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ceive us, the person in distress might im- acquaint us with the mode of recovering mediately iake his leap on throwing out persons apparemuy dead, have been disa his own, and in some measure break the tributed in ditfcient parts, and many effects of his fall by holding his breath at thousands more are still wanted for the the same instaui.

samne purpose: and I have often thought But perilaps a few hints, calculated to that considerable benefit inight be deprevent the necessity of such risks, may rived from painted miscrptions or inbe still more acceptable:-Aidong those structions of this kind being placed wear fires which are tatal to our lives, none turnpike gates, batung-places, and near are invie to be dreaded than those which the bridges of London, Blackfriars, and happen or originate in our chambers. Westiuinster. I believe that, to the bioHere it is that in a few minutes we are Duur of humanity, it may be said, that enveloped in flanes, every thing about few persons who attempt to rescue their us is combustible, and tends to listen fellow-creatures from perilouis situations, the horrid catastrophe. But whether feel any other impulse at the moment the accident originates from the careless than that of commiseration, or genuine ness of a servant, a child, or a parent, a benevolence: and yet no one will deny little forethought, or the following sim- that the rewards held out and distributed ple precaution, might have prevented it: by the Humane Society have been very for it is only by securing the candle in a salutary and proper? Why, then, should lanthorn that I can at any time trust my not the same honours and rewards be in elder girl to put the younger children to reserve for those who rescue others from bed, without the dread of having the bed a death which we all contemplate with so clothes or curtains set on fire, a circum- inuch horror? Surely the firy element stance so very frequent and fatal, but is not less cruel in his dominion over us, which could not happen, did we but ac than that of water. The melancholy re. custoin ourselves to take a light into a ,lations which we every day hear, or read bed-room only when inclosed in a lamp or of, ought to have roused us to the consilanthorn. And if the light were to reinain deration of this subject. in the chimney corner all night, our se The consagration at Westminster, curity and advantage would still be in- which was so fatal to the house and increased, and the air of the chainber inates of any friend Mr. J. Storr, as well as would not be injured, which might be one, of much later occurrence, in Upper the case if the lamp had been suspended Norton-street, have the most serious part in the middle of the room.

of their calamity to attribute to the ditliThere are some people who say they culty of procuring fire-ladders; and, to cannot sleep in a dark room, and others prevent in tuwe the loss of lives by this find themselves restless because there is kind of negleci, I would recommend the a light: but both may become agreeable expediency of screasing the number of by habit. Those who are accustomed to lad'75, and particularly the number of the latter would certainly liave the ad- buys which secure thein in the places Vantage in case of an accident. If a where they are kept. And as fires gene. fire broke ont in any part of the house, rally happen in the night, when the most their clothes, their children, and their assistance is wanted, and least is to be valuables, are soumediately in view, and had, to help those who have not the opconsequently their embarrassment would portunity of self-preservation, every Le consi lerably lessened.

means should be devised, and every Among other important aids to buina- watchrnan and turnpikeinan should be nity, we may reckon Dr. Cogan's late in possession of a key to the nighest improved jrag, for the speerlily raising fire ladder. The parish watchhouse, to human bodies from under water; and wbich people generally run for aid, is Mr. Daniel's life-preserver, which pre- very often situated too far from the spot vents the ship-wrecked mariner froin which is the scene of distress, and it too sinking. The llumane Society have like. often happens that, in the confusion eiwise done much to preserve us from ther the waichhouse, the key, or the lado death; and when the nation shall be led der, is not to be found in tine. sufficiently to appreciate its character, Light-inade fire-ladders, which can be and the inportance of this excellent in- specduly procured, must, in many cases, stitution, we may expect a proportionate be the easiest mode oi escape; as thuse share of benefit by the extension and apertures for our windows, which builders improvement of such plans.

