the close. other hand, the citizens, wishing to per
How natural was it in maternal tendere petuate the incident for which the land ness to apprehend, that, as the prowess of was bestowed, and at the same time inti- Hector had now proved ineffectual for mating that his son when grown to ina
the defence of the city, his son should turity had the fairest title to rule a city be stript of the land, and to lament that which had been saved by the bravery of he was now likely to become a mendihis father, gave the child, though yet an
cant and a slave in those domains of which infant, the honourable name of Astyanax he had once the prospect to be lord and or king of the city. For this fact I have sudereign? Yet, for want of attention to only the indirect autisority of Homer; but this circumstance, most critics,ancient and as it is a fact which, in itself by no means modern, have supposed this last passage improbable, serves to explain passages in- to be spurious, as unworthy of Homer. imitably beautiful and appropriate, but
“ For while Priam lived, they say) inexplicable on any other supposition,
what probability was there, that bis any additional evidence for the truth of it laud-marks should be removed, and that will hardly be deemed necessary. When he should be considered in all companies the amiable, but by the national preju- as an intruder and a vagabond?" "To this dices of Homer, much-injured, Hector may be added (says Cowper) another met for the last time Andromacle, she reason, and perhaps not less weighty, for had, it is said, her infant with her, in the which its authority may be suspected. arms of its nurse.
There never lived a more perfect master Taid' 876 RONTO exouo' etada gore, un tesou would touch the passions, he does it in
of the pathetic than Homer, and when he AUT, Εκτοριδην αγαπητον, αλιγκιον ας εςι καλά
the only effectual way, that is without Toy Extwg neintxé Enapardgov, autag a seeming to do it. But in this passage
there is an evident strain, an effort, a la Αςυαναντ', οίος γαρ ερυετο Ιλιον Εκτωρ.
bour, to get at them:-a stile of writing
II. vi 400-404. that always disappoints itself, and is per Which is rendered by Cowper,
culiar to poets who, feeling nothing theinThus winged with haste she came, and with selves, have yet an ambition to work on like haste
the feelings of others.” Heyne, indeed, The virgin nurse, infolding in her arms
the learned editor of Homer, pleads for His yet unweaned and helpless little one, the genuineness of the passage; yet, after Fair as the star of morn. Him Hector adducing the arguments in its favour, acnamed
knowledges it to be incoherent and inapScamandrius; but the citizens of Troy, propriate. I camot help observing farAstyanax; for other guardian aid
ther, that Plato comments upon the two Effectual, none than Hector's Hium knew.
names given to the son of Hector, and apNow, when llector was delivered by fate pears, like modern commentators, to have to the hands of his savage enemy, Achilles, been an entire stranger to the meaning of what sentiments were likely. to rise on the Scainandrius; from which we may conoccasion in the mind of the widowed clude that he had no knowledge whatprincess ? On being informed of the sad ever of the Persian language. Even the event, and, by the restoration of her title Astyanax he seems rather to perplex senses, of which the information deprived than explain, and the perplexity is felt by her for a time, rendered capable of la- modern annotators. '" Nec tamen (says menting her fate, she proceeds in this pa- Heyne on the place) nominis pirioris thetic strain :
caussa est aperta; nec satis convenire He, doum'd himself
etymon dices alterius; si arat astos est, To sorrow, me, more sorrowfully doomed, quo miodo convenit cum eo qui egette Sustained in helpless infancy, whom, oh! asu?" The answer to this question is, that Tliat he had never begotten! Tuou de. the title was intended by the citizens to
scendest To Hades and the Stygian caves forlorn ;
gate the remembrance of Hector's
perpo Me leaving here a widow: and thy boy,
prowess, and at the same tiine to intimate Fruit of our hapless loves, an infant yet,
that the city which the father had saved, Never to be hereafter thy delight,
the son would, in preference to all other Nor love oithine to share or kindness more. claimants, have a right to rule. The child, For should he safe survive this cruel war therefore, if he had lived, and the TroWith the Achaians, penury and toil jans proved successful in defence of their
Photon, the scenery becomes inore
city, would have horne in his name a living passage in one of these from Canton to monument of his father's glory, and a Wampoa. pledge of his right to ascend the throne Mid-way between the two last mene of Priam in preference to any other of tioned places, we passed a beautiful white his descendants; and her disappointment pagoda, called the Middle Pagoda; it is in this respect led the weeping mother, very high, slender, and apparently of exwild inuch propriety and pathos, to dwell quisite architecture. At some distance upon the sad reverse of fortune which now froin the factories we passed the ruins oi pievitably awaited her only child. T, two European forts, called the Dutch
