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broad muscular band has its origin, from ftomach of the camel, dromedary, and the coats of the firft ftomach, and passes lama, fitting them to live in the randy down in the form of a folid parallel to the deserts where the supplies of water are lo great ridge, till it enters the orifice of the precarious." second stomach. This band on one side, From the comparitive view which Mr. and the great ridge on the other, form a Hone has taken of the Itomachs of the canal, which Icads froin the afophagus bullock and canel, it appears that in the dowy to the cellalar firucture in the lower bullock there are three stomachs formed part of the first ftoinach. The orifice of for the preparation of food, and one for the second ftomach, when this muscle is digestio!. In the camel there is one ttonut in action, is nearly thut, and at right mach fitted to answer the purposes of two agles to the side of the tirit. Its cavity of the bullock; a second is employed as a is a pendulous bag with rows of cells, reservoir for water, having nothing to do above which, 'between them aud the with the preparation of the food; a third mufele which passes along the upper part is so finali and simple in its firuczure that of the stomach, is a finooth surface ex it is not easy to ascertain its particular tending from the orifice of this stomach office. to the termination in the third. Hence, The following gradations of ruminatit is evident that the second ftomach nei- ing Itoinachs is now cstablished: the ruther receives the folid food in the first in- minants with horns, as the ox, sheep, &c. stance as the bullock, nor does it after- bave two preparatory ftomachis for food wards pass into its cavity or cellular previously to rumination, and oure for the structure. The food firft paffes into the food after rumination before it is digestgeneral cavity of the firft ftoinach, and ed. The ruminants without horns, as chat portion of it which lies in the recess the canel, dromedary, &c. have one preiminediately helow the entrance of the paratury fiornach before rumination, and osophagus under which the cells are litu none in which the cud can be afterwards ated, is kept moist, and is readily return, retained before it goes into the digefting ed into the mouth, so that the cellular ftomach. Thore animals who eat the portion of the firti fiomach in ihe camel fame kind of food with thoruminants and performs the fame office as the tecond in. yet do not ruminate, as the liorse and als, the ruminants with horns. While the have only one ftomach, but a part of it is camel is drinking, the action of the muf- lined with a cuticle, in which the food is cular band opens the orifice of the fe- 'first deposited, and by renaiving thore cond stomach, at the same time that it fomne time rendered more ealily digerdireći: the water into it; and when the tible, when received into the digesting cells of that cavity are full, the rest runs

portion. off into the cellular firucture of the first

In comparing the teeth of those animals' Romach iminediately below, and after- that ruminate with those of the borse and wards into the gencral cavity: itals, which live on nearly the same kind feems that camels, when accutiomed to of tuid, the tollowing peculiarities are go long journeys, in which they are kept met with. The ruminants with horns without water, acquire the power of di- have molares in both jaws, and incisores lacing the cells, so as to make thein con-, only in the lower jaw. The ruminants tain a more than ordinary quantity as a without horns, have, in addition to these, fupply for their journey. When the cud what may be called tighting-teeth, or a bis been chewed, it has to pass along the fùbftitute for horns. These are tusks in upper part of the second ftomach before both jaws, intermediate tecth between it can reach the third; which is thus the molares and tulks, and in the upper managed: at the time that the cod is to jaw two linall tccth anterior lo che tutks; pals from the mouth, the inufcular band none of which can be of any use in eatcontracts with fo much force, that it not ing. The camelo-pardalis forms an inn only opens the orifice of the fecond to-' termediate link in these refpects. It has mach, but acting on the inouth of the turt burns, and no tulks. thiru, brings it forwards into the fecond, We have next an account of the apa. by which micans the muscular ridges that lytis of the urine of the camel, and of the separate the rows ont' cells are brought' leveral experiments upon that, and upon close together, so as to exclude these cite the urine of a cow. The presence of vities from the canal, through which the uric acid in the former, and that of phoscud paffes. “It is this beautiful and phat of lime in both, are new fets, which very curious mechanilin, (lays Mr.llume,) reflect additional light on the compuliskich turns the peculiar character of the tion of the urine of graninivorous ani

muls,

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Hals. Without specifying the experi- blow-pipe, it allumes a darker colour; at ments we thall prefent the readers with a lironger heat it melts to litharge. On the results :

charcoal it is reduced to lead. Ia dilute In 100 parts of camel's urine, white acid of nitre, it becomes of a brown Water

75 coffee colour. On the addition of a little Phosphat of lime, muriat of ammonia, fuyar, this brown cals dillolves and profulphat of potass, area of potass, duces a colourless folution. By putting Cartonat of potills

6 into muriatic acid with a little leaf gold, Muriat of potnis

8 the gold is foon entirely diffolved. When tren

6 it is inclosed in a linali bottle with inuri

atic acid, and a little bit of paper tinged

95 by turnfol is fixed to the cork, the paper In 100 parts of cow's urine, lofes its blue colour, and becoints white. Water ..