scem, for the sake of umtorinity, to place Men thousands of those papers which exactly over each other in the different


stories, are extremely unfavourable to parts of a woman to indicate their cona. persons on the higher floors; for, if the dice." fire broke out under them, that which Herodotus proceeds to say that Sesos prevented their descent by the stair- tris passed from Syria into Farope, sudcase, would, in all probability, prevent duing Scythians and Thracians (Euterpe, their escape by a rope from their win- 103); and that he left a colony on the isdow, as, in either case, they must pass ver Phasis, as he returned. “The Egypthrough the flames. Many persons who tians maintain (adds Herodotos, 104) that have been found burnt to death, have the Colchians descend from these troops shown themselves, at different in- of Sesostris; and this I can believe, a tervals, at their window; but not finding they have black complexions and woolly assistance at hand, and not being able to hair, and practice circumcision, a rite pe bear the heat and smoke which ascended culiar to the Colcbians, Ægyptians, and from the windows under them, have been the Ethiopians. The Phænicians and compelled to retire, and fall victims to Syrians of Palæstine confess to have rethe devouring flames.

ceived this practice from the Egyptians. May 25, 1807. J. M. FLINDALL. The Colchians (he says further, 105) na

nufacture such linen as the Ægyptians. For the Monthly Magazine. “Of the pillars which in the conquered ENQUIRER.-No. XXII. districts Sesostris, the king of Agypt, WHO WAS SESOSTRIS?

erected, not many appear to remajo. In THE VHE earliest and most conspicuous the Syrian Palestine I myself (affirms

Greek account of Sesostris is that Herodotus, II. 106) have seen some exwhich occurs in the second book of Her tant, inscribed both with letters and with rodotus, an historian who flourished about the private parts of a woman." He adds four hundred and fifty years before Christ. that in Ionia, near Ephesus, was thought A second account occurs in the first book to exist a statue of Sesostris, but that of Divdorus Siculus, who flourished about others called it a statue of Mennon. four hundred years later than Herodotus, “ This Ægyptian Sesostris being under the emperor Augustus. Except turned (continues our historian, II. 107) in these two accounts, no details of the and bringing with bim many men of the life and deeds of Sesostris have been given subverted nations, he was invited, the by the classical historians; although in- priests say, at the Pelusian Daphne, by a cidental inention of him, as the first great brother whom he had put over Egyps conqueror, is frequent.' So that an exa- he and his family to a feast. The house mination of these two accounts will suf- was surrounded with combustibles, and fice to bring forwards what is supposed set on fire: which when Sesostris disco to be known concerning him.

vered, he deliberated with his wife an I. Herodotus states (Euterpe, 101) that, the means of escape; and with her comafter Mæris, who built a new porch to sent used two of their children as step the temple of Vulcan, and who also built ping-stones athwart the burning pyre. vast pyramids in Ægypt, flourished Sesos. These two children being sacrificed, the tris.

rest were saved with their father. “ This Sesostris (continues Herodotus, “ Sesostris being returned into Egypt II. 102), as the priests tell us, was the (Euterpé, 108) took vengeance on his bar first, who, in long boats, sallied from the ther. Ofthe many captives brought home Arabic Gulfto overturn the settlers on the he made this use: they had to drag stones Red Sen. Proceeding further, he came of immense length for the temple of Val to a frith unnavigable from its shallows. can, and were compelled to dig at those Thence returning to Egypt, according ditches with which Ægypt is intersect to the records of the priests, and raising ed." a numerous army, he overspread the con ** Thus was Egypt regalari diided tinent and overturned all the impeding (Euterpe, 109), and a square plot of en nations. As many of them as lie found was assigned by this king to ench brave, and desirous of liberty, among tian, and a quit-rent was iniponed those he set up pillars, indicating by lete paid yearly: and if any safered ters his name and country, and how he falling short of the inindation of th bad subverted them by power. But, he might certify it to the la where he took their towns combatless and king sent comnissioners welcomely, on the pillars he inscribed the dry land, and to abaa ih same things as where he had found the hence arose geometh people manly, but added the private * Only this king


110) could master Æthiopia. He left a which he killed himself. He was sucmonument before the temple of Vulcan, ceeded by a son, who assumed the same two stone statues of thirty cubits, repre- name, and lost his sight like his father. senting himself and wife, and four stone This account of Diodorus is partly statues of twenty cubits representing his transcribed from Herodotus, and partly children.

derived, it should seein, from Ctesias, who “ Sesostris was succeeded (Euterpe, is quoted (1. So), and to whom the mar111) by a son, Pheron, who lost his vellous particulars apparently belong: sight."