and French Folies; one of them situated
on a little island in the middle of the river. JOURNAL of a voyage performed in the
From hence to the European factories, INDIAN SEAS, to MADRAS, BENGAL, the crowd of boats was so immense, that CHINA, 86., &c., in ITS MAJESTY's SHIP CAROLINE, in the years 1803-4-5. night came on before we could reach the
our progress was exceedingly slow? and Communicated to the MONTHLY MAGAZINE city: this, however, is perhaps the best
lay an OFFICER of that sup. time for a stranger to approach Canton: PROCEEDING up Junk river to for then the concourse of boats and ves
sels of various descriptions, all highly it and more interesting every mile; the luninated; the chop houses on shore beniandarins' seats more numerous, the decked with great number of globulas grounds better cultivated, and laid out oil-paper lamps ; the din of the Chinese in gardens and orangeries, while large language on every side; the clangor of and populous villages present then their gongs, the shrill notes of their muselves at every winding of the stream, sic, and the glare of their fire-works, all and tend not a little to enbellish its combine to form a scene so novel and banks. But what engages a stranger's striking, that the impressiou which it attention more than all the rest, is leaves on the memory, can hardly ever the endless variety of Chinese boats be erased! and vessels of every description, froin the It took us nearly an hour, to make our sanpan to junks of a thousand tons, con way through the throng on this part of tinually passing and repassing before his the river, when the sight of European or eyes: of these the most curious and beau- rather Anglo-Oriental houses announced utul are the tea and passage boats. The our vicinity to the factories, which are former arc long and very handsome. In situated on the north-eastern side of Taa these the tea is brought down from the or Tigris. interior provinces to Canton; when they The European factories at Canton eshave got a fair wind they make use of tend a considerable way along the banks sails, but at other times they impel them of the river, at the distance of about along by bamboo pales, having a bench two hundred feet from the water's edge; running along from one end of the vessel they consist of a range of very elerunt to the other, on each side, and close to houses, each having the flag of the nation the water's edge; on these ten or a dozen to which it belongs, hoisted from sunsisc men (each with his bamboo) stand, and till sunset, on a tlag-staff opposite to the drive the boat with considerable velocity. gate of the factory. The Wampoa passage-boats, however, Except the French, this
eshilook like little tloating castles, so elegantly biied ini day-time the colours of most of are they painted and decorated. A dome the European maritime powers; but tia raised several feet above the deck, and oc- English lactory or rather series of warecupying two-thirds of the vessel's length, · houses exceeds all the others both in clefitted up itiside with tables, chairs, &c. gance and extent: in this great and coins all of excellent workmanship, serves as a mercial city, the mart of European trade cabin, wliere the passengers can sit and seems to be fixed at the British factors. drink tea, or lull on sofas, at their ease; Here it is, that one beholds the bustie on the sides are stairs to ascend into the of Chinese merchants and people of all cabin, and the vessel inside and out, is descriptions; the mountains (if I may le varnished in the highest stile: tliese oc allowed the expression of the most rocasionally make ure of sails like the tea luable Chinese goods of every kind piled buats, but theyfurthe inost part are sculled up on the beach, to be transported to by oars on cach quarter. They charger our ships at W'ampoa: while the tius and European from six to ten dollars for a colidined comulcrve of other nauung rene
ders their representatives despicable in toms, even the houses, manufactures, the eyes of the Chinese, who look upon where, in short, the tout-en-semble is so spethe English as the niost respectable and cifically different froin what he had been responsible nation with wbich they have accustomed to see, that he could alınost any cominunication. As a proof of this, fancy himself transported into a new worlu. it is a well-known fact, that the English Canton, if we may judge by the Chiboxes of dollars, having the company's nese maps, or by the suburbs, must be a stamp on them, will pass througli China, city of great extent. A person may ramas a bank-note does through England; for miles through the suburbs, withthe Chinese never attempting to count
out meeting with any thing like a terminathem, but trusting implicity to the num tion: he frequently indeed comes to gates ber marked thereon: whereas in their leading into the Tartarian, city, when dealings with other nations, they take spe- he is obliged to alter his course, as cial care to count over every dollar they no Europeans are permitted to enter that receive from them.
