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The Hessian fly (as it is called), which an equal footing, and all live in arnity with has been so destructive to the young each-other. wheat in autumn, may be avoided by It must however be adınitted, that good culture and late sowing; indeed an political bigotry has been, and in sonie agricultural friend, (G. Clymer, esq. measure still is, too prevalent in this President of the Philadelphia Bank,) country. The present President of the whose knowledge of the country is of United States has exercised his power longer standing than mine, assured me with the utmost moderation; but in that it has been of great service to the 1798, when the other party was predofarmers, by inducing them to bestow on minant, the political intolerance of those their land an extra portion of tillage and times formed a couuterpart with the manure.

associations against levellers in England. The moth-fiy is a more troublest ne Happily, both nations have recorered insect, especially in the States of Mary- their senses. May no future infatuatija land and Virginia. In some seasons it embroil them with each other! devours the wheat' while in the stack.

W. BakEWELL The best remedy for this is the thrashing Fatland Ford, Pensylvania, mill.

February 2, 1807. Although the climate of the United States is more subject to extremes than To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine that of England, it is in many respects more favourable for agricultural opera

SIR, tions. At the of harvest, as I be

AVING attended the annual meets fine. Thunder-storms and heavy showers St. Paul's, on the 28th of last month, I frequently occur in summer, but they are can hardly find words to express how almost invariably succeeded by fine highly I was gratified, as well with the weather in less than twenty-four hours. spectacle of upwards of six thousand

The extirpation of weeds by the plough poor children clothed, maintained and is much facilitated by the powerful heat educated at the public expence, as with of the sun ; and as the grain ripens in the astonishing effect produced by the July, a crop of turnips, or buck-wheat, union of sounds froin so many voices, can be raised on the wheat-stubble the chanting the praises of their great Crew same season.

Maize, or Indian corn, is a useful ad I should not, however, have troubled dition to the crops of the American far- you with this, were it not at the same mer. It is excellent food for logs, horses, time to transmit some observations I and poultry; the meal is esteemed made whilst there, in the hope, that by superior to oatmeal- for culinary uses ; communicating them to the public through and the tops, (the stems of the male your widely-extended miscellany, they flowers,) are cut and dried for fodder. inay be attended to by those concerned,

Plaister or gypsum, as a manure, is an and the effect of the whole inprored a invaluable acquisition to the United the greatest degree possible. States. The small quantity of a bushel As I was there pretty early, and he of ground plaister to the acre, which fore many of the children had taken thest costs half a dollar, when strewed on places, the first observation I made wat clover, will generally double or treble the that, notwithstanding the immense thratia produce. By the aid of this manure, erected and provision mode, there was lands worn out with repeated corn-crops yet hardly sufficient room to accarum and bad tillage, may be speedily and date the whole of the different schools; cheaply renovated.

many of the children finding a dificulty The parochial payments, consisting of in seating themselves, and, when settled, the county rate, poors' rate, and a contri- were much crowded. Owing to this bution of money or labour for repairs of probably it was, that some few were de roads, amount to about six-pence sterling casionally had down to the schoolper acre.

The expences of government inistresses below, to be plied with are all paid by the duties on imported smelling-bottles to be kept from fainting, goods; and in this country the farmer And this would perhaps have happened is free from taxes and from tythes : here to a much greater degree, had nut the are no test-laws as a stigma on the reli- day been as favourable as possibly could gious tenets of one part of the commu- have been for the purpose, witiwa nity; nor is the elective franchise with- either rain or extreme heat. held from another part, All sects are on As ench school must doubtleas be made


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acquainted with the number of seats al- no means confined. For when the comlotted to it, this inconvenience might poser thus formed his score, he naturally certainly be remedied, by leaving as supposed that the different voices would many of the younger children behind, in general be pretty equally arranged, (whose voices can hardly be expected to and that therefore it would be of little add much to the general effect,) as may consequence whether the principal air enable the remainder to be well accom was in the treble or any other part. inodated.

Could he however have foreseen that, My next observation was upon the upon some future occasions, there would choir of St. Paul's, which sang alone in be about two thousand trebles, (supthe Te Deum and Jubilate, and in the posing only, a third part of the chilgreater part of the Coronation-Anthein dren to sing in these chorusses,) to about and Hallelujah from the Messiahı, and three or four tenors and basses, or had the which appeared to me to be much too present annual meeting and performance weak for that occasion, especially after been instituted in his time, he would unthe cliarity-children bad added their doubtedly in the full chorus have thrown voices in the two latter; contrasted to the air as much as possible into that the immense force of which the choir part, which cannot so justly be said to seemed as it were annihilated; scarcely predominate over the others, as to drown any thing but the organ (at least where I and annihilate them. My principal alsat) being to be heard. Surely upon solusion' is to the first three bars of the last great an occasion as this may justly be movement of the Coronation-Anther, reckoned, the choirs of the Chapel Royal“God save the King," &c. and the same as and Westminster Abbey might 'be re- repeated towards the end, which as a quested to lend their assistance, as at the loyal exclamation in unison, appears Festival for the Sons of the Clergy, with striking enough, but can hardly be called which aid the contrast would not be singing, being nearly all upon one note. carried to such an extreme, as must be As, therefore, the air is here evidently the case with a single choir opposed to sung by the counter-tenors and tenors, such a force,