There was a Ctesias of Cnidus captived Here is all, concerning Sesostris, that by the Persians, who became physiHerodotus has related. This historian, cian Artaxerxes Memnon: and, it credulous, is always a faithful reporter. about the time of Alexander's expedition His opportunities of information were into Asia, a work was circulated under comprehensive, having travelled into the nanie of this Ctesias, which treated Ægypt and Syrin, and consulted on the of Persian and Indian geography and hisspot the archives of several temples. tory. The work ascribed to Ctesias has The great revolution of a Babylonian not descended to us entire; but from eonquest of Palestine having intervened the copious extracts preserved by Phobetween the times of Sesostris, and He- tius, it may be pronounced an European rodotus, much definite evidence must forgery: so widely does it differ from have been abolished, and reduced to what a resident at the Babylonian court vague tradition. His testiinony however must have had to communicate. Diodomay be accepted as in the main satisfac- rus himself lived too late to be an autory: only it remains improbable that the thority: his want of criticism 'saps the son of a judge, or petty king, of Ægypt, trust-worthiness even of the testimony should have extended bis conquests so far which he only repeats. northwards, as to make war with the After condensing and combining these Thracians, and to leave a colony at Col- two statements, and dismissing what chis on the Euxine.

is marvellous, inconsistent or otherwise II. Diodorus Siculus states (I. 84) that improbable, it may be presumed that SeSesostris was also called Sesosis: that he sostris, or Sesosis, originated near Meinwas educated with those of his own age phis, probably on the eastern bank of the to military exercises, and was sent by Nile, which was called the land of Gohis father with an army into Arabia; that shen, as his brother resided there that he was distinguished for an hereditary he passed the Red Sea, explored its furpiety to Vulcan; and that he divided ther coast, returned among his own peohis country into nomes, or tribes, or ple, and at the head of an army of rebel provinces, and appointed prefects over slaves (yogouera mugitus shevlegius) concach. He next

made an expedition quered Palestine, and divided his jurisdicinto Libya, and then into Æthiopia, cion into nomes, or tribes: that he set where he imposed a tribute of ivory up pillars in memory of his success, which and gold. At length, influenced by his remained when Herodotus wrote: that daughter Athyrte, he undertook the con- lie was distinguished for piety to Vulcan, quest of Asia and of the world. Diodo- and for a long reign. rus makes these conquests extend to the It is remarkable that all these particuGanges and the Tanais: from Babylon lars should be true of the Jewish chieftain his Sesostris brings captives who found Joshua. In concert with Caleb (Num. the Babylon of the Egyptians, who build bers, xiv. 6) he went to explore those temples without number, who dig canals countries beyond the Red Sea, to the conand reservoirs, and who fortify Ægypt by quest of which he guided his followers a great wall against the Syrians and Arabs. 1 when, as the poet expresses it (Exodus, Sesostris also constructs an ark, or float xiv. 12) “ the children of Israel went into ing temple, two hundred and eighty cu- the midst of the sea upon the dry land; bits long, gilt without and silvered within. and the waters were a bulwark to them He erécts two obelisks inscribed with on the right and on the left.” He divided the list of his provinces and his taxes. his conquests with geographical superHe employs noble captives to carry his stition (Joshua, xviiii. 10) into nomes, palanquin. Being at his brother's house, or tribes. Pillars, those probably which an sitempt was inade to destroy it by Herodotus saw, were erected (Joshua, vi. fire; Sesostris commemorated his escape 20) by Joshua in Gilgal. The symbols by crecting statues before the temple of described by Herodotus are the mon Vulcan at Memphis. Io the thirty-third likely to have been traced on the columos our of his neiga he became blind: after of Joshua; us a marked attention was MONTHLY MAG., No. 158.




shown to the barlot Rahab (Joshua vi. tion is acquired for the early books of 25) for her services to the conqueror of Scripture; an obscure period of human Canaan. By Vulcan, Herodotus often events becomes distinctly luininous; an means Jebuvah; he calls Sethos, or He- inconsistent portion of the Egyptian as. zekiah, a priest of Vulcan. Vulcan was nals acquires certainty, simplicity and the god of fire; and Herodotus, in com- chronological precision; the student has mon with other beathens, supposed that fewer facts to remember; the sceptic the shekinah, or holy fire, which, in the fewer about which to doubt. temples of Jehovah, was kept burning at The testimony of Herodotus relative to the altar, and into which incense was the personal resemblance between the thrown, was the proper and real ohject Colchians and the Ægyptians implies that of adoration in a sect which tolerated no the troops of Sesostris had black coteimages: he mistook a rite of worship, an plexions and woolly hair: it must there emblem perhaps for the Being worshipped. fore be inferred that the followers of

At one hundred and ten years of age Moses, the conquerors of Canaan, the Joshua (xxiv. 29) is stated to have died; depositaries of the decalogue, the proge previous to which it is not unlikely that he nitors of the Jewish kings and prophets, may have incurred the calamity of blind- were negroes. ness: but this circumstauce, although There is a chasm in the narrative of stated by Diodorus, is not vouched either the book of Joshua, 'preceding the comby the Jewish Scriptures, or by Herodotus. mencement of the twenty-third chapter:

These coincidences of adventure are too which affords an ample pretext for sup peculiar, and of too extraordinary a kind, posing him, during that interval, to have vito have befallen several individuals; it is sited and displaced his brother, and to have most rational therefore to suppose that made expeditions into Libya and Æthiothe history of Joshua is the basis of all pia: and to have aineliorated the agra that has been related concerning Sesostris. rian legislation of Ægypt, as is narrated The reputation of his victories miglit ea- by Herodotus. It justifies the predilecsily travel to Greece in such a form, as tion of Moses, and exalts the character to give rise to the extant exaggerated mis- of Joshua, to observe that the natural as representations.

cendancy of his courage and his intellect By admitting the identity of Joshua was recognized along the Nile, as along and Sesostris a copious stock of illustra- the Jordan.


DR. JOHN DOUGLAS, claims on the score of birth, when LATE LORD BISHOP OF SALISBURY, D. D. has been ennobled both by nature F. R. S. A. S. &c. &c.

education. « Omnibus qui patriam conservaverint, ad. The subject of this biographical sketca

juverint, auxerint, certus est in celo & was born in 1791. We are unacquaintdefinitus locus, ubi beati æro sempiterno ed with the precise spot in which he first fruantur."

Cic. Som. Scip.

drew his breath; but it was undoubtedly OCTOR John Douglas,distinguished

to the north of the Tweed. His parents, more ing and science, was a vative of Scotland. It would be easy, from his country, and It may pot be uanscessary, however, still more from his name, to arrogate all observe in this place, chat, since iki the lustre of high birth, and develope all above, we have learned that the pride of genealogy. A recurrence to grandfather was a younger the days of chivalry, a display of valorous glas of Talliguilly, in the ancestors "clad in complete steel," and am land, and the immediate alliance with the Scottish kings, would be shop Burnet, in the living admirably calculated to fascinate the Lothian. But whoever in