part of the town. There seems to be Betore the British factory, and extend- little diiference, however, between this ing nearly down to the water's edge, there and the suburbs, in respect to the buildis a very elegant verendalı, raised on ings, as we often hind' long perspective handsome pillars, flagged with square
views through these gates, into the streets marble slabs, and commanding an exten- of the Tartarian city, and observed the sive view of the river, east and west, the saine bustle, the same kind of shops, and Dutch and French Follies, the suburbs, the sanie general appearance indeed as the southern bank of the Tigris, and a outside of the gates. The streets in Canconsiderable
scope of the country in that ton are very narrow, paved with little direction.
round stones, like those of North YarAdjoining this verendalı, is the long mouth, and Aagged close to the sides room, where the company's table is of the houses. They are about the kept for the super-cargoes; and a very width of the rows and lanes of English princely one it is: a dinner being every towns; Market row in North-Yarmouth, day spread here, at which kings might sit bearing a strikiug similitude to the genedown, and consider themselves as “faring rality of the streets in this city, with resumptuously!”
spect to dimensions, the height of the Indeed it must be allowed, that the East houses excepted. India directors are extremely liberal in There is no dwelling-house to be seen the establishments of their servants; and in the streets here; all are shops: they even this ciicumstance procures them a are seldom more than two stories high, degree of respect in the eyes of the Chin the lower or ground floor is more properly nese, which the agents of other nations the shup, the rest of the house serving as may long look for in vain. The captains a store: the door is generally in the inidof the company's ships have always free dle of the shop, with a window on each access to this table I believe, but no side, near one of which there is a counter others uniess by invitation: the officers and writing materials, as books, paper, &c. of men-of-war are always invited here, The rest is crammed on every side with and treated in the most handsome man- mustus, or specimens of whatever they ner by the super cargoes.
have got to sell. The weather was now so cold that we There is almost always one of the party were obliged to have fires in our rooms; sitting at the counter writing, or calculate for though Canton lies nearly in the same ing with his abacus, on which instrument parallel of latitude as Calcutta, yet there a Chinese will perform any operation in is a difference of perhaps tifteen or twenty numbers with as much, or more colerity, degrees of the thermometer between the than the most expert European aithne two places; caused by the mountains of tician. China and Tartary, from which the It is amusing enough, to see a Chinese north-east monsoon blows extremely cool. chucking about the little balls on the aba
A stranger arriving in any foreign coun cus with one hand, humming the calcula. try, must of course be very much amused tions in his liscordant jargon, and noting with the novel scenes that surround him; down the result with the other band. though many of them may not, perhaps, They are not very neat in their writing be essentially different from those in his materials, being obliged to keep con. own country; but here he cannot fail to stanny rubbing down the Indian ink on have anple scope for his curiosity, where a slab with some water, which they keep the inhabitants, language, manners, cus- by them in a cup; they never make use MONTHLY Mab., No. 158.