supported by the violins in the octave My third observation was upon the above, I should propose in these three performance of the charity-children bars, the boys taking the counter-tenor themselves, whose extreme steadiness part, and the girls the tenor in the octave and accuracy was astonishing, and did above, or in unison with the second the highest credit as well to themselves, violin part. And this, being in fact but as to the persons that liad instructed them. one bar three times repeated, need not In, however, the beginning of the 100th startle those who with great reason obpsalm, with which the service commen- ject to the children being taught to sing ced, the effect was not so great as I had in parts, to which I would make this the expected, owing probably to a want of sole exception. In like manner, as at courage in many of the children, which the repetition of the same words in the might prevent their putting out their key of A at the 17th bar, the principal voices so much as they did in the latter air is in the tenor part; I would have the verses. But in the 118th Psalm, before children taught to sing that part in the the Sermon, they made ample amends, octave above, instead of the proper as nothing, I think, could exceed the treble part, as being likely to produce wonderful and striking effect occasioned a more striking effect. by the transition from the full chorus, to In other parts of the Coronation-An. the voices of the girls alone on one side, them, and in the Hallelujah chorus, siand thence again to the full chorus, as milar improvements may be made, by was also the case in the Hallelujah suc selecting such parts from the score, as ceeding it.

The cathedral responses have most air or time in them, for the and amens too were very accurately children to sing, either in unison or in performed by them, and well in time. the octave above, as may best suit their

cannot, however, help thinking, but that, voices. in the Coronation-Anthem, and Halle I have yet a fourth observation to lujah chorus from the Messiah, a consi- mention which I made, viz. the want of derable improvement in the effect may an organ of more power in the bass to yet be made by a different arrangement quality the prodigious strength of treble of the air, or tune, in the parts where the although Mr. Attwood, by his full and children join, by not merely taking the judicious accompaniment, roade the most geble notes to which the melody is by chat he could of that, (upon all other oc



casions as it may be reckoned,) coinpleat used, the coachman pots his foot on & and noble instrument. Indeed, since pedal, and in an instant the two shoes these annual meetings have been esta rub violently against the wheels, DOS blished, one cannot but lament that the locking them (which by the way is proposal of Mr. Renatus Harris, men the best method that can be derised for tioned in the 552d number of the Spec- tearing the strongest wheel to pieces.) tator, of erecting an organ of the greatest but producing on the tire or iron rim of powers and dimensions over the great the wheel a friction that I venture to west door of the cathedral, has not since affirm is sutficient to stop the most anbeen carried into execution. The pre- ruly horses, even when attempting to sent organ, however, might be enlarged run away down hill. for this occasion, by the exchange of the I feel justified in recommending this trumpet stop for one of inore power than simple devise from two years' experience the present, and addition of a double of its effect, down some of the steepest trumpet bass, with likewise (if room hills in the Isle of Wight, and should it should be found,) a clarion, or octave but prove the means of preventing une trumpet. With these powerful reed accident, now when every body will be stops, and additional voices proposed, thinking of their country excursions, I there would be soinething considerable shall feel ample compensation for any left when the childrer.s' voices cease in trouble I may have taken in bringing it the Coronation Anthem, &c. and in about, and making it public. the full chorus the great force of the There is a yellow sociable at Tatter: trebles would be qualified and contrasted sall's at present, which your mechanical by a bass bearing some proportion to it, friends would perhaps after this descripe and a grandeur would be given to the tion like to see; though it, being the first whole, which would wonderfully improve to which the bar was fixed, is certa: aly the general effect. Should however the not so simple as I could have wished. additions to the organ bere proposed, be

Your's, &c. not found practicable or experient, then May 25,

D. F. WALKEA. perhaps one or two bass trombones, 5 Gloster-street, Portman-squarc. used merely when all the children sing, might answer the purpose.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, I cannot conclude without paying my SIR, small tribute of approbation to Mr.

IN Page, as well for the very great pains he I have perused with great pleasure must have taken, and time he niust have Mr. W. Marshall's paper on the excel bestowed, in preparing the children at lence of Handel. It has not yet been in the different schools so as to enable them my power to make such research into the to perform by ear, and without the least particular methods by which Handel ob knowledge of the science, with such great tained the words of his Oratorios, being accuracy and precision; as for his clear, too fully occupied in the musical analyses distinct, and animated manner of con of those grand compositions. I shall

, ducting so large an assemblage of voices, however, be happy to contribute a few actuated as it were by one mind; thereby remarks on such beauties of expression, producing an effect that is probably not as the union of poetry and music in those equalled in Europe. Your's, &c. works present to the feelings of all whe

M. have a true taste for harmony in the most

extensive signification of the term. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

It has often occured to my mind, that

a regular criticism on the excellencies of SIR,

Handel, associated with tbeir chronologia following, as I Aatter myself it will have a powerful effect in heightening their prove of general service. It is a little energies to the auditor, and of impressiog contrivance, costing a mere trifc, which their succession on the memory. is attached to a two or four-wheeled For this purpose I send you a specimen carriage, for the purpose of impeding the of my design in some remarks on the Ora accelerated velocity of the velice down torio of Josephi

, which is the first in hills, or when the horses run away. A bar order of time, hemg the only one selected of iron with two steel shoes to its ends Ly Handel from the book of Genesis. is attached, under the futchels or shafts, The overture of this Oratorio, like that the shoes facing and fitting the wheels, of the Messiah, is composed in E minor: so that when the contrivance is to be a key for wluch Handel aceans to level




some partiality, when the idea of mourn. The remainder of the first act is occu ful firinness was to be expressed : witness pied with the loves of Asenath and Jon his “Total Eclipse,” in Samson, “Behold seph, the march to the temple, and their and See," in the Messiah, and the first subsequent nuptials. air in this Oratorio, which is in the same The last air is for a base voice in D key to the following words:

major accompanied by the trumpet; ** Be calm, my soul, nor faint beneath “ Since the race of time began, Affliction's galing chains;

Since the birth-day of the sun; When crown'd with conscious Virtue's wreath, Ne'er was su much wisdom found, The fhackled captive reigns."

With suci matchless beauty crown'd." The symphony to this air is of that first A chorus in continuation of the same species of the sublime, which arises from subject concludes the act: the employınent of all instruments in oc or Swift our numbers, swifty roll, laves or unisons according to Dr. Crotch's Wait the news froin polo to pole ; classification in his Specimens just pub Asenath with Zaphnath 's join'd! lished.

Joy and peace to all niankind!" Joseph then, supposed to be alone in

The second act opens with a chorus in prison, continues in the following accom E ininor of two movements each, con. panied recitative :

taining two excellent subdivisions, which “ But wherefore thus ? whence, Heav'n, these shew the hand of a great master :

bitter bonds; Are these the just rewards of stubborn virtuc? Now thy wondrous wisdom's provid;

“ Hail, thou youth by Heav'n belov'd, Down, down, proud heart,

Zaphnath Egypt's fate foresuw, Nor blindly question the behest of Heav'n!

And snatch'd her from the samine's jaw " These chastisements are just; for some wise end

After the song by Phanor, “Our fruits, Are all the partial ills allotted Man." while yet in blossom, die, &c." and the The foriner air is again repeated,

chorus, “ Blest be the Man," &c. which Phanor, the name given to the chief follows, must be well known to all who butler of Pharoah in this drama, (see Ge- bave heard it as introduced by Dr. Ar

nold in Relemption. nesis xli, 9), then enters and informs Joseph of the king's demand for an inter- than a periodical publication can adonit,

It would require not only more space preter; on which Joseph addresses the Almighty in the following fine air in e but also musical examples, to shew the

merit of Simeon's soliloquy in prison ; his Aat major, composed for a counter tenor examination by Joseph; the first intervoice :

view with Benjamin, and the invitation to " Come, divine inspirer, come,

the cleven brethren, as taken from GeMake my humble breast thy home; Draw the curtain from mine eye,

pesis, xlui, 16. But the master-piece

of this oratorio is the final chorus of the And present place futurity."

second act. Those who remember its Joseph being introduced to Pharoah, eliect in Westininster Abbey, can best the Egyptians perform a chorus of invo- appreciate its merits, and Mr. Shield bas cation in G minor; of which the contrast recorded its final imovement in bis futrobetween the staccale of the instrumental duction to llarmony: accomppaniments and the tenute of the vocal parts is well supported:

"O God! who in thy heav'nly hand

Dist hold the hearts of mighty kinys; "O God of Joseph, gracious shed

O take thy Jucob, and his land, Thy spirit on thy servant's head;

Beneath the shadow of thy wings. That to the king he may reveal

Thou know'st our wants before our prayer, The truth's his mystic dreams conceal." O let us not confounded be;

After the interpretation of Pharoah's Thy tender mercies let us fhare, dream, and the new name of Zaphnaib

O Lord, we trust alone in thee!" Paaneah, (explained by some, Revealer The splendor of this divine chorus raof Secrets, by others, Suviour of the World) ther throws the last act into a partial obe a spirited chorus in C major occurs, of scurity, yet the air by Asenail; “ Prowhich the cæsures and harmonic accents phetic raptures," in D major; the popuure particularly correct:

lar duet, “ What's sweeter than the new“ Joyful sounds ! melodious 1 strains, blown rose;" together with the various in

Health to | Egypt is the theme ! terspersed recitatives, which develope the Zaphnath rules and Pharvah | reigns history of Joseph, are all specimens of the Happy | nation ! bliss su i preme !" composer's talents.


The whole terminates with the anthem and the exterminating conflict of nations, in D:

there are yet those among men wbose “We will rejoice in thy salvation, and tri- aim is the happiness and the preservation umph in the name of the Lord our God. Hal- of their species. Your Correspondent, lelujan"

Common Sense, in his communication of This short sketch of the principal beau- last month, has made known an easy ties of Joseph, is submitted to the judg. method of escaping from a house when ment of the lovers of Handel, as a speci- on fire; and for which, I may venture to men of an investigation into that expres. say, that no one of your readers will re sive union of inusic and poetry which con- fuse him their commendation, or feel less tributes to the heightening of both. than grateful.

A more remote object also may be ob Permit me, Sir, through the same me tained from the enquiry: in such a clas- dium, to make a few remarks on the prosification of the principal airs and cho- bability of still further lessening those date russes as the present criticisms will form, gers to which our lives are daily exposed. a very clear view will be given, how far

“ For, to know Handel did or did not consider the choice That which before us lies in daily life of key as essential to the characier of is the prime wisdom : what is more, is fame, the piece. Even in this short analysis, Or emptiness, or fond impertinence, the firm and composed melancholy in the And renders us in things that most concern, key of E minor has been mentioned, and Unprac.ised, unprepared, and still to seek." the brilliant effects of D major have not People who do not consider how much passed unnoticed. My present numerous their peace and safety depends on Little avocations will not justify a hasty pro- things, will hardly be prevailed on to mise, but it is my wish to continue this care about the security of their doors series regularly through the Scripture His- and windows, stores, &c.; but I would tory, as it is found in the works of Han- particularly recommend every master of del.

mistress of a family to accustom theme If, for the sake of technical memory, selves to arrange and secure their effects we might give this pasticular oratorio in such a manner, that in case of chose one decided term to express its general too common and dreadtul alarms, their character, it seems to require no better lives and valuables might be better fire than that of RESIGNATION.

served from the hands of midmght robKensington

Your's, &c. bers, or the ravages of fire; for it is more Grupel Pits. J. W. CALCOTT. than probable, that when such calamities

befall us, the perturbation of our spirit, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. and the want of time, will he fatal to our SIR,

safety. How many valuable lives might (AVING lately met with Doctor have been saved by the precaution of

Franklin's Life, to which his will is sleeping in rooms which are favourable annexed, my curiosity has been much to escape in such an emergency as is excited relative to 2,0001. bequeathed in produced by fire, by the aid of a a codicil to the said will, 1,000l. to the the alarm of a rattle !-On keeping the citizens of Boston, and 1,0001. to the cor- window free from the blockade of chairs, poration of the city of Philadelphia, to tables, flower-pots, &c. much of our safebe let out at interest at five per cent in ty depends. I have always thought that different sums, to such young artificers a window is generally preferable to any under the age of twenty-five, as had-sero other part to escape from, when our domed an apprenticeship in the said towns, ger is pressing, because from this part of and were married.' If any person can the house we are conveyed at once into gratify my desire to know whether the the street; but, in cases of midaight said legneies are appropriated agreeable alarms by fire, by the time lost in ats to the patriot's will, through your tempts to unlock and unbolt doors, ta justly adinired miscellaneous collection, descend stairs, and pass through passe. he will much oblige your constant rea-ges, we may fairly conclude munya per. der.

T. son has died the most terrible of all Dublin, February 22, 1807.


Dreadful as the alternative must be I To the Editor of the Monthly Magazino. am yet inclined to believe that a lexp SIR,

from a window is ofteri preferable to the must certainly be matter of gratifi. more certain destruction by sutisestavin notwithstanding the animosity of parties, should neglect to strew their bedste




rope, or

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