Scotland, must know the wayward reader, or conceal the penury of

customary than claims of biography under an affectation of unde

the incidental drcu vailing pomp and useless grandeur. But name were muas these false and adventitious aids are not along with it a certada wanting on the present occasion: it is eended not a little to unnecessary to put in any pretended fortunate potere

from Pettenwien, in the county of Fife, was present in that capacity at the batin quest of independence; and, if we tle of Fontenoy, in 1745. A colonel, mistake nut greatly, resided during many who was his namesake, and perhaps also years in Cockspur-street, where they a relativn, asked him, on this occasion, kept the British coffee-house. On their if' he, who was “ also à Douglas," did deinise, or removal, this establishment not mean to make a charge with the rewas carried on uuder the superintendance giment? But his ardour could not display of a daughter.

itself on this occasion, even if his clerical To a Scotchman, there is something in functions would have permitted; for he resistibly inviting in the name of an in- was entrusted with all the most valuable stitution, originally endowed in a foreign property of the officers with whom he was land by one of his own kings; and ac- acquainted, accompanied with injunccordingly it was to Baliol College, Ox- tions to dispose of it according to certain ford, that Mr. Douglas repaired, after directions, in the event of their not surthe usual prefatory studies, which are viving that day, said to have originated at the grammar Among those gallant men who perishschool of Dunbar. There are in this ed in this action, was a gentleman named College a certain number of exhibitions, Lort, a major in the Welsh Fusileers, to which the University of Glasgow may whose son carried a pair of colours in the appoint; and we at one period were led same regiinent, which suffered more than to suppose, from a variety of circum- any other at the beginning of the action. stances, that one of these had been thus The father, anxious for the honour of his granted. We bave been assuted, lowo child, who had never been engaged be ever, from undoubted authority, that the fore, narrowly watched his behaviour, nomination originated uot in Scotland, and, observing him tu bend his head a but at Oxford, in consequence of a lapse, little at the first discharge, which proved or neglect.

a very dreadful-one, exclaimed, "Young On a recurrence to a copy of the Re man, if I survive this day, I will bring you gister, we find that Mr. Douglas obtained to a court martial for that!” The youth the degree of M. A. October 14, 1745, behaved with distinguished gallantry when he was twenty-two years of age. throughout the remainder of the engagem It was not until a distant period that he ment, but the father fell a few minutes aspired to higher honours, which shall be afterwards. It is hoped the introducnoticed in due time.

tion of this anecdote will be pardoned Having been intended for the church, even in the life of a bishop, in favour of the student in divinity now applied him the memory of a brave man, self with indefatigable attention to ac Soon after this memorable event, Mr. quire a sufficient knowledge of theology: Douglas returned from the Continent, how far he succeeded on this occasion, and, after spending some little time at Bathose acquainted with his life and conver- liol College, he was ordained a priest: sation can best tell. As no fairy pro- for he had bitherto only been in deacon's spects of preferwent opened to his fasci- orders. So little patronage did he enjoy nated eyes, and no visionary canonical at this period, that we find him for vistas seemed to be cut into crosiers, and many years drudging as a humble cuother emblems of episcopacy, after the rate, first at Tilchurst, wear Reading in manner of that day, M. Douglas thought Berkshire, and afterwards at Dunstew, proper to search for a livelihood in ano- in the county of Oxford. ther country. Accordingly, soon after. While performing his duties with exhe had taken orders, he was appointed emplary patience and decorum in the one of the chaplains to the army.t and latter of these parislies, a new career

was opened to his ambition, by means It appears, from a paper drawn up by of the Earl of Bath. This nobleman, che bishop's son, that Dr. Douglas, in 1736, better known as William Pulteney, and

first entered a commo er of St Mary for a long period one of the first orators Hell, and remained there until 1738, when of the House of Commons, after the toils he removed to Baliol College, on being electmechibitioner, oo Bishop Warner's foun- of the sweets of power, and the lethean

of a long opposition, had at length tasted dation.

† He occupied this situation in the third draught bad the same effect on him as on regiment of fuot-guards. Anterior to this, many other pretenders to public virtue, he had visited both France and Flanders, both before and since he had forgotten all chiefly with a view of acquiring a facility in his promises in favour of liberty, and the the French language,

people! Hisonly child, Lord Pulteney, was

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