of pens made of quills, but camel's-hair themselves, in a tacit kind of manner, trushes tied to the end of a piece of sle:- allow our Wedgewood, xc. to be era der cave, which tbey hold in their hands if not superior to their own dung-hoasted in a very curious manner, quite different manufacture; of course, to curiosity, from our method of holding the pen. more than any thing else, they are cu
The Chinese paper is very thin, plialle, indebted for what ibey annualiy este smooth, and delicate, and in a hot country to England. is preterable to European paper, which Painting is a very favourite art in this in India particularly, is very rarely fit to city, especially in oil colours, both on write
upon, It seems that the great eva canvas and glass. It is curious to see poration of moisture from the surtace of them painting on the back of the latter the earth in these countries, occasionell substance, where things are 30 reversed, by the intense heat of the sun, impreg- that one would suppose it an awkward or nates the bibulous paper of Europe with difficult thing to accomplish, yet they mawater, and is the cause of the ink sitik- naye it with as much täcility as if pamiing on it. Whereas the Chinese papering on canvas. Laving a fine glossy surface, the pores of It is singular that not one of iheir ons which are consequently blocked up, the landscapes is painted at all according to moisture is not imbibed; and hence its the rules of perspective, of which they superiority over the European, and that do not appear to have the slightest idea; kind of the latter, called velluin, or yet they copy all kinds of European draglazed over the rough or porous. The ings with infinite exactness, above-mentioned eraporation is likewise They are celebrated for their happia the cause of all kinds of metals rusting ness in taking the most striking likes so much more in hot climates than in cold. nesses, drawing every feature with grtal
It is said that tradesmen are obliged correctness. Notwithstanding which, to confine themselves to particular streets they seldom give satisfaction; and this is according to their occupations; but with probably owing to their sitting down ca very few exceptions this is not the case, these occasions, to delineate the features, at least in the suburbs, for in aln:ost every and not to flatter the vanity of their cus street you may sce a variety of ditterent tomers, like some of our fine mwiature kinds of shops and manufactures inter- painters! mixed. Cabinet-makers, indeed, seem There are therefore many laugliahle to be an exception, as they generally oc scenes between the Chinese and Eurin cupy streets by themselves; and some peans on these subjects, when one of the other streets are entirely filled with pain- latter begins to find fault with a likeness, ters and picture-shops.
the China-man generally answers him by The ivory manufactures always engage saying, " no bab got handsome tace, ly* a stranger's attention, when at Canton ; can hab bandsone picture, massa. and in these the Chinese are allowed to (To be continued.) excel all other nations. Their fans in particular are exquisitely formed of To the Editor of the Monthly Magntine. ivory, tortoise-shell, tilayree and sandal
SIN, wood; a kind called japanned
Sense has, in Number the most, at least they are the dearest, ject with which, froin my 'situation, I being twenty dollars each. Next the must be well acquainted, that cunimin tortoise-shell, fifteen dullars; ivory, from justice to the public induces me to six to fourteen dollars each; and sandal ple you with the following auditional alwood, one dollar each.
servations on the subject of his letterThese are what are called first chop Many years ago sereral persons were fans; others of interior workmanship inay burnt, in consequence of being anable m
got much cheaper. It is astonishing get out of a house on fire in Bishop gairwith what dexterity they put on cypliers street, being afraid to leap from the wise and coats of arms to any article; they dows. I turned my thoughts to the malare the most exact copyers in the world, ter, and had directly for the use oi se and are always provided with books of family), in case of a tire, an npparats heralury, whereby they are enabled to made, by which the most timid, inkrin, delincate any figure in the most correct or sickly person could be let down sa'ti,
and with perfect decency (though werely Their porcelain or China ware, it is in their night clothes) from any chamber well known, has not the attractions it to the street, &c. wed to possess; indeed the Clunese I had a strong board, of light deal, of