65 A ferip of common blue paper, whose coPhosphat of lime,

3 Touring matter is indigo, placed in the Muriat of lime, of aminonia

15 fame situation undergoes the same change. Sulphat of potass

6 Mr. S. imagines that this native minium Carbonat of potass, of ammonia 4 is produced by the decay of a galena, Urea

4 which he suspects to be itself a secondary

production froin the metallization of

97 white carbonate of lead by hepatic gas. The loss is supposed to have occurred This is particularly evident froin a lpecie from the animal matter, probably albu- men, in one part of which there is a cluf men and gelatine. The principal and ter of large crylials. Having broken one only effentiat ditierence between the of these, Mr. S. found that it was conurine of the camel and that of the cow, verted into minium to a 'conliderable is, that the former contains uric acid thickness, while its centre is still galena. They are both deftitute of foda. Mr. Two very excellent mathematical paHatchet observes that it is remarkable pers were commnunicated to the Royal that uric acid should be found in the cita Society, and read on the 5th of June lait; mel's urine, and he thinks it is the firft the one from the Rev.ABRATIAM ROBERTmitance on record, as fat as relates to son, Savilian proteilor of geometry in the the urine of graminivorous atmals. university of Oxford, was a new demon

Dr. Smitusos has presented to the tiration of the Binomial Theorem, when society an account of a dilcovery of na the exponent is a fraction. The other tire minium, which is disseminated in was a new method of computing logafinall quantities in the fubliance of come rithms by Thomas MANSING, esq. Thele, pact carbonat of lime. Its colour is however, not adınitting of an analysis, that of faétitious miniuin, a vivid red we mult content ourlelves with barely with a call of yellow. Heated with a noticing.

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THE NEW PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED,

úr. ROBERT NEWMAN'S (DARTMOUTU,) below the deck, and moved by one wheel,

für an Improvement in the Forn and winch or other engine, placed amid tips Construction of Ships and other Veisels or elsewhere, and connected by chains or of Itur, &c.

ropes, in the ordinary way, with a thort wils improvement consists in, and iron lever projecting from cach rudder, firit, an apparatus or helm contaming two sixth part of the tiller required for the rudders, formed and worked in the di connou rudder.

« In this manner," rection of the sides, in lieu of one placed fays Mr. N. “I found by an experiment in the centre line of the vetiel, by which tried on a temporary form, of not lefs bodies of the greatest capacity may be than one hundred and fifty tons burthen, governed, guided, or feered, wore and contiructed by me for the purpose about stayed with greater certainty, case, and four years since, that a fingle man or boy fatety: secondly, in a concave or hollow could not only iicer with greatesi eale, form of side and bottom that will make but manage at the fiune time the largest vefels of a liglit draught of water keep a fail of the vessel, in an open and rougls belter wind, carry more fail, and roll fea.” In one of the figures attached to Jess: thirdly, in an inverted reduction of this specification, we have a representacapacity toward the ilern, commonly tion of the transverse fećtion of a velel, called the run, by which the relittance is whose fides and bottom are an invertion keitened, without the stability or power of of the ordinary forin, curving outwarıls, currying fail being diininithed by external and catending down to a level with the sonitruction.

under part of her keel, oppoling by their The Patentee has exhibited in draw- extént and thape the greatest rchliance, ings, attached to the specification before to a lee course with less tendency to roll Hs, the ordinary rudder in its utual ttu- or upset, and presenting at the fame time ation, where it requires a magnitude that a ftronger surface to the pressure of the Tenders it burb incommodious and dange- *cargo or weight within the thip. Rerous, and even inadequate to its purpoie; fiftance to leeway may also, we are told, and also one which, it differently placed, be increased, by ribbing, or indenting the might be reduced to one ball, or even coat of the fide, with projecting or binding one fourth part of its pretent dimensions, planks, that obftrućt in a fide direction, with increased effect, its power being not only while they ftrengthen the vefiel and only greater by projecting into more protect the caulking. l'or farther inforactive water, and eeting the current in ination on this subject, we must refer the its undiverted course, but also increased reader to the specification itself, the forms by its relative dittance from the centre which are there given are confined to line of the vetiel's progress.

such parts of the vettel as are below the The manner of working a helin of this lead water line, being limited to the acdescription mult depend on the nature, tive or immerged fubfiance, and capable dize, and service of the vetiel. It may act of being crecuted by ordinary modes of outwards or erther way, he without or in- workmanship. clofed witlun the iteru and Gde, abore or

NR